15 of the Best Questions asked by French & English people over the years

XV Questions

15 des meilleures questions posées par les français et les anglais au fil des ans | 15 of the Best Questions asked by French & English people over the years

QUESTION I.

[FR] – En quoi consiste la théorie organique ?

[EN] – What is the Organic Theory About?

 

[FR] Réponse:

 

La théorie organique est une théorie du 21ème siècle principalement axée sur la conception de l’individu. Elle s’appuie sur l’école de pensée française après la révolution où l’individu embrasse ses propres choix et se définit par ses capacités, ses désirs et ses réalisations. Elle est également fondée sur la théorie de l’évolution, parce qu’elle considère l’individu comme un organisme façonné par son environnement, capable de s’adapter, d’évoluer et de changer en fonction des environnements psychologiques, sociaux et culturels dont il veut faire partie. Cependant, ce qui est unique dans la théorie organique, c’est que c’est la première théorie qui porte la conception unique de l’organisme individuel à un autre niveau, parce qu’elle reste centrée sur la structure des pensées et l’interprétation du monde en considérant ce qui compte pour l’individu et n’est pas fondée sur des généralisations d’hypothèses comme les théories anciennes, ce qui élimine beaucoup de confusion car elle déplace le point de focalisation sur ce qui compte pour l’organisme individuel unique.

La théorie organique est une théorie que j’ai présentée à la table intellectuelle, mais ses fondements étaient dormants dans la psychologie et la littérature scientifique pendant des décennies. Il semble que je n’ai eu qu’à rassembler ces observations objectives et à les organiser méthodiquement pour en arriver à la déduction et à la réalité qu’elle révèle. Nous ne sommes pas maîtres de notre vie, mais nous avons un grand contrôle sur notre propre conception individuelle basée sur nos désirs, notre éducation, notre direction, nos capacités et nos choix dans la vie.

La théorie organique suit la vision organique du monde qui existait déjà dans les grands débats psychologiques du siècle et j’ai construit sur cette perspective, l’ai affinée et étendue avec la littérature empirique et philosophique des temps modernes pour donner à l’individu plus de pouvoir de définition de soi dans notre société moderne et parfois confuse. En fait, j’ai aussi pris quelques concepts de Jacques Lacan pour donner à l’individu le pouvoir et la capacité de réaliser ses rêves et aussi pour ouvrir l’esprit de la foule environnante pour faire savoir et comprendre à la société que les gens ne sont pas des objets statiques, mais ont la capacité de se créer et de se récréer.

Le seul message fondamental de la théorie organique est que nous ne sommes pas simplement définis par l’endroit où nous sommes nés ou par les personnes qui nous sont liées que nous n’avons pas choisies, ou par les lignées sanguines, mais plutôt par nos propres choix, efforts, capacités, réalisations et orientations, et aussi par le fait que tout organisme peut être conditionné pour faire partie de l’environnement de tout autre organisme par le processus sans fin d’apprentissage et d’adaptation, comme le montrent les exemples d’Adolf Hitler ou de Napoléon Bonaparte, pour ne citer que deux cas célèbres de grands dirigeants issus d’une modeste éducation étrangère, qui ont grandi au plus haut niveau dans des pays où ils ne sont pas nés, mais se sont recréés pour devenir le cœur de ces nations à un moment donné.

Le Jeune Napoleon dpurb d'purb website

Image: Le jeune Napoléon

La Théorie Organique démontre que la construction individuelle [formation], qui  » peut être  » mécanique et structurée dans son application [par exemple l’apprentissage à distance par texte / vidéo / audio], se développe indirectement pour créer et donner une dimension socioculturelle à l’individu une fois que les compétences souhaitées [modèles de communication et de comportement] ont été pleinement adoptées, maîtrisées et déployées dans la vie. Le terme  » social  » est aussi beaucoup trop vague pour être important en tant que tel… le terme  » social  » peut simplement être défini comme l’interaction [de tous types] entre organismes. Le terme  » social  » n’est donc pas vraiment valide sur le plan scientifique et il manque de précision puisqu’il peut se référer à un large éventail de variables. Il ne nous reste alors que les choix, le(s) langage(s) et les capacités de développement personnel de l’individu [par exemple la synthèse culturelle et psycholinguistique] : les facteurs majeurs dans l’explication psychologique et philosophique de sa conception singulière [à noter que chaque conception est unique à l’organisme humain individuel tel que ses empreintes digitales, sa forme crânienne ou sa structure corporelle : singularité]. Ainsi : formation, méritocratie, ordre et amour [simple… en théorie].

Pour comprendre la logique simple de la conception individuelle de l’organisme unique, prenons l’exemple d’un homme profondément ancré dans la culture française et qui est aussi un grand professeur de littérature, mais qui a un fils qui décide de rejoindre un monastère au Tibet, et une fille qui se convertit à l’hindouisme, et une sœur qui apprend l’arabe, épouse un marchand et déménage dans son pays, cela signifie-t-il que cet homme lui-même est maintenant un arabe hindou tibétain ? Bien sûr que non ! Un autre exemple serait d’imaginer un grand philosophe d’Europe de l’Ouest qui a une sœur qui, par manque d’attention, est influencée par un petit cercle social et devient strip-teaseuse dans la banlieue française, est-ce que cela signifie aussi que le philosophe fait maintenant partie de l’industrie du sexe ? Bien sûr que non ! Pourtant, comme la société et, malheureusement, les hommes adultes en 2019 ne comprennent toujours pas la conception individuelle – ce qui vient avec le fait fondamental que chaque organisme est responsable de sa propre conception et de sa destinée et non de celle des autres – je pense que la théorie organique devrait clairement aider la société mondiale à comprendre que le choix de vie d’un organisme individuel ne relève ni de la responsabilité d’autrui, ni du fardeau d’autrui.

C’est une théorie qui apporte des preuves neuroscientifiques pour expliquer la plasticité, des arguments philosophiques pour expliquer la perception et des explications psychanalytiques pour expliquer le fonctionnement de l’esprit, ainsi que la construction et les désirs symboliques qui guident l’individu dans la réalisation de son but dans la vie. Par la suite, il souligne également que ces faits scientifiques et ces arguments philosophiques ne peuvent être ignorés ni par l’individu ni par la société en général, parce que nous sommes une nouvelle génération d’êtres humains et que nous devrions agir comme des organismes éclairés face à la découverte et non comme des êtres ataviques et rigides d’un passé lointain, car nous ne sommes pas prisonniers du passé.

Bien sûr, comme la plupart des innovateurs intellectuels, j’ai rencontré quelques obstacles que j’ai franchis avec succès, en me basant sur des arguments scientifiques et philosophiques forts[Lacan, Kant, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer et Rousseau] tout en fusionnant des perspectives objectives et des observations rationnelles basées sur des théories évolutionnaires avancées par Charles Darwin et Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck.

La théorie organique est pour conclure, une théorie qui vise à libérer l’individu de barrières absurdes et imaginaires et à lui faire savoir qu’il n’est lié par rien ni à personne avec qui il n’a signé aucun accord à respecter. Les individus sont libres de se construire, de créer des liens sociaux autant qu’ils peuvent aussi se défaire des charges sociales et des liens avec tout organisme qui n’est en aucune façon bénéfique ou progressif pour leur développement, et cela s’étend à tout organisme extérieur qui n’est pas sous leur responsabilité ou qui ne fait pas partie de leur réalité choisie (par exemple, les petites connaissances, collègues, famille, etc).

Ce que j’insinue simplement, c’est que les organismes individuels sont maîtres de leur propre destin et que, pour réaliser leurs rêves, ils devraient être assez intelligents pour savoir quoi sacrifier, car ce n’est pas leur fardeau ou leur responsabilité et ce qu’ils doivent créer et/ou conserver. En effet, on m’a toujours dit que la mesure du succès d’une personne est la mesure de son sacrifice, et cela semble être une simple question de raisonnement.

Le modèle de communication, aussi connu sous le nom de « langue », est également un élément fondamental de la Théorie Organique car c’est l’une des plus grandes facettes de l’identité d’une personne. A travers la langue, un individu peut être attribué à une civilisation ou à des civilisations particulières s’il en maîtrise plus d’une, c’est ce que l’on appelle la maîtrise des schémas de communication qui est également liée aux modèles de comportement hérités d’une sphère linguistique particulière.

En conclusion, la Théorie Organique est une théorie de la conception et de l’évolution individuelle. En 2019, en ce qui concerne  » La théorie organique « [qui se concentre sur la singularité de l’organisme individuel], il n’y a pas de débat entre intellectuels en psychologie, mais simplement la découverte des nouvelles perspectives mécaniques / scientifiques qu’elle introduit pour expliquer la conception psychologique et philosophique de l’individu – comme le disait Carl Sagan, « La science est une manière de penser bien plus qu’un corps de savoir ».

Si vous voulez en savoir plus sur la théorie organique qui est un projet en cours, faites une recherche sur mon nom « dpurb » et vous tomberez sur mon site où vous trouverez plus d’informations sur le sujet. Les bases de la théorie organique ont déjà été jetées, mais il s’agit d’un projet de toute une vie qui sera affiné et mis à jour dans une série de livres au cours des prochaines décennies avec d’autres travaux que j’ai l’intention de présenter au grand public du monde entier.

ad meliora - towards better things

vers de meilleures choses / towards better things

 

—-|—-

[EN] Answer to Question I. « What is the Organic Theory About? »

 

The organic theory is a theory of the 21st century mainly focussed on the conception of the individual. It is based on the French school of thought after the revolution where the individual embraces his own choices and defines himself through his abilities, desires and achievements. It is also founded on the theory of evolution, because it sees the individual as an organism that is shaped by its environment with the ability to adapt, evolve and change depending on the psychological, social and cultural environments it wants to be a part of. However, what is unique the Organic Theory, is that it is the first theory that takes the unique conception of the individual organism to another level, because it remains focussed on the structure of thoughts and the interpretation of the world by considering what matters to the individual and is not founded on generalisations of assumption like most ancient theories do, hence this discards a lot of confusion because it shifts the focus on what matters to the unique individual organism.

The Organic Theory is a theory that I brought forward to the intellectual table but its foundations were lying dormant in the psychology and scientific literature for decades. It seems that I only had to piece together these objective observations and methodically arrange them to come to the deduction along with the reality it revealed. We are not complete masters of our life, but we do have a great amount of control of our own individual conception based on our desires, education, direction, capabilities and choices in life.

The organic theory follows the organismic worldview that already existed in the great psychological debates of the century and I have built upon this perspective, refined and extended it with modern day empirical and philosophical literature to give the individual more power of self-definition in our modern and sometimes confused society. In fact, I also took some concepts from Jacques Lacan to give the individual the power and the ability to achieve their dreams and also to open the minds of the surrounding crowd to let society know and understand that people are not static objects, but have the ability to create and recreate themselves.

The one fundamental message the Organic Theory brings are that we are not defined simply by where we are born or the people connected to us that we did not choose, or by bloodlines, but rather by our own choices, efforts, abilities, achievements and directions, and also the fact that any organism can be conditioned to become part of the environment of any other organism through the never ending process of learning and adaptation, as we can see from the examples of Adolf Hitler or Napoléon Bonaparte, to name two famous cases of great leaders who came from modest foreign origins and who raised to the highest level in countries where they were not born, but recreated themselves to become the heart of these nations at a given point in time.

The Organic Theory shows that individual construction [training], which ‘can be’ mechanical and structured in its application [e.g. distance learning by text / video / audio], develops indirectly to create and give a socio-cultural dimension to the individual once the desired skills [communicative and behavioural patterns]have been fully adopted, mastered, and deployed in life. The term ‘social’ is also far too vague to be important as such… the term ‘social’ can simply be defined as the interaction [of all types] between organisms. So the term ‘social’ is not really valid scientifically and it lacks precision itself since it may refer to a wide range of variables. What we are left with then is only the individual’s choices, language(s) & abilities of personal development [e.g. cultural & psycholinguistic synthesis]: the major factors in the psychological & philosophical explanation of his/her singular conception [to note that each conception is unique to the individual human organism such as his/her fingerprints, skull shape, or body structure: singularity]. Thus: training, meritocracy, order and love [simple… in theory].

To understand the simple logic of individual conception of the unique organism, let us use the example of a man who is deeply embedded in French culture and is a great teacher of literature, but has a son who decides to join a monastery in Tibet, and a daughter who converts to Hinduism, and a sister who learns Arab, marries a merchant and moves to his country, does this mean that the man himself is now a Tibetan Hindu Arab? Of course not! Another example would be to imagine a great philosopher of the Western world who happens to have a sister who due to a lack of attention is influenced by a petty social circle and becomes a strip dancer in the suburbs of France, similarly does this mean that the philosopher is now part of the sex industry? Of course not! Yet since society and sadly fully grown up men in 2019 still do not understand individual conception – which comes with the fundamental fact that each organism is responsible for his/her own conception and destiny and not that of others – I feel that the organic theory should clearly help society worldwide understand that an individual organism’s choice in life is not the responsibility or the burden of another.

It is a theory that brings neuroscientific evidence to explain plasticity, philosophical arguments to explain perception and psychoanalytic explanations to explain the proceedings of the mind, along with construction and symbolic desires that guide the individual in achieving its goal in life. Subsequently, it is also making the point that these scientific facts and philosophical arguments cannot be ignored by both the individual and societies at large, because we are a new generation of human beings, and we should be acting as enlightened organisms in the face of discovery, not atavistic and rigid beings of a long dead past, because we are not prisoners of the past.

Of course, as most intellectual innovators I came a few barriers, which I crossed with success, basing myself on strong scientific and philosophical arguments [Lacan, Kant, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer and Rousseau] while fusing objective perspectives and rational observations based on evolutionary theories brought forward by Charles Darwin and Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck.

The organic theory is to conclude, a theory that is meant to free the individual from nonsensical and imaginary barriers and to let them know that they are not bound by anything or anyone with whom they did not sign any agreement to abide by. Individuals are free to build themselves, to create social connections just as much as they can also discard of social burdens and links with any organism that is not in any way beneficial or progressive to their development, and this extends to any outside organism that is not their responsibility or part of their chosen reality [e.g. petty acquaintances, colleagues, family, etc].

What I am simply implying is that individual organisms are masters of their own destiny and to be able to achieve their dreams they should be smart enough to know what to sacrifice since it is not their burden or responsibility and what to create and/or keep. Indeed, I was always told that the measure of one’s success is the measure of one’s sacrifice, and this seems to be a simple matter of reasoning.

Communicative pattern, also known as “language” is also a fundamental element of the Organic Theory as it is one of the biggest facets of one’s identity. Through language an individual can be allocated to a particular civilisation or civilisations if the individual masters more than one, this is known as the mastery of communicative patters that is also related to behavioural patterns that are inherited from a particular linguistic sphere.

To conclude, The Organic Theory is a theory of individual conception and evolution. In 2019, as far as ‘The Organic Theory’ [which focuses on the singularity of the individual organism] is concerned, there is no debate between intellectuals in psychology, but simply the discovery of the new mechanical / scientific perspectives that it introduces to explain the psychological and philosophical conception of the individual – as Carl Sagan phrased it, ‘Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge’.

If you want to know more about the organic theory which is an ongoing project, please do a search of my name “dpurb” and you will come across my website where more information can be found on the topic. The foundations of the Organic Theory have already been laid, but it is a lifetime project that will be refined and updated in a series of books in the coming decades along with other works that I intend to bring to the mainstream audience worldwide.

 

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QUESTION II.

[FR] – Le terme « race » que vous qualifiez de « composition organique » semble dénué de sens pour votre théorie mais comment vous classifiez-vous par rapport à la « composition organique » ?

[EN] – The term “race” which you qualify as “organic composition” seems meaningless to your theory but how do you classify yourself in regards to “organic composition”?

 

[FR] Réponse:

 

Je me classe comme un organisme avec les schémas de communication et de comportement hérités de la sphère franco-britannique.

Danny D'Purb XV Questions

Image: Danny D’Purb

La race scientifiquement parmi les êtres humains peut simplement être définie comme un type particulier de « composition organique ». Cela signifie que les gens de différentes parties du monde ont simplement des compositions organiques particulières qui correspondent à leur histoire évolutive. Cependant, du point de vue scientifique universel, tout organisme, quel que soit son type de composition organique, peut procréer avec un autre. Par conséquent, cette observation simple mais fondamentale suggère que si les lois de la nature qui régissent toutes les espèces vivantes sur cette planète avaient des plans différents pour les organismes présents sur cette planète, la procréation entre les membres d’une même espèce avec des compositions organiques différentes ne serait pas possible – ce qui n’est évidemment pas le cas du point de vue de l’évolution.

J’aimerais répondre à votre question sur la composition organique [ce que vous appelez la race] et ma propre classification. Il est fondamental de comprendre que je me suis assimilé à la société d’Europe occidentale qui est une société d’héritage indo-européen, les deux langues que je parle, le français et l’anglais étant également des langues indo-européennes, et parce que j’avais tous les éléments pour faire partie des sociétés française et anglaise pour être plus spécifique quand je parle de l’Europe de l’Ouest, j’ai toujours ressenti une attraction naturelle et un sentiment instinctif d’appartenance à ces sociétés avec les gens qui constituent sa majorité.

Comme c’est moi qui innove avec une théorie scientifique qui aborde la question de l’assimilation et qui a aussi commencé à ébranler les fondements de la psychologie, de la culture et de la perception, ce fut toujours une tâche immense de clarifier cette question de l’assimilation et de la composition organique, que beaucoup de sociétés ataviques appellent « race », sans réaliser qu’aucune race sur terre n’est « pure » et que notre race humaine actuelle, les « Homo sapiens » sont le résultat de croisements et de l’évolution. J’aimerais aller droit au but pour répondre à votre question et expliquer aussi comment j’ai raisonné pour expliquer mon point sur la composition organique et ma propre classification.

Je suis une personne pleinement assimilée dans la société française et britannique. Et tout en ne cachant pas le fait que mon côté français est dominant, je ne peux pas cacher le fait que j’ai un côté britannique très fort, ayant vécu et côtoyé le peuple anglais en Angleterre pendant des années. Cependant, le fait que la France soit une société plus avant-gardiste a toujours permis à des individus talentueux de s’assimiler dans leur société tout au long de leur histoire (par exemple Napoléon qui était corse est devenu l’empereur du peuple français) et est aujourd’hui un pays composé d’un mélange de compositions organiques qui s’est parfaitement adapté aux Français, apportant au patrimoine génétique français leur originalité et leur gènes surdoués. Ainsi, d’après les découvertes scientifiques actuelles, il semble que la civilisation française ait toujours été en avance sur son temps et beaucoup plus sophistiquée que tout autre empire de sa ligue. Quelle que soit la composition organique ou la nuance de couleur des individus en France, il existe un fort sentiment de préoccupation nationale et d’identité française ancré dans la grande majorité des Français qui sont fiers de leur société en évolution et qui veulent valoriser la France et sont amoureux de son patrimoine et de son peuple. En France, en effet, ce qui semble le plus important, c’est votre identité culturelle et votre loyauté envers la nation et vos sentiments français, votre vision et votre sentiment de connexion et d’amour pour les français de souche, plutôt que la pâleur de votre peau.

Étant quelqu’un qui a été élevé dans la littérature française, qui a lu la bible en français étant d’une mère chrétienne, qui a étudié la littérature française sous la direction d’un tuteur privé nommé Christian Rivalland, un grand maître et une figure paternelle pour moi qui nourrissait de nombreuses élites et personnalités politiques et qui me surnommait « Le Seigneur » [à cause de mes cheveux longs et de ma chemise blanche avec un bouclier de préfet royal doré] et qui me traitait comme son propre fils et m’enseignait Molière, Maupassant, Victor Hugo, Rousseau et la Révolution française dans sa propre maison, en étudiant aussi profondément la littérature shakespearienne et victorienne, il était clair que je me sentirais et me classerais comme une personne appartenant aux sociétés d’Europe occidentale de France et d’Angleterre – on m’appelait même affectueusement « Banane » à cause du ton de ma peau mais avec ce que beaucoup décrivaient aussi comme une forme de « blancheur » à l’intérieur, bien que j’aie toujours dit aux gens qu’il n’y a pas de « blancheur » car chaque pays a sa propre langue et sa propre façon de se comporter et est pour le plus incompatible en valeurs et en philosophie, avec de nombreux pays qui semblent presque sauvagement préhistoriques par rapport à l’empire français, donc être de la même couleur ne signifie certainement pas être du même niveau ou de la même finesse psychologique ou avoir les mêmes sentiments et perspectives sur la vie. J’ai aussi figuré en tant que chanteur principal d’un groupe alternatif indépendant et « underground » (j’ai toujours mis en doute ma flexibilité à le faire quand je portais de la littérature du début du siècle avec des paroles, heureusement le film « La Reine des Damnés » est sorti et m’a fait m’a fait sourire avec le personnage Seigneur Lestat de Lioncourt, qui transcendait les siècles des châteaux et manoirs vers une scène rock contemporaine).

Lestat de Lioncourt

Image: La Reine des Damnés (2002)

L’héritage intellectuel de l’Europe de l’Ouest s’est enraciné en moi tout au long des années où j’ai vécu à Londres et étudié en tant que chercheur profondément imprégné de la psychologie et de la philosophie des grands esprits de l’Europe de l’Ouest [par exemple Darwin, Lacan, Freud, Descartes, Rousseau, Lacan, Voltaire, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer & Kant] et toutes mes interactions professionnelles avec quelques-uns des meilleurs intellectuels du continent au fil des ans, tant personnellement que dans le média moderne que constitue Internet. Le français et l’anglais sont les deux seules langues dans lesquelles je parle et pense, et elles me permettent d’exister, en effet, je rêve même en français et en anglais avec tous les personnages qui sont de ces sphères, donc, je ne pourrais absolument rien faire sans ces langues.

Maintenant, si nous devions poser la simple question de savoir si le français et l’anglais sont des langues d’origine d’Europe de l’Ouest, la réponse serait simplement « oui ». Et comme je suis fait de ces langues, cela conclut que mes propres racines culturelles et psychologiques seraient européennes occidentales. Et comme l’Europe de l’Ouest est principalement composée de personnes de composition organique qui sont communément appelées « Blanches » par la majorité non-sophistiquée scientifiquement [ce qui est faux, puisque personne au monde n’est blanc, sauf les statues, les sculptures de marbre et les clowns dans le cirque qui se maquille], je me considère comme un dérivé de la civilisation de « L’Europe de l’Ouest », et puisque la majorité des personnes de la classe intellectuelle sont « Blanches », je me qualifie de « Blanc [Autre] ». Oui, pas les Blancs [britanniques], ou les Blancs [français], mais les Blanc [autres] pour indiquer que je ne suis pas le « Blanc » typique, mais un Blanc qui a subi quelques modifications dans l’histoire de l’expansion et de la conquête impériale en Europe occidentale, d’où la nuance d’olive.

ad lucem - into the light

dans la lumière / into the light

D’ailleurs, on ne m’interroge jamais à ce sujet sauf pour remplir des formulaires dans les pays de la sphère anglo-saxonne, alors je coche la case « Blanc [Autre] ». Simplement parce qu’il résume, clarifie, donne la description de quelqu’un qui reflète la langue, la culture, les valeurs et les perspectives de la civilisation française de l’Europe de l’Ouest principalement et la majorité des gens d’une telle civilisation sont caucasiens ou au moins plus clairs dans le teint, et cela ne servirait à rien et n’aurait certainement aucun sens sauf à créer une énorme confusion de me qualifier comme Marsien, Noire, asiatique, indien, hispanique, orientale, juif ou toute autre description empirique qui n’est pas affiliée au patrimoine de l’Europe de l’Ouest et qui ne s’en rapproche en aucune façon en donnant une forme de description de ma personne, de mon identité, de mon patrimoine et de mes capacités – les choses ont changé radicalement et le monde devrait savoir et changer aussi une fois qu’ils comprennent. En effet, ce n’est pas parce que le monde de la politique est à la traîne que je devrais faire de même.

On ne m’interroge jamais sur la « race » ou, comme je préfère l’appeler d’un point de vue scientifique, sur la « composition organique » parce que dès que les gens me voient et m’entendent parler, ils arrivent instantanément à la conclusion que c’est un homme qui fait partie intégrante des sociétés française et britannique, et bien qu’il ait un teint d’olive, il parle et représente l’élite des sociétés française et britannique avec son accent et son dialecte cultivé dans les deux langues, et il ne pouvait représenter ou représenter aucun autre peuple que la majorité de ces sociétés, qui s’avèrent être des personnes d’origine indo-européenne et des langues indo-européennes et sont donc ce que la plupart ont tendance à appeler « Blanc » [qui comme je l’ai dit ne sont pas blancs mais vont du rose pâle au jaune rougeâtre] ou les personnes de la « race aryen ».

C’est pourquoi, sans surprise, j’ai répondu à votre question que je me considère comme un « produit » de la civilisation caucasienne de l’Europe de l’Ouest, pour être précis, « blanc » comme on le dit communément et mesquinement [le produit de civilisations où la majorité de la foule intellectuelle est caucasienne], bien sûr j’ai une nuance de peau d’olive, provenant d’un endroit géographique où le soleil est abondant et où un mélange organique sain a eu lieu tout au long de l’histoire de l’expansion impériale et de la conquête de l’Europe occidentale, et après tout, si nous regardons la zone géographique de l’Europe occidentale, nous pouvons observer que les tons de peau varient de très pâle à des teintes olive et jaune rougeâtre. Mais j’aimerais aussi vous donner plus de détails sur la façon dont j’en suis arrivé à cette conclusion et pourquoi je ne suis pas fou après tout, mais plutôt en train de vivre la réalité des quelques élites de la classe intellectuelle de ma génération au XXIe siècle.

Au début, j’ai dû éliminer des possibilités en me posant quelques questions :

La première question est : Suis-je un nègre ? Non
En second lieu, suis-je Indien ? Non, je ne parle pas hindi et je n’ai jamais mis les pieds en Inde.
Troisième, suis-je africain ? Il est clair que non, je n’ai jamais marché en Afrique continentale ou n’ai jamais eu de caractéristiques et de traits africains.
Quatrième être, suis-je asiatique ? Clairement non aussi, parce que je n’ai jamais marché sur le continent asiatique et que je n’ai pas non plus l’air, ni le son, ni la parole d’un Asiatique.
Cinquièmement, suis-je originaire d’un pays avec un héritage d’origine européenne ? Oui, tous les livres que j’ai lus, la musique que j’ai écoutée et les langues dans lesquelles j’ai vécu sont originaire de l’Europe de l’Ouest ! En effet, tous les hommes et les femmes qui m’ont fait ressentir toutes les émotions qui complètent un homme cultivé sont d’origine européenne, principalement de France, d’Angleterre et de quelques autres pays influencés par leur patrimoine linguistique.

Alors, comment un homme qui a été fait par l’Europe de l’Ouest et son héritage ne pourrait-il pas ressentir un fort sentiment d’identification et de loyauté envers ces gens qui l’ont fait, et sans qui il ne serait même rien aujourd’hui ? Des gens qui l’ont fait rire, pleurer et évoluer à travers leur travail artistique ? Si vous pouviez trouver un Indien, un Pakistanais, un Asiatique de l’Est, un Africain, un Caucasien[Blanc] en dehors de l’Europe de l’Ouest, un cow-boy, ou un clown déguisé en chien brun foncé aboyant dans un cirque sur une île, qui connaît tous les albums de Francis Cabrel, qui ont lu la poésie de Stéphane Mallarmé, qui a chanté dans un groupe alternatif bilingue aux influences rock et classiques, qui a étudié Shakespeare, Dickens et parle anglais avec un accent d’Oxford et français comme l’héritier de Victor Hugo, alors faites-moi savoir, je serais stupéfait. Il s’agit simplement de faire valoir avec fermeté l’argument simple mais fondamental que sur cette planète, les individus ne sont pas ce que la foule environnante croit qu’ils sont, mais ce qu’ils sont, deviennent ou sont devenus parce que cela résulte du chemin qu’ils ont choisi ou qui leur a été imposé, consciemment ou inconsciemment.

Je suis né dans un pays relativement petit et nouveau d’environ 1 million d’habitants, fondé par les Français et les Britanniques avant son indépendance, et après cela, il a gardé ses saveurs françaises et britanniques et je fais partie d’une nouvelle génération d’un nouveau petit pays républicain qui a dû définir sa propre identité par rapport à son héritage intellectuel. Et comme toutes les sociétés du monde, la petite île a aussi des classes différentes, des régions différentes et des gens différents avec des langues, des dialectes, des visions et des désirs différents. Ce que je veux dire, c’est que tous les pays ont des paysans, des villages, des ruraux simples, de la pauvreté, des sauvages, des laids, des bons, des méchants, des beaux, des gens d’affaires, des personnalités publiques, des classes dirigeantes, des classes intellectuelles, des villes et différents niveaux d’éducation que les parents peuvent offrir à leurs enfants.

J’ai eu beaucoup de chance, car grâce à mes propres efforts intellectuels, j’ai réussi à me hisser à la toute première place dans l’élite d’une minuscule minorité qui a choisi le meilleur établissement, le Collège royal de Port-Louis, qui est une école pour enfants doués et impitoyablement sélective. Et étant une minorité d’élite d’une petite population d’environ 1 million d’habitants, je suis entrée dans un segment encore plus restreint de ces élites assez courageuses qui ont osé suivre la voie littéraire comme Chateaubriand et Victor Hugo[la majorité veut simplement être comptable, médecin, avocat, banquier, chef d’entreprise, et tous les emplois qui vous garantissent une maison avec une voiture pour impressionner la famille de votre future femme avec une route facile à un parti politique – qui est un groupe dépassé.] J’ai toujours eu des problèmes à cause de la taille de l’île et de la carrière littéraire et philosophique que j’avais envisagée en raison du nombre limité d’esprits[quelques dizaines d’individus solitaires environ] avec mes choix éducatifs et mon niveau de compétence linguistique en français et en anglais [étant une élite universitaire, cela s’étend globalement en fait], et je me suis donc installée sur le continent qui est la base de mon héritage, à savoir l’Europe de l’Ouest [France et Angleterre], avec l’intention de m’inscrire sur un terrain mieux adapté à celui que je voulais être et suis devenu ! Comme Napoléon après avoir décroché une bourse d’étude où le petit corse allait devenir plus français que les français après avoir beaucoup subi dans sa phase d’adaptation.

ad vitam aeternam - to eternal life

à la vie éternelle / to eternal life

Et étant d’origine indo-européenne, il était clair que j’avais toutes les chances de m’assimiler dans les sociétés d’Europe de l’Ouest, c’est-à-dire que la France et l’Angleterre sont aussi d’origine et de langues indo-européennes, même si mon nuance d’olive me donne une identité très personnelle et ajoute parfois à mon caractère unique. En tant que personne originaire d’un pays relativement petit et nouvellement créé, avec des liens culturels d’origine d’Europe occidentale, il était clair que les élites avaient besoin d’une voix intellectuelle du XXIe siècle pour dissiper toute confusion et remettre les pendules à l’heure pour guider une génération de la classe intellectuelle qui luttait parfois pour trouver un sentiment d’identité et d’appartenance. Je crois que cela dissipe beaucoup de confusion au sujet de la classification et c’était l’un de mes objectifs avec la théorie organique pour les individus perdus et doués ; après tout, beaucoup d’intellectuels avant moi ont aussi donné une voix à ceux qui se sont perdus à travers leurs arguments et découvertes incroyables tout au long de l’histoire de la civilisation, de grands hommes, des penseurs innovants tels que Charles Darwin, Jean-Baptiste de Lamarque, Sigmund Freud, Napoléon Bonaparte, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jean-Jacques Rousseau et Jacques Lacan. Je n’ai fait que marcher dans leurs pas pour poursuivre cette tradition intellectuelle et académique des penseurs d’Europe occidentale.

Danny D'Purb Repond Sur Sa Vie

Image: Danny D’Purb

 

Après tout, il s’agit d’une question concernant mon identité au XXIe siècle en tant qu’homme faisant partie de la nouvelle génération qui a hérité des technologies d’apprentissage accéléré et qui ne peut parler que pour lui-même et ce en quoi il croit, comment il se sent et comment il voit sa propre histoire intellectuelle que beaucoup n’ont jamais osé analyser dans une perspective systématique et complexe du XXIe siècle, l’évolution psychologique qui a lieu par transmission culturelle, le progrès individuel et l’éducation transmise, mais sont au contraire perdus et confus à leur sujet sans comprendre plus largement le monde et ses divers sphères ; sans aucune direction pour améliorer leur vie et profiter au maximum des opportunités de faire partie de quelque chose de plus grand, comme l’empire français par exemple.

 

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[EN] Answer to Question II. « The term “race” which you qualify as “organic composition” seems meaningless to your theory but how do you classify yourself in regards to “organic composition”? »

 

I classify myself as an organism with the communicative and behavioural patterns inherited from the Franco-British sphere. Race scientifically among human beings can simply be defined as a particular type of “organic composition”. This means that people from different parts of the world simply have particular organic compositions in line with their evolutionary history. However, from the universal scientific view, any organism of whatsoever type of organic composition can procreate with another. Hence, this simple but fundamental observation suggests that if the laws of nature that govern all living species on this planet had different plans for organisms present on this planet, procreation between members of the same species with different organic compositions would not be possible – yet this is clearly not the case from an evolutionary perspective.

I would like to respond to your question about organic composition [what you call race] and my own classification. It is fundamental to understand that I assimilated into the Western European society which is a society of indo-european heritage, with both languages that I speak, i.e. French and English also being indo-european languages, and because I had all the elements to be part of the French and English societies to be more specific when talking about Western Europe, I always felt a natural attraction and an instinctive sense of belonging to these societies along with the people that constitutes its majority.

Since, I am the one to innovate with a scientific theory that would tackle the issue of assimilation and one that has also started to shake the foundations of psychology, culture and perception, it was always going to be an immense task to clarify this issue about assimilation and organic composition, what many atavistic societies call “race”, still not realising that there is no race on earth that is “pure” and that our current breed of human beings, being the “Homo-sapiens” are the result of interbreeding and evolution. I would like to get straight to the point to answer your question and also explain how I reasoned to explain my point on organic composition and my own classification.

I am a person who fully assimilated in both French and British society. And while not hiding the fact that my French side is dominant, I cannot also hide the fact that I have a very strong British side, having lived and mixed with the English people in England for years. However, French being a more avant-garde society always allowed talented individuals to assimilate in their society throughout their early history [e.g. Napoléon who was Corsican became the emperor of the French people] and is a country today composed of a blend of organic compositions who mixed and adapted perfectly with the native people of France, bringing in their individuality and gifted genes to the French gene pool. Hence, according with today’s scientific findings, it seems that the French civilisation is one that was always ahead of its time and far more sophisticated that any other empire of its league. Whatever the organic composition or colour shade of individuals in France, there is a strong sense of national concern and French identity embedded in the vast majority of French people who are proud of their evolving society and who want to enhance France and are in love with its heritage and people. In France, indeed, what seems to matter the most is your cultural identity and your loyalty to the nation and your French sentiments, outlook and sense of connection and love for the native people, rather than the paleness of your skin.

Being someone, who was brought up on French literature, who read the bible in French being from a Christian mother, who studied French literature under a private tutor named Christian Rivalland, a great master and a father figure for me who spoon fed many elites and political figures and who also nicknamed me “Le Seigneur” [meaning The Lord – because of my long hair and white shirt with a golden Royal Prefect shield] and who treated me as his own son and taught me Molière, Maupassant, Victor Hugo, Rousseau and the French Revolution in his own home, while also studying Shakespearean and Victorian literature to its depth, it was clear that I would feel and classify myself as a person belonging to the Western European societies of France and England – I was even affectionately called “Banana” due to the tone of my skin but with the what many also described as a form of “whiteness” within, although I always told people that there is no such thing as “whiteness” as each country have their own language and ways of behaving and are for the most incompatible in values and philosophy, with many countries seeming nearly savagely prehistoric when compared with the French empire, so being of the same colour certainly does not mean being of the same league or of the same psychological finesse or with the same sentiments and outlook on life. On the side I also was performing as the lead singer of an independent and underground alternative band [I always questioned my flexibility in doing this when carrying early century literature with lyrics, luckily the movie Queen of the Damned came out and made me feel better with the character Seigneur Lestat de Lioncourt, who transcended the centuries from castles and manors to a contemporary rock stage].

The Western European intellectual heritage was further embedded in me through the years of living in London and studying as a scholar deeply drenched in the psychology and philosophy of the great minds of the Western European region [e.g. Darwin, Lacan, Freud, Descartes, Rousseau, Lacan, Voltaire, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer & Kant] with all my professional interactions being with some of the finest intellectuals of the continent over the years, both personally and through the now modern medium that is the internet. French and English are the only two languages I speak and think in, and they allow me to exist, indeed, I even dream in French and English with all the characters being from those realms, hence, I would not be able to do absolutely anything without these languages.

Now if we were to ask the simple question of whether French and English are languages of Western European roots, then they answer would simply be “yes”. And since I am made of these languages, this concludes my own cultural and psychological roots would be Western European. And since Western Europe is mostly composed of people of organic composition who are commonly referred to by the unsophisticated majority as “White” [which is untrue, since no one in the world is white, except statues, marble sculptures and clowns in the circus who wear makeup], I see myself as a derivative of the “Western European” civilisation, and since the majority of people from the intellectual classes are “Caucasian” hence I classify myself as “White [Other]”. Yes, not White British, or White French, but “White [Other]” to indicate that I am not the typical “White” but one that has had some modification through the history of Western European Imperial expansion and conquest, hence the olive tone.

Besides, I am never asked about this except when filling forms in countries of the Anglo sphere, so I tick the “White [Other]” box. Simply because it summarises, clarifies, gives the description of someone who reflects the language, culture, values and outlook of the Western European civilisation of France mainly and the majority of people from such a civilisation are Caucasian or at least lighter in complexion, and it would not serve any purpose and certainly would not make any sense except create tremendous confusion to classify myself as Marsian, Black, Asian, Indian, Hispanic, Oriental, Jewish or any other empirical description that is not affiliated with the Western European heritage and does not in any way come even close giving a form of description of my person, identity, heritage and abilities – things have changed drastically and the world should know and change too once they do. Indeed, it is not because the world of policy is lagging behind that I should too.

I never get asked about “race” or as I prefer to call it from a scientific perspective, “Organic Composition” because the moment people see and hear me speak they instantly come to the conclusion that this is a man who is fully part of French and British societies, and while he may have a slight olive tone, he speaks for and represents the elite of both French and British society with his cultivated dialect and accent in both languages, and he could not possibly stand for or represent any other people but the majority of those societies, which turn out to be people of Indo-European heritage and Indo-European languages and hence are what most tend to call “White” [that as I said are not white but range from shades of pale pink to reddish-yellow] or the people of the “Aryan Race”.

Hence, your question answered, unsurprisingly, I see myself as a “product” of the Caucasian Western European civilisation to be precise, “White” as it is commonly and pettily said [the product of civilisations where the majority of the intellectual crowd are Caucasian], of course I have an olive tone, being from a geographical location where the sun is abundant and where some healthy organic blending has taken place through the history of Western European imperial expansion and conquest, and after all, if we look at the Western European geographic area we may observe that skin tones vary from very pale to hues of olive and reddish-yellow. But I would also like to give you some more details of how I also proceeded to come to this conclusion and why I am not insane after all, but rather living the reality of the few elites of the intellectual class of my generation in the 21st century.

At first I had to eliminate possibilities by asking myself a couple of questions:

First question being, am I a negro? No
Second being, am I Indian? No, I do not speak hindi or have ever stepped foot in India.
Third being, am I African? Clearly No, I have never stepped in mainland Africa or have any African features and traits.
Fourth being, am I Asian? Clearly no also, because I have never stepped in the Asian continent and also do not also look, sound or speak like an Asian either.
Fifth being, am I from a country with European intellectual heritage? Yes, all the books I read, music I listened to and languages I lived in are of Western European heritage! Indeed, all the men and women who made me feel all the emotions, that complete a cultured man are of European heritage, mostly from France, England and a few other countries influenced by their linguistic heritage.

So how could a man who was made by Western Europe and its heritage, not feel a strong sense of identification and loyalty to these people who made him, and without whom he would not even be anything today? People who made him laugh, cry and evolve through their art work? If you could find an Indian, a Pakistani, an Eastern Asian, an African, a Caucasian [White] outside of Western Europe, a cowboy, or a clown dressed as a dark brown dog barking in a circus on some island, who knows all the albums of Francis Cabrel, who read the poetry of Stéphane Mallarmé, who sang in a bilingual alternative band with rock and classical influences, who studied Shakespeare, Dickens and speaks English with an accent from Oxford and French like the heir of Victor Hugo, then please let me know, I would be amazed. This is simply to adamantly make the simple but fundamental argument that on this planet, individuals are not what the surrounding crowd believes them to be, but are what they are, are becoming or have become because it results from the path they chose or that was imposed on them – consciously or unconsciously.

I was born in a relatively tiny and new country of about 1 million in population founded by the French and the British before its independence, and after that it still kept its French and British flavours and I am part of a new generation of a tiny new republican country who had to define his own identity in relation to his intellectual inheritance. And as all societies in the world, the small island too has different classes, different regions and different people with different languages, dialects, visions and desires. What I mean is that all countries, have peasants, villages, simple rural people, poverty, savages, ugly people, good people, bad people, beautiful people, business people, public figures, leading classes, intellectual classes, cities and different levels of education that parents are able to afford for their children.

I turned out to be quite lucky, because through my own intellectual efforts, I managed to rise to the very cream of the crop into the elite segment of a tiny minority who took the route of literary studies at the best institution, the Royal College of Port-Louis which is an unforgiving and highly selective elite oriented school for gifted children. And being an elite minority of a small population of about 1 million, I went into an even tinier segment of those elites courageous enough who dared to follow the literary road like Chateaubriand and Victor Hugo [the majority just want to be accountants, doctors, lawyers, bankers, business owners, and all the jobs that land you in a house with a car safely to impress your future in laws with an easy route to joining the obsolete group that is a political party]. I always had problems existing because of the size of the island along with the literary and philosophical career I had envisioned due to the limited amount of minds [about a few dozens of solitary individuals] with my educational choices and level of linguistic proficiency in French and English [being an academic elite, this extends globally in fact], and hence moved to the continent that is the root of the inheritance I am made of, which is Western Europe [France and England], with the intention of being part of a terrain more suited to the person that I wanted to be and today, have become! Quite similar to Napoleon who after having obtained a scholarship to an elite academy in France, the little Corsican would later grown to become more French than the French themselves after having suffered a lot in his early adaptation phase to the culture and people.

And being of Indo-European heritage it was clear that I had all the chances of assimilating in the societies of Western Europe, i.e. France and England being also of Indo-European heritage and languages, although my olive tone does give me a very individual identity and sometimes adds to my unique character. As a person from a relatively tiny and newly created country that is of Western European heritage, it was clear that the elites needed an intellectual voice of the 21st century to clear out all the confusion and set the record straight to guide a generation of the intellectual class sometimes struggling to find a sense of identity and belonging. I believe this clears out a lot of confusion about classification and this was one of my purposes with the organic theory for lost and gifted individuals; after all many intellectuals before me also gave a voice to those who were lost through their amazing arguments and discoveries throughout the history of civilisation, great men, innovating thinkers such as Charles Darwin, Jean-Baptiste de Lamarque, Sigmund Freud, Napoléon Bonaparte, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Jacques Lacan. I only walked in their steps to pursue this intellectual and academic tradition of Western European thinkers.

After all this is a question about my identity in the 21st century as a man who is part of the new generation who inherited accelerated learning technologies and who can only speak for himself and what he believes in, how he feels and how he sees in regards to his own intellectual history that many have never dared to analyse from a systematic and sophisticated perspective by embracing the 21st century and the psychological evolution that took place through cultural transmission, individual progress and education, but are instead lost and confused about themselves without a wider understanding of the world and its different realms; without any direction to make their lives better and make the most of the opportunities to become part of something bigger, such as the French empire for example.

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Franco-Britannique

QUESTION III.

[FR] – Qu’est-ce que cela signifie pour vous d’être franco-britannique ?

[EN] – What does it mean to you to be Franco-British?

 

[FR] Réponse:

 

Eh bien, cela signifie être français dans la pensée, les sentiments, la philosophie, les valeurs, l’art et la vision, mais aussi avec un côté britannique fort qui se reflète dans l’anglais parlé et écrit. Être franco-britannique pour moi, c’est pouvoir naviguer dans les deux environnements avec la facilité d’un natif au niveau d’une élite et se sentir à l’aise dans les deux sphères tout en étant capable de voir le monde du point de vue des deux peuples et de parler pour les deux peuples dans les questions liées à la gestion de la société.

La philosophie française enseigne à l’individu à repousser ses limites, tandis que la sphère anglaise semble inculquer la notion de connaître ses propres limites, évidemment le royaume anglais est moins progressiste et décourage l’individu dans des efforts créatifs et favorise plutôt une vie mondaine et captive sans aucune faim pour le type d’innovation qui englobe la grandeur du cerveau humain.

Franco étant devant les Britanniques signifie que le Français est l’identité dominante, et sans manquer de respect au sphère anglaise, il serait impossible pour n’importe quel individu avec mes capacités intellectuelles de prendre la décision de renoncer complètement à leur côté français pour être entièrement anglais, car cela signifierait simplement gâcher la chance de faire partie de la civilisation la plus sophistiquée sur terre avec un amour absolu et un respect admirable des droits des individus dans la société.

Enfin, être franco-britannique signifie pour moi diffuser progressivement les valeurs françaises à la société britannique et à la sphère anglo-saxonne et motiver les gens de tous horizons à croire aux philosophies de l’épanouissement personnel et de l’évolution individuelle, ainsi qu’à une bonne conscience héroïque axée sur la morale, la dignité, le sens des responsabilités et la solidarité, où les individus se poussent et se motivent mutuellement pour avancer, en considérant le succès comme un bien commun, dans le grand sens d’une société harmonieuse et en phase avec la grandeur de l’être, en harmonie, qui est mieux en accord avec les principes et perspectives françaises. Bien sûr, c’est aussi motiver les gens du royaume anglais à apprendre la langue française, car avec la langue vient la magie de l’âme, les sentiments, la perspective, l’art, la sophistication, la créativité et le courage inhérents au patrimoine alors qu’ils apprennent à naviguer dans le bleu profond de la sphère française en apprenant à se dépasser et à se perfectionner psychologiquement pour modifier leur perception de manière progressive tout en respectant les droits des autres à croître.

Impossible n'est pas français - Napoleon

Traduction (EN): « Impossible is not French » – Napoleon

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[EN] Answer to Question III. « What does it mean to you to be Franco-British?”

 

Well, it means to be French in thought, sentiments, philosophy, values, artistry and vision, but with also a strong British side that is reflected in spoken and written English. To be Franco-British to me means to be able to navigate both environments with the ease of a native at the level of an elite and to feel at home in both realms along with the ability to see the world from the perspective of both people and speak for both people in matters connected to the management of society.

The French philosophy teaches the individual to push the limits, while the English realm seems to inculcate the notion of knowing one’s own limits, to me the latter is less progressive and discourages the individual into creative endeavours and instead promotes a mundane and captive life without any hunger for the type of innovation that embraces the greatness of the human brain.

Franco being before British means that the French is the dominant identity, and without being disrespectful to the English realm, it would be impossible for any individual with my intellectual abilities to take the decision to completely give up their French side to be fully English, because it would simply mean throwing away the chance to be part of the most sophisticated civilisation on earth with an absolute love and respect for the rights of the individual in society.

Finally to be Franco-British to me means to gradually spread French values to the British society and the Anglo sphere and motivate people from all walks of life to believe in the philosophies of self enhancement and individual evolution, along with a good heroic conscience focussed on moral, dignity along with a sense of responsibility and togetherness where individuals push and motivate each other forward and see success as something shared for the greater good of a harmonious society which is more in line with the “grandeur de l’être” embedded in French philosophy and outlook. Of course, to also motivate people of the English realm to learn the French language, as with language comes the magic of the soul, the sentiments, outlook, artistry, sophistication, creativity and the courage embedded in the heritage as they learn to sail the deeper blue seas of the French realm by learning to challenge their own limits and sophisticate themselves psychologically to alter their perception in a progressive manner while also respecting the rights of others to grow.

 

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QUESTION IV.

[FR] – Quelle est la meilleure langue entre le français et l’anglais selon vous ?

[EN] – Which one is the best language between French and English according to you?

 

[FR] Réponse:

 

C’est une question délicate car le terme « meilleur » est ici assez vague. Ainsi, j’aurai tendance à penser qu’un langage de première classe devrait être clair, précis, pratique, agréable à l’oreille, et les yeux, bien structurés avec la prononciation reflétée dans la structure grammaticale pour empêcher les gens de mal prononcer les mots et aussi tenir une quantité de profondeur qui se reflète lors de l’expression des pensées du penseur de haut niveau, et qui a une valeur artistique qui lui permet de se sentir plein des émotions lorsque parlé comme langue humaine à travers son timbre et ton.

La langue anglaise, bien que pratique en raison de son usage répandu, manque de synchronisation entre sa structure grammaticale et la façon dont les mots sont prononcés, ce qui fait que même les anglophones de langue maternelle expérimentés peuvent mal prononcer de nombreux mots, ce qui, dans de rares cas, peut même conduire à considérer les gens comme dyslexiques phonologiques. Pour moi, cela rend la langue anglaise inférieure à la langue française puisque la dernière a un plus grand nombre de « signes accentués » qui indiquent précisément au lecteur comment prononcer les mots. En effet, dans la langue française, la majorité des mots se prononce exactement comme ils sont écrits une fois que l’on apprend les terminaisons des temps verbaux et les voyelles muettes.

L’autre facteur, lorsqu’on compare les deux langues les plus répandues dans le monde civilisé, est le fait que la langue anglaise a une variété d’accents provenant des différentes régions où elle est parlée [par exemple Scouse, Geordie, Cockney, Scottish, Irish, etc] et est souvent étouffée dans les vidéos et peut souvent conduire à des malentendus ou exiger de l’auditeur de répéter des segments pour bien comprendre, ce qui est un désavantage de la langue anglaise. Ce n’est guère le cas avec le français, car même dans les différents accents dans lesquels la langue peut être parlée, ils conduisent toujours à un son plus clair en raison de la structure grammaticale et des règles de la langue et donc une audition plus claire et donc une compréhension plus rapide en comparaison de l’anglais.

La langue anglaise a aussi une histoire fondée sur l’empirisme et semble simplement remplir la tâche de communiquer des instructions et des textes scientifiques, mais elle manque de l’émotivité des œuvres d’art [par exemple le romantisme] et des arguments philosophiques [par exemple I think, therefore I am !] par rapport à la langue française. Notez que je n’ai pas dit qu’il ne peut pas être utilisé dans les œuvres d’art, mais seulement qu’il est moins intense que la langue française. L’anglais me semble diminuer l’intensité des arguments philosophiques et des conversations humaines étant une langue assez plate dans sa forme écrite et orale. Cela peut aussi s’expliquer par le fait que l’anglosphère est issue d’une majorité de sociétés où les valeurs de l’humanité, de la fraternité et de l’individu ne sont pas au cœur de la civilisation comme en France, mais plutôt de sociétés industrialisées et mécaniques qui ne peuvent offrir la liberté que comme une forme d’individualité extrême à la limite de l’égoïsme basée sur une formule du type  » chacun pour soi  » dans un jeu sauvage de survie et de préservation à tout prix. C’est bien sûr le principal courant de pensée, parce que nous avons une minorité d’individus incroyables de la sphère anglaise qui se distinguent par leur propre investissement dans la cultivation de leurs personnalités uniques et captivantes et qui n’agissent pas et ne pensent pas comme la majorité commune et on peut le constater par leur comportement, leurs sentiments et leurs œuvres artistiques. De plus, les racines de la langue anglaise sont toujours liées au système monarchique désuet qui semble rendre la société obsédée par les histoires médiévales de capes et d’épées : un système qui semble inculquer à l’individu le sens de connaître les limites de ses droits et une obéissance incontestable ; alors que la langue française est enracinée dans les valeurs de la révolution qui inculque le sens du questionnement et aussi de repousser ses propres limites pour libérer en soi l’Empereur/le Roi/le Maître », avec la légende de Napoléon comme preuve – la philosophie et les valeurs des deux langues semblent opposées entre elles.

Ainsi, pour moi, étant quelqu’un qui a reçu une bourse et étudié la littérature, la linguistique, la psychologie et la philosophie tout en ayant écrit pendant longtemps et qui a été plongé profondément dans le domaine culturel de l’anglais et du français, l’anglais semble être une langue de communication, alors que le français est une langue qui peut absolument tout faire comme l’anglais, mais qui permet aussi à l’individu non seulement de communiquer, mais aussi de « s’exprimer »[leur profondeur, leurs pensées, leurs émotions] d’une manière que la langue anglaise ne parvient pas à saisir à une telle intensité en raison de son histoire et de sa structure fondatrices qui ne sont pas aussi axées sur le timbre, la philosophie, les arts et l’expression des sentiments que l’est la langue française.

Ainsi, puisque la langue française peut faire tout ce que l’anglais peut faire dans le monde formel, comme les instructions, les écrits scientifiques et la simple communication, mais qu’elle peut aussi aller plus loin pour toucher plus profondément l’être « humain » par sa subtilité dans le timbre et le son qui s’inscrivent dans une histoire de grands poètes, philosophes et penseurs qui se sont imposés dans la pierre, je dois dire que le français est meilleur que l’anglais. Bien qu’il soit important de noter que ces deux langues sont très proches l’une de l’autre dans leur structure puisque beaucoup de mots sont épelés de façon similaire dans les deux langues avec des changements mineurs d’une langue à l’autre [par exemple Psychologie/Littérature est français pour psychology/literature (anglais)]. Comme les deux langues sont d’origine indo-européenne, il est plus facile pour les anglophones d’évoluer et de passer au français que la plupart des autres langues – du moins sous forme écrite puisque le français oral exige de la pratique et du dévouement à la maîtrise ; tandis qu’une « âme » est une autre histoire impliquant une vision métaphorique, des capacités de synthèse, des valeurs, une vision et une profondeur de pensée… et bien sûr la personnalité, les émotions et la sensibilité.

 

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[EN] Answer to Question IV. « Which one is the best language between French and English according to you?”

 

This is a tricky question because the term “best” here is quite vague. So, I will tend to think that a first class language should be clear, precise, practical, pleasant to ears, and the eyes, well-structured with the pronunciation reflected in the grammatical structure to prevent people from mispronouncing words and also hold an amount of depth that is reflected when expressing the thoughts of the high-level thinker, and one that holds an artistic value that allows it to be full of emotions when spoken as a human language through its timbre and tone.

The English language although practical because of its widespread use does lack the synchronisation between its grammatical structure and the way words are pronounced which results in even experienced native English speakers to mispronounce many words, in rare cases this could even lead to people being thought of as phonological dyslexics. This to me makes the English language inferior to the French language since the latter has a greater number of “accentuated signs” that precisely instruct the reader how to pronounce the words. Indeed, in the French language the majority of words are pronounced exactly as they are written once we learn the endings of verbal tenses and the mute vowels.

The other factor when comparing the 2 most widespread languages of the civilised world, is the fact that the English language comes with a variety of accents from the different regions it is spoken [e.g. Scouse, Geordie, Cockney, Scottish, Irish, etc] and is often muffled in videos and can often lead to misunderstanding or may require the listener to repeat segments to fully comprehend, so this is another disadvantage of the English language. This is hardly the case with French because even in the different accents in which the language may be spoken, they always lead to a clearer sound due to the grammatical structure and rules of the language and hence a clearer hearing and hence a faster understanding when compared to English.

The English language also has a history grounded in empiricism and seems to simply fulfil the task of communicating instructions and scientific texts, but lacks the emotionality in works of art [e.g. Romanticism] and in philosophical arguments [e.g. Je pense, donc je suis!] compared to the French language. Note that I did not say that it cannot be used in works of art, but only pointing out that it is less intense when compared to the French language. English to me seems to lessen the intensity of philosophical arguments and human conversations being a fairly flat language in its written and spoken form. This may also be due to the fact that the anglosphere is generated from a majority of societies where the values of humanity, brotherhood and the individual are not at the heart of the civilisation as it is in France, but rather tend to be industrialised and mechanical societies that can only offer freedom as a form of extreme individuality bordering on selfishness based on an “each to their own” type formula in a savage game of self-survival and preservation at whatever cost. This is of course the major train of thought, because we do have a minority of incredible individuals from the English realm who stand out because of their own investment in cultivating unique and captivating personalities and who do not act and think like the common majority where it reflects in their behaviour, feelings and art works. Furthermore, the roots of the English language still connect to the outdated system of monarchy which seems to make the society obsessed with medieval stories of capes and swords: a system that seems to inculcate in the individual a sense of knowing the limits of one’s rights and unquestionable obedience; while the French language is rooted in the values of the revolution which inculcates questioning and a sense of pushing one’s own limits to unleash the “Emperor/King/Master” within ourselves, with the legend of Napoléon as proof – the philosophy and values of these two languages seem to oppose each other.

Hence, to me, being someone who received a bursary and studied literature, linguistics, psychology and philosophy while also having written for a long time and been drenched deeply in the cultural realm of both English and French, English seems like a language for communication, while French is a language that can achieve absolutely everything that English can, but also goes further by allowing the individual to not simply communicate, but also to “express themselves” [their depth, their thoughts, their emotions] in a way that the English language fails to capture at such intensity because of its founding history and structure that is not as focussed on timbre, philosophy, arts and the expression of feelings as the French language is.

So, since the French language can do everything that English can in the formal world, such as instructions, scientific writings and simple communication, but can also go to greater depth to touch humans deeper through its subtlety in timbre and sound embedded in a history of great poets, philosophers and thinkers who set their mark in marble and stone, I would have to say that the French language is superior to English. Although it is important to note that these 2 languages are very close to each other in structure as many words are spelled similarly in both languages with minor changes from one to the other [e.g. Psychologie/Littérature is French for psychology/literature (English)]. Since both languages are of Indo-European origin, it is easier for English speakers to evolve and shift to French than most other languages – at least in written form since oral French requires practice and dedication to master; while a “soul” is another story involving metaphorical vision, abilities of synthesis, values, insight and depth of thought… and of course personality, emotions and sensibility.

 

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QUESTION V.

[FR] – De quelle civilisation vous sentez-vous faire partie ?

[EN] – What civilisation do you feel a part of?

 

[FR] Réponse:

 

C’est certainement la question la moins compliquée jusqu’à présent parce que je me suis toujours présenté et décrit comme un Européen occidental franco-britannique qui vit en Angleterre et qui entend alterner périodiquement avec le sud-est de la France dans un avenir proche. Donc, en passant par-là, je peux honnêtement dire que je défends la civilisation de l’Europe de l’Ouest et la France avant tout, avec bien sûr, une forte connexion et une préoccupation pour la société anglaise puisque c’est ici que j’ai vécu et que c’est aussi là que j’ai grandi et évolué pour devenir la personne que je suis aujourd’hui et qui n’est plus qu’à deux pas de la France. Pour moi, en tant qu’individu faisant partie de la classe intellectuelle de sa génération, c’était toujours l’Europe de l’Ouest où mon destin allait se dérouler et où mes œuvres allaient atteindre le public qui leur était dû. Mon passé d’adolescent n’a porté que sur les fondements de mon éducation qui allait toujours être poursuivie et affinée en France ou en Angleterre car l’île où je suis né aujourd’hui est trop petite et compte une population d’environ 1 million d’habitants, et bien plus comme une mini station de vacances 5 étoiles aux paysages naturels à couper le souffle, c’est un endroit parfait pour se déconnecter, méditer dans la solitude, se détendre, réfléchir, créer et écrire, mais pour moi ce n’est pas assez grand en géographie et en population pour favoriser le développement d’une élite littéraire qui a étudié toutes les grandes œuvres européennes et qui a une vision universelle de la psychologie, de la philosophie et de la gestion de la civilisation. C’est une histoire similaire à celle de Napoléon qui a dû quitter la Corse et aller en France pour découvrir et libérer sa propre grandeur et son génie.

Donc, pour en revenir à la question, pour moi, un homme qui vit dans le présent, je suis et je me sens partie de l’empire français avec des liens forts avec la société britannique en tant que consultant indépendant, intellectuel, chercheur, philosophe et écrivain qui trouve son inspiration dans le monde. Je dis donc que je suis le réveil de l’empire français à une époque où la passion est morte et où la corruption et les bureaucrates ennuyeux, inaptes et peu créatifs se sont surtout concentrés sur leurs propres poches sans aucune vision ont mis un terme déprimant à la civilisation. D’une certaine manière, j’ai parfois l’impression qu’il est de mon devoir de consacrer cette vie à remettre la société française et l’Europe de l’Ouest sur sa glorieuse voie.

M’attaquer, c’est attaquer l’empire français et la civilisation d’Europe de l’Ouest ! Parce qu’à l’heure actuelle, il n’y a pas d’autre personne qui ait un cœur entièrement dévoué à son avenir et un cerveau à la hauteur de la grandeur qui l’accompagne ! Il s’agit d’un simple énoncé des faits, et non d’une vantardise insensée !

Europe de l'Ouest

 

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[EN] Answer to Question V. « What civilisation do you feel a part of?”

 

This is definitely the less complicated question so far because I have always introduced and described myself as a Franco-British western European who lives in England and who intends to periodically alternate with the south-east of France in the near future. So, going by this I can honestly say that I stand for the Western European civilisation and France primarily, with of course, a strong connection and concern for the English society since this has been my home and also the place where I matured and evolved into the person that I am today and which is only a stone’s throw away from France. To me, as an individual who is part of the intellectual class of his generation, it was always going to be Western Europe where my destiny would unfold and where my works would reach its rightful audience. My teenage past only involved the foundations of my education that was also always going to be pursued and refined in France or England since the island where I was born today is too small in size and a population of 1 million approximately and much more like a mini 5-star holiday resort with stunning natural sceneries, making it a perfect place to disconnect, meditate in solitude, relax, brain storm, create and write, but to me it is not large enough in geography and population, to foster the development of an elite literary man who studied all the great European works and who has a universal outlook on psychology, philosophy and the management of civilisation. It is a similar story to that of Napoleon who had to leave Corsica and go to France to discover and unleash his own grandeur and genius.

So, getting back to the question, for me, a man who lives in the present, I am and feel part of the French empire with strong connections with the British society as an independent consultant, intellectual, researcher, philosopher and writer who finds inspiration from the world. Hence, I say that I am the awakening of the French empire in an era where passion has died and where corruption and boring, unfit and uncreative bureaucrats mostly focussed on their own pockets without any vision have brought civilisation to a depressing halt. So, in some ways I sometimes feel like it is my purpose to dedicate this life to getting the French society and Western Europe back on its glorious track.

Attacking me, means attacking the French empire and Western European civilisation! Because at this point in time there is no other person with a heart completely dedicated to their future with a brain that matches the grandeur to go along with it! This is a simple statement of facts, not mindless boasting!

 

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QUESTION VI.

[FR] – Êtes-vous un fan d’Hitler ?

[EN] – Are you a Hitler fan?

 

Hitler Walking Out

 

[FR] Réponse:

 

Je suppose que cette question m’est posée parce que j’ai souvent lié des vidéos d’Hitler dans mes essais et mes écrits.

Eh bien, pour commencer, je n’ai jamais tout à fait compris le terme « fan », parce que cela semble impliquer une certaine forme d’obsession pour une personne en particulier. Non, j’ai admiré les œuvres et les valeurs de beaucoup de gens, et si cela me qualifie de « fan », alors je le suis peut-être. « Admiration » pour « certains » aspects des œuvres de nombreux grands hommes et femmes à travers l’histoire – ce qui fait de moi un admirateur d’œuvres étonnantes avec du respect pour l’artiste ou le créateur. Cela s’étend à Adolf Hitler, qui, je dirais, avait raison sur bien des points en ce qui concerne la gestion d’une civilisation, mais pas sur tout. Lui ou ses conseillers ont commis des erreurs, comme la plupart des humains, qui lui ont tout coûté, à lui et à son régime.

Je dirais donc que j’admire beaucoup de philosophies et de réalisations d’Hitler, comme la nécessité d’unir le peuple en débarrassant le pays des divisions de gauche, du centre et de droite, tout en critiquant certaines de ses procédures, car après tout, il était un être humain qui n’a vécu que la réalité de son époque, alors que je vis en 2019 et vois les choses sous un autre angle car je suis privilégié d’avoir reçu une grande part des connaissances et découvertes scientifiques que l’époque d’Hitler n’avait pas encore mises au point. L’avancement de la technologie a permis aujourd’hui d’être extrêmement mobile puisque la plupart des grands travaux et recherches sont maintenant disponibles sous forme numérique, ce qui a rendu le monde plus connecté sans qu’il soit absolument nécessaire de se rendre dans d’anciennes bibliothèques pour trouver des ressources universitaires, et d’une certaine manière, nous pourrions gérer une équipe ou une entreprise en Europe depuis la jungle amazonienne, depuis une cabane forestière au Mexique ou une tente au Danemark, tant que nous aurons la haute vitesse et la bonne technologie – imaginez ce que de Vinci aurait réalisé si nous avions ceux-là en son temps !

Pour commencer par le dossier hitlérien, ce n’est pas une réponse simple car il y a beaucoup de choses à dire et à expliquer pour que les gens du monde entier puissent comprendre mon point de vue et aussi comprendre toute la controverse entourant le « Führer ». En répondant à cette question, je me référerai également à la « Théorie organique » pour expliquer l’existence, l’adaptation et l’évolution de l’homme et je me référerai également à mon propre cas en tant qu’Européen de l’Ouest franco-britannique assimilé, assez similaire au cas de Hitler ou de Napoléon qui n’étaient tous deux pas originaires de leur société, mais étaient assimilés, étonnamment, il semble que les deux dirigeants les plus puissants d’Europe occidentale aient dû venir d’un autre pays comme envoyés par le destin pour résoudre les problèmes d’une civilisation qui n’avait pas de chef légendaire avec une vision parmi son peuple, et qui a reçu un chef qui a gagné son appartenance et est devenu plus national que les nationaux eux-mêmes. Hitler est né en Autriche, tandis que Napoléon est né en Corse, et peut-être étonnamment 7 ans avant la naissance du futur empereur de France, Rousseau disait que la Corse allait secouer l’Europe.

Je dois dire que, dès mon plus jeune âge, j’ai été fasciné par la réputation d’Adolf Hitler parce que, comme la grande majorité d’entre nous, on nous a tous enseigné qu’il était la personne la plus horrible qui ait jamais existé dans l’histoire humaine, et son obsession meurtrière pour le génocide des Juifs était une chose que tout homme sain ne pouvait justifier. Comme la plupart des gens qui ont grandi entre la fin des années 80 et la fin des années 90, l’information était et est toujours principalement diffusée par les principaux médias à majorité juive, à une époque où l’Internet était encore en plein essor – en particulier les sites de streaming vidéo – j’ai donc été obligé de digérer la seule perspective à ma disposition jusqu’à une décennie dans le millénaire où un grand nombre de fichiers Hitler qui étaient enterrés commençait à apparaître partout sur Internet, donnant une perspective plus claire du monde et ses implications économiques, philosophiques et religieuses des deux côtés du débat.

Il y a aussi la grande confusion, la mauvaise interprétation et la fabrication médiatique de commérages qui existent concernant le prétendu désir de conquête du monde et l’obsession d’Hitler pour la prétendue supériorité de la race caucasienne germanique, particulièrement le sous-type nordique aux cheveux blonds et aux yeux bleus qui devrait à la longue remplacer toutes les autres races qui ne sont pas d’origine allemande – comme beaucoup de sociétés inférieures en Europe orientale avec un bon nombre de Juifs, ex. La Pologne et la Russie, qu’il considérait comme bon marché et de culture inférieure, les comparant à des animaux mineurs – du moins c’est ce qu’on disait et faisait croire à la majorité. Si les sociétés d’Europe de l’Est ne sont peut-être pas aussi sophistiquées que les sociétés d’Europe de l’Ouest, cette hypothèse de sous-type inférieur et supérieur ne reposant que sur l’héritage génétique et les attributs physiques n’est pas scientifiquement valable car nous savons maintenant que les organismes peuvent être formés avec les conseils et l’éducation appropriés pour s’adapter à leurs sociétés choisies et cela devrait être le cas si un empire conquiert et prend de l’ampleur, et aussi que le talent et le génie, bien que très rare, peuvent apparaître et a émergé de différentes sociétés et compositions organique, de n’importe quel coin du globe, et cela prouve qu’un organisme supérieur [intellectuellement ou physiquement] peut naître de n’importe quelle société et faire partie de n’importe quel type de composition organique, non seulement le sous-type nordique de la race caucasienne germanique, voire même Mussolini qui était un autre dirigeant fasciste et nationaliste était en désaccord avec Hitler sur cette question du sous-type nordique, et il a dit ne croire à la supériorité d’un seul sous-type particulier mais de la qualité générale de tous les sous-types, dont le sous-type méditerranéen aux cheveux bruns qui crée un mélange sain parmi le peuple national.

Cependant, l’amplification de l’argument d’Hitler en un désir d’extermination a créé beaucoup de confusion et a été encore exagérée et amplifiée par la presse commérageuse majoritairement détenue et gérée par les Juifs pour donner au régime hitlérien une mauvaise publicité et une haine mondiale. En ce qui concerne les enregistrements, nous savons seulement qu’Hitler s’est concentré sur des questions nationales et a clairement demandé à tous les autres pays de le laisser, lui et l’Allemagne, se concentrer seuls sur leur propre société et d’être autorisés à façonner leur société comme ils l’ont souhaité, car ils ont tout hérité de leurs ancêtres et ont voulu préserver leur société après avoir reçu l’autorisation de le faire dans des élections démocratiques, et aussi garder la race nationale allemande « pure »[ce qui n’avait bien sûr aucun sens car aucune race n’est pure puisque nous sommes le résultat de la migration, du métissage et de l’évolution de différents sous-types et Hitler lui-même était le résultat de la consanguinité entre un homme et sa nièce, le type d’union que Charles Darwin, l’homme derrière la théorie de l’évolution, s’opposait lui-même ainsi que le mariage entre cousins qu’il tentait de rendre illicite par loi à cause des nombreuses malformations et de l’incapacité des enfants qu’a entraîné ainsi que les mauvaises gènes que cela propagerait].

Donc, pour commencer à répondre à votre question, je dirai d’abord que Hitler était un patriote convaincu et un défenseur de la société et du peuple qu’il représentait [pas différent de moi et de mes vues pour la France et l’Europe occidentale en fait] et que pour renforcer un pays de plusieurs façons, l’accent devrait d’abord être mis sur ceux qui font partie du peuple autochtone du pays, s’y reconnaissent et l’aiment, c’est une philosophie qui s’inscrit dans le droit fil de la bonne gestion d’une civilisation et de ma propre philosophie de la « Théorie organique », mais seulement en partie parce que la solution complète implique aussi la prise en compte de l’afflux de talents et l’adaptation évolutive d’autres organismes qualifiés qui contribuent également au maintien et au progrès de la nation et qui ont acquis leur origine nationale et s’identifient complètement à la nation, en faisant partie intégrante de celle-ci.

Malheureusement, Hitler et ses conseillers ont exagéré et mal interprété la compréhension de l’évolution organique et ont suivi une politique atavique et rétrograde avec une équipe qui a procédé sauvagement, sans considérer attentivement la logique fondamentale qui existe dans tous les domaines de la vie, à savoir que nous avons toujours eu des exceptions aux règles pour les cas exceptionnels – cela s’applique aux mathématiques, aux arts, à la médecine, aux sciences – qui devraient également s’appliquer à tout système jugé pratique, moderne et évolué. Tous les organismes de cette planète s’adaptent et évoluent d’un point de vue organique et sociolinguistique, mais pas de la même façon et comme je l’ai dit, si les lois de la nature et de l’évolution qui contiennent toute vie sur terre en décidaient autrement, alors les organismes de différentes compositions organiques ne seraient pas capables de procréer.

L’équipe d’Hitler était aussi composée de nombreux traîtres avec une éducation assez élémentaire qui ont pris des décisions meurtrières qu’ils ont cachées au « Führer », entraînant sa chute et l’annihilation complète de ses plans et de son système ; vers la fin ils ont tous mis la faute sur un homme comme si Hitler avait drogué une nation entière et les avait hypnotisés en marionnettes mécaniques – qui est aussi clairement impossible sans la foi, la volonté et le désir de la nation à se diriger vers la vision.

Hitler embrassant une fillette juive

Cette photo de Hitler embrassant une fillette juive s’est vendue 11 520 dollars aux enchères / Source: VanityFair

Il convient également de mentionner qu’à ce jour, pas un seul enregistrement ou message écrit n’a été trouvé d’Hitler donnant le feu vert à l’extermination de quelque peuple que ce soit et ce que l’on peut conclure aujourd’hui est que Hitler pensait que toutes les sociétés et races devraient simplement être nationalisées afin que toutes les sociétés et races puissent mieux se comporter, comme le Reich allemand. Sur la question des massacres de masse, le blâme aujourd’hui, selon les faits qui ont été recueillis, est principalement attribué à Göring et Himmler, ce dernier passant par les anciennes écritures aryennes de l’hindouisme se croyant agir comme le grand guerrier Arjuna qui purgeait son peuple et le monde entier du mal et qui croyait qu’à long terme les gens le verraient comme le héros mythologique nettoyant la terre du mal qui était pour lui les Juifs et leurs valeurs étant la cause de toute souffrance humaine sur terre comme ils détruisent les autres civilisations et déforme et contrôle les pensées des masses par leurs activités médiatiques.

Tout d’abord, j’expliquerai ce que je critique à l’égard du régime hitlérien avant d’expliquer ce que je considère comme admirable dans la légende d’Adolf Hitler en tant que leader et être humain sur cette planète. Il y a deux ou trois choses que je pense sincèrement ne sont pas acceptables dans la société éclairée d’aujourd’hui en 2019, et Hitler aurait construit un Reich plus fort s’il avait été mieux conseillé dans des politiques plus intelligentes concernant la gestion, le maintien et la formation d’une population productive et sophistiquée avec des sentiments patriotiques forts et un sentiment de synchronisation et de compréhension. Hitler ne visait pas simplement à créer une société de boulettes de viande rose, mais était un leader cultivé guidé par la philosophie, l’éthique, la morale, la dignité, les valeurs et les arts.

Il est fondamental de comprendre qu’à l’époque d’Hitler, l’Allemagne se faisait conquérir par des communistes méthodiquement concentrés sur la prise de pouvoir de l’Allemagne sans véritable sentiment d’appartenance, avec l’intention de la transformer en une forme de zone commerciale et une arrière-cour économique en Europe, semblable à ce que les génies influents du monde des affaires, principalement juifs, ont fait des Etats-Unis aujourd’hui – une société mécanisée, industrialisée, dépourvue d’humanité et de valeurs, où l’individualisme égoïste a laissé chacun dans une lutte constante pour survivre à tout prix, même si cela signifie se tuer mutuellement, ce qui est aussi courant lorsque les armes sont légales là-bas. Les dirigeants de ces groupes communistes en Allemagne à l’époque d’Hitler étaient composés d’une majorité d’étrangers, dont de nombreux Juifs. Alors que le nombre de morts de Juifs a été exagéré et utilisé pour diffamer Hitler, aucune attention particulière n’a été accordée au nombre de morts horribles que les Juifs ont causées pendant la révolution russe et de nombreux historiens révisionnistes ont affirmé que le nombre de morts était beaucoup plus élevé que le régime hitlérien. Cependant, il était clair qu’en plus de l’immigration juive et des influences politiques des communistes juifs qui affaiblissaient et corrompaient progressivement la société allemande, il y avait aussi un énorme problème avec l’immigration de populations qui n’étaient pas des Allemands de souche. Cela impliquait que pour qu’un homme comme Hitler puisse réaliser son rêve d’une Allemagne forte, stable et moderne, il aurait fallu s’attaquer à la question de l’immigration, et comme il avait une vision nationale et d’excellence, le fait de se débarrasser d’une foule excessive, incompatible et étrangère qui ne voulait pas s’assimiler pleinement et devenir citoyen allemand était une chose nécessaire dans sa vision.

Cependant, il ne fait aucun doute qu’Hitler aurait aussi dû se rendre compte qu’il y avait un grand nombre d’êtres humains très talentueux et complètement assimilés dans la société allemande qui devaient être conservés et traités comme des citoyens qui avaient acquis leur origine et un fort sentiment d’identification avec la foule autochtone par leur propre adaptation et évolution. Et comme ce n’était pas le cas, nous nous sommes retrouvés avec la Seconde Guerre mondiale, de nombreuses personnes mourant dans des camps de détention mal approvisionnés après que les alliés eurent bombardé les voies ferrées de liaison et perturbé l’approvisionnement alimentaire et hygiénique, provoquant une épidémie de typhus qui a fait des milliers de morts. En outre, de nombreux Allemands qui avaient un lien lointain avec la population juive ont été traités comme des criminels à déporter, ce qui a conduit à une opération irrationnelle qui a écarté des personnes qui étaient parfaitement aptes à faire partie d’une société fonctionnelle, les normes scientifiques actuelles ayant prouvé, avec une interprétation correcte de la théorie de l’évolution, que nous sommes des organismes qui peuvent adapter et changer leur identité pour qu’elle soit en accord avec les nouveaux environnements, si nous faisons les bons choix et avons les capacités et la motivation pour le faire.

L’autre côté, c’était celui de la supériorité du peuple allemand dont Hitler était obsédé et qui s’avéra en fait peu créatif en ne considérant pas les personnes ayant une part d’héritage et d’appartenance culturelle allemande comme un exemple de conquête allemande, car c’était aussi un moyen pour une civilisation de diffuser ses gènes plus largement et d’encourager les personnes résultant de ce mélange à se mélanger avec la civilisation fondatrice qui conduirait à leur future lignée de partager une quantité encore plus importante de gènes allemands. En fait, si la science et l’évolution ainsi que la supériorité en moyenne de la « race aryenne » ont guidé la politique du régime national-socialiste, elles auraient dû également encourager la diffusion du génome aryen en encourageant les hommes et les femmes les plus sains et les meilleurs de la race aryenne à donner des ovules et du sperme et encourager les couples à utiliser des donneurs sains de la race aryenne pour élever leurs enfants, et ce service aurait dû être offert aux couples de toutes conditions sociales pour prévenir la formation de malformations et d’organismes malsains. Cela aurait été une façon sophistiquée et moderne de penser l’évolution humaine et l’évolution sociétale à la manière hitlérienne. Une façon de dire est que pour changer leur société biologiquement, une bonne façon est de s’assurer qu’ils ont assez de « tartelettes à la crème ». Parce qu’après tout, je crois qu’il faut donner aux êtres humains la liberté de choisir leur partenariat, ce qui n’était pas le cas dans le Reich, car les Allemands autochtones qui ne se reproduisaient pas avec des Allemands autochtones étaient considérés comme des traîtres.

Par conséquent, cette forme d’extrémisme était l’une des principales doctrines qui ont conduit à tant de haine et de ressentiment envers le Troisième Reich de la part d’un grand nombre d’Allemands eux-mêmes, amenant une armée alliée à travailler constamment pour faire tomber tout le spectacle, bien que la partie adverse représente les valeurs d’une société qui ne sont pas meilleures en fournissant une solution à une civilisation harmonieuse mais qui sont surtout alimentés par la haine, de fortes motivations financières juives et le désir de paralyser l’Allemagne à tout prix, mais surtout de faire tomber le charismatique et trop puissant Adolf Hitler, comme c’est souvent le cas quand un homme doué monte au sommet et éclipse sa compétition avec son talent et son magnétisme.

Judea declares war on Germany

C’est aussi le cas de Napoléon, lorsque toute l’Europe a rassemblé toutes ses forces pour le faire tomber. Cela semble être le cas aujourd’hui, comme si la société ne pouvait accepter que certains organismes soient supérieurs à la majorité médiocre. Cela semble hypocrite puisque nous pouvons tous aujourd’hui accepter que nous avons une nourriture supérieure d’un point de vue nutritionnel, des ordinateurs supérieurs, des voitures supérieures, des joueurs de football supérieurs, des montres supérieures, des caméras supérieures, des guitares supérieures, des pianos supérieurs, des chevaux supérieurs, donc cela devrait aussi s’appliquer à l’organisme humain, ce qui signifie que nous avons aussi des individus supérieurs avec une intelligence supérieure, donc une vision et une gestion supérieures. Il est également important de noter que les objets supérieurs sont toujours rares, et donc minoritaires, c’est pourquoi leur valeur est immense. Si les diamants étaient aussi abondants que l’acier et si l’acier était aussi rare que les diamants, alors les bijoux seraient faits d’acier et les diamants seraient utilisés dans la construction. Ainsi, nous semblons vivre dans un monde où la médiocrité des masses semble avoir de la difficulté à accepter que certains individus soient supérieurs dans leur ensemble, et au lieu d’encourager, d’apprendre, d’être inspirés et fiers d’être dirigés par de tels individus, nous semblons plutôt trouver une union de médiocrité qui fait tout son possible pour faire tomber ces individus. C’est quelque chose sur quoi la société doit travailler à l’échelle mondiale, pour favoriser l’excellence ! Le respect et l’appréciation sont après tout des mots qui existent dans tous les dictionnaires, et les êtres nobles et cultivés savent comment les montrer, et ceux qui n’ont jamais considéré ces valeurs peuvent essayer d’apprendre, cela en ferait certainement des êtres plus complets.

Pour en revenir à la gestion de la population de l’Allemagne pour une nation saine, forte et stable, Hitler aurait dû trouver une forme systématique de  » filtration « , impliquant des formes d’interview, d’évaluation de la santé, d’évaluation des compétences et d’évaluation culturelle qui analysaient tout le segment de la population allemande d’origine étrangère en tout ou en partie, et les diviser en deux groupes : ceux qui étaient aptes, sûrs et synchronisés avec la société allemande à garder, et ceux qui constituaient un fardeau en raison de leur incapacité à s’adapter et de leur refus d’être allemands en raison de convictions religieuses ou étrangères fermes d’être transférés diplomatiquement dans un environnement et une société plus adaptés à leurs caractéristiques, de la manière la plus respectueuse qui soit. Ceux qui ont été jugés aptes à la société allemande auraient même pu bénéficier d’une forme de classification [sous-type de la société allemande] s’ils l’avaient jugé nécessaire et auraient également dû prêter serment d’allégeance et de priorité à leur identité nouvellement trouvée et aux personnes qu’ils auraient dû respecter si c’était là où ils pensaient appartenir, sinon, il serait préférable pour un individu de se déplacer et de vivre dans une société compatible avec son patrimoine et avec les personnes dont il se sent membre, car aujourd’hui, en 2019, l’inégalité des revenus a diminué et le monde devient une planète plus égalitaire ainsi que les progrès technologiques qui rendent la vie assez semblable d’une partie du monde à une autre. Les organismes assimilés pourraient également avoir droit à 3 avertissements avant d’envisager de les expulser pour non-respect de leur contrat d’allégeance après des infractions graves, devenant ainsi des « traîtres » à la nation.

La solution de la filtration n’a pas été facile, mais en fait, c’était une solution sophistiquée qui aurait été plus adaptée à une civilisation qui évoluait et devenait de plus en plus complexe, décennie après décennie – nous ne pouvons pas nous attendre à des solutions faciles pour convenir à une civilisation complexe. Ce n’était bien sûr pas la solution choisie par le régime, mais la voie la plus rapide et la plus facile pour déporter tous les Juifs, non allemands et partiellement juifs, ce qui a entraîné tant de souffrances inutiles et de malentendus, alors que beaucoup de ces personnes n’étaient même pas religieuses et se considéraient plus allemandes que toute autre religion, comme Sigmund Freud qui était un produit de la pensée intellectuelle de la tradition allemande et qui, par la suite, a influencé la psychologie globalement, ou encore Albert Einstein qui était également sans sentiments religieux et a dû se rendre aux Etats-Unis pour s’exiler.

Il est également important de rappeler que les politiques conçues par le régime national-socialiste visaient également toutes les personnes considérées comme un fardeau et inutiles au progrès de la société allemande, ce qui a également conduit à l’euthanasie de nombreux Allemands pour des maladies génétiques et autres maladies incurables considérées comme impures pour une société et une race saine, ainsi que de nombreuses personnes âgées considérées comme inaptes à vivre. Cela montre donc que même un grand nombre d’Allemands ont perdu la vie, pas seulement des Juifs et des étrangers piégés dans des camps de déportation lors d’un bombardement massif des sols allemands.

Je trouve également important d’attirer l’attention sur le fait que l’Allemagne d’Hitler n’était pas une forme de société purement caucasienne, purement autochtone et allemande, où toute autre personne jugée différente était enlevée, enfermée et abattue. Non… bien sûr, Hitler n’était pas un tel idiot, et s’est rendu compte qu’il avait besoin de nombreux travailleurs étrangers pour achever la construction de son pays (routes, bâtiments, etc.) et qu’il avait en effet de nombreux travailleurs d’Europe de l’Est et étrangers sur ses chantiers, il savait aussi que l’économie allemande devrait comme tous les pays adopter le tourisme, et donc les gens de toutes sortes étaient autorisés à visiter l’Allemagne. En effet, Hitler a même accueilli les Jeux Olympiques où des athlètes du monde entier étaient présents. Beaucoup d’historiens modernes qui revisitent la Seconde Guerre mondiale ont tendance à oublier ces détails.

Hitler voulait en effet se concentrer sur les Allemands, mais il s’est rendu compte qu’il était impossible de diriger un pays sans une part équitable de la population étrangère qui étaient fondamentaux. Et cela se reflète aujourd’hui dans l’exemple de l’amour absolu des Européens de l’Ouest pour la cuisine étrangère, par exemple la cuisine chinoise ou la cuisine indienne qu’ils aiment avoir à portée de main par simple pression d’un bouton. Et en utilisant ces exemples pour expliquer la logique, il serait impossible de fournir des aliments asiatiques de qualité au marché européen sans la présence de certaines personnes de ces régions pour gérer la distribution et assurer la qualité des aliments. Cela s’étend à la cuisine italienne, mexicaine, grecque et/ou française. Un autre exemple serait les bienfaits scientifiquement prouvés du yoga en tant que discipline de santé, qui a été adopté par la société française et de nombreuses autres sociétés occidentales, de même, il serait impossible de s’attendre à la généralisation du style de vie si nous n’avions pas certains des fondateurs du yoga pour former une génération, et il est sans doute que les experts devraient être d’où vient la discipline, qui est en Inde, ce qui conduirait à la formation d’autres experts dans d’autres parties du monde, une logique qui s’applique également pour les disciplines telles que les arts martiaux, également originaires du continent asiatique.

Le fait est que l’Europe de l’Ouest n’est pas une région comme les autres, parce qu’elle est le lieu de naissance de certains des plus grands intellectuels, penseurs et inventeurs qui ont eu un impact majeur sur le monde, ce qui a également conduit à la création des meilleures institutions éducatives dans divers domaines en Europe. Cela attire certains des meilleurs universitaires du monde entier qui paient d’énormes frais de scolarité pour étudier dans ces établissements, ce qui stimule également l’économie de l’Europe et lorsque cela se produit, cela signifie que le gouvernement a plus d’argent à dépenser pour sa propre population, son système et ses infrastructures. Lorsque ces meilleurs universitaires étrangers terminent leurs études, une grande partie d’entre eux retournent dans leur pays d’origine, mais certains sont également employés en tant que spécialistes hautement qualifiés et travailleurs qualifiés dans leur domaine par des géants du monde européen des affaires dans des domaines allant de l’ingénierie à la médecine. Il est également important de comprendre que la contribution de ces personnes contribue au progrès des institutions européennes et à leur réputation. Ainsi, ces travailleurs qualifiés, bien qu’ils ne fassent pas partie de la sphère culturelle ou de l’industrie du spectacle ou de l’industrie hollywoodienne majoritairement juive, font parfois partie de l’équipe qui trouve une nouvelle invention, un nouveau moteur, une façon plus propre de récolter l’énergie, une nouvelle cure, un nouveau traitement, et où le monde est en train de se diriger dangereusement en ce moment en avec la perte de utilité des antibiotiques, qui sait si l’un d’entre eux trouvera l’antibiotique ultime, et si c’est le cas, cela permettra de sauver tant de producteurs, compositeurs, méso-sopranos, pianistes, danseurs de ballet et peintres, ainsi que leurs proches et enfants, de mourir de petites infections comme Frédéric Chopin. Il est donc important de noter que certaines choses sont plus grandes que la beauté extérieure, mais ont plus à voir avec la beauté intérieure de l’esprit qui se reflète dans l’intelligence et les capacités académiques.

L’autre scénario est que, dans de nombreux cas, ces travailleurs qualifiés ayant passé une grande partie de leur vie dans la civilisation occidentale finissent par se marier avec une femme du pays où ils travaillent, par exemple, des médecins étrangers qualifiés qui épousent leur infirmière et lui offrent une vie dont elle n’a jamais rêvé. Donc, ce sont des choses qui se produisent dans le monde humain, et ces mélanges mineurs de gènes se sont toujours produits depuis le début de l’humanité, comme je l’ai expliqué à maintes reprises que notre race actuelle est le résultat du mouvement à travers les plaines de la terre, le croisement et l’évolution. Donc, essayer d’arrêter une telle force qui a façonné notre espèce, semble être une lutte contre la nature elle-même, donc cela semble contre nature. La seule chose que l’on puisse faire est de guider les gens vers une meilleure compréhension de leur propre société, de son peuple et de son identité, ainsi que de sa continuité et des efforts que cela exige de tous ses citoyens – sinon tout système s’écroule et se désintègre – et ceux qui font partie d’une société devraient savoir que s’ils ne s’assimilent pas et ne font pas partie de ce peuple, ils auront toujours une vie mondaine et incomplète, qui pourrait être comparable à celle d’un rat. Dans certains cas, des cas mineurs de fusion génétique ajoutent également des gènes très talentueux au patrimoine génétique d’une civilisation, car l’excellence peut provenir de n’importe quelle composition organique et, lorsqu’elle fait partie d’une civilisation, ne fait que la renforcer, car elle se propage dans la civilisation à travers le temps. La chose décente à faire serait que l’État contrôle toujours le nombre d’étrangers dans le pays en imposant une limite stricte par rapport à la population autochtone, peut-être s’entendre sur un pourcentage qui ne devrait jamais être dépassé, en excluant les étudiants universitaires.

Par conséquent, le régime hitlérien aurait dû savoir qu’il n’allait qu’échouer et créer beaucoup de ressentiment et de haine en essayant de séparer les êtres humains légalement par des formalités rigides et des preuves d’identité génétique par des idées obsolètes telles que la généalogie allemande, comme le faisait le régime national socialiste. En effet, la société avait déjà évolué et de nombreux liens s’étaient tissés entre les personnes qui se sont mariées et ont eu des enfants, entre les différentes confessions religieuses, origines et nationalités de la nation allemande. Et ces types de règles rigides qui expulseraient ceux qui ne s’y conforment pas par le biais de la généalogie et de l’ascendance ne pourraient que conduire à la séparation des familles et même à la déportation des femmes ou des maris de nombreux Allemands, et lorsque ces scénarios se produisent, les humains ont tendance à lutter à mort pour sauver ceux qui leur sont chers. Le régime hitlérien aurait dû savoir que ce genre de politique était vouée à l’échec.

Ce qui, selon moi, aurait plutôt fonctionné, c’est une exécution « informelle » de la vision d’une Allemagne forte. En d’autres termes, Hitler aurait dû créer une société centrée sur les citoyens allemands – à la fois les autochtones et ceux qui se sont fermement assimilés et qui se considéraient comme des Allemands de souche – avec une forte identité allemande et un sentiment d’intérêt pour le peuple et la nation, tout en nationalisant les industries et en s’assurant que les gens au sommet se consacrent entièrement sans autre motif que le progrès de la nation et ont les valeurs nationales, la dignité humaine et comprennent l’identité religieuse de la nation en favorisant des personnes aux sentiments allemands forts et reconnus. Après cela, le régime et la nation auraient automatiquement créé un climat qui illustrerait la vision d’une Allemagne nationaliste forte, avec des industries axées sur le peuple allemand, et sans une politique formelle de déportation et de dépistage génétique, le peuple se serait rapidement retrouvé dans une société remodelée pour refléter les valeurs d’une Allemagne nationaliste, avec fierté dans son histoire, son peuple, sa culture et ses valeurs sans attaquer systématiquement les autres. Après cela, les entreprises qui ne pouvaient pas s’adapter fermeraient automatiquement et partiraient si les autorités déclaraient catégoriquement qu’aucune tradition juive ne serait tolérée sur le sol allemand et qu’aucune personne de la religion ou de la communauté juive ne serait autorisée à faire des affaires, sauf celles qui ont abandonné leur identité juive et adopté pleinement la tradition allemande avec la religion officielle comme option. Les personnes qui voulaient rester dans l’Allemagne nationale-socialiste évalueraient automatiquement leurs capacités et leurs possibilités et se forceraient à respecter les règles et à embrasser, à se développer et à apprendre à être citoyens allemands ou à partir. Elle aurait automatiquement généré un sentiment de logique d' »adaptation, de périr ou de partir » dans l’esprit de la population allemande, ce qui aurait conduit les peuples assimilés d’Allemagne à se rapprocher et à renforcer leurs liens avec le peuple autochtone allemand pour faire partie de la grande vision d’une Allemagne nationaliste, ou ils seraient partis à cause de leur incapacité ou refus de s’adapter !

C’est donc ce qu’il aurait fallu faire, selon moi, les idées et la vision du régime national-socialiste auraient dû être appliquées de manière informelle et non formelle par le biais d’un régime militaire strict, de camps de déportation, d’enquêtes généalogiques et de l’affirmation atavique et non scientifique du « sang ». En effet, il n’existe pas de « sang » comme on l’appelle dans la culture, le sang est un liquide qui coule dans les veines des êtres humains, mais même la famille n’a parfois pas de sang compatible car ils diffèrent par groupe et ont parfois besoin d’étrangers ou des individus d’une société différente pour donner du sang pour sauver la vie des autres qui ne sont pas liés à eux. Ainsi, cette idée de « sang » devrait être utilisée avec soin et convient mieux aux métaphores de « culture et littérature » que la réalité, puisqu’elle semble être utilisée pour expliquer la loyauté, l’unité et la parenté à travers une nation, une société, des valeurs et des perspectives similaires. Avec cet exemple, je peux dire aujourd’hui que j’ai du sang franco-britannique dans les veines et que cela fonctionnerait culturellement, mais médicalement cela n’aurait pas beaucoup de sens, puisque mon sang ne sera compatible qu’avec des individus de mon groupe sanguin qui peuvent être de n’importe quelle partie du monde et de n’importe quelle composition organique ou société, tant qu’ils sont humains et non des animaux.

La dernière chose que je mets aussi en doute dans la situation du régime hitlérien, c’est le véritable pouvoir de la démocratie à notre époque, oui ! Je veux dire, le peuple allemand avait voté pour l’arrivée au pouvoir des national-socialistes après avoir clairement connu leur manifeste et leurs idées d’une Allemagne nationaliste sans présence juive. Par conséquent, je me demande si demain, si je fais campagne et si je dis par exemple – notez que ce n’est qu’un exemple, et non une déclaration d’intention – que je rendrai illégal dans le pays toute forme de lieux de culte islamique, car nous savons par les faits historiques que c’est une religion qui a mené d’énormes guerres violentes contre la civilisation classique occidentale et toutes les autres religions non musulmanes et qui est une secte de guerre, de sang, de conquête et de domination par tous les moyens ; et si je suis élu, je serai bombardé par les alliés et emprisonné pour avoir essayé de le faire ! Cela signifie que même si une forme de référendum démocratique soutenait mes idées, toutes les autres conventions m’en empêcheraient, ce qui semble indiquer que les pays ont perdu leur pouvoir démocratique et ne peuvent plus satisfaire leur propre population, ce qui devrait laisser aux autorités beaucoup à réfléchir.

L’autre question de l’assimilation culturelle, qui consiste à faire partie intégrante de la nation, exige que l’on adopte le thème culturel de la nation, et cela s’applique aux individus et à leurs noms. Ce que je veux dire, c’est que l’assimilation implique généralement de porter un nom en accord avec l’héritage de la société, et beaucoup de Juifs l’ont compris, malheureusement le reste ne semble toujours pas comprendre qu’avec un nom comme « Mangia Fazula », « Okolo Sambaweh », « Munjabar Sakalamaktoum », « Soupovic Boringov », « Adnan Sawey » ou « Aharon Azriel » ils seront automatiquement considérés comme étrangers dans un pays d’Europe de l’Ouest fondée sur la culture chrétienne occidentale. Ainsi, les personnes qui veulent faire partie intégrante d’une nation par le biais de l’assimilation devraient aussi être assez intelligentes pour comprendre le thème culturel qui s’applique aussi aux noms, ainsi que la combinaison de la condition physique qui facilite simplement le processus et une maîtrise des modèles de communication et de comportement et un fort sentiment de solidarité avec la nation, tout en acceptant également l’identité religieuse de la nation même si cela est facultatif – étant une question de connexion spirituelle et le caractère sacré de son âme et c’est une question entre la personne et sa conscience et « Dieu » si elle croit en lui.

Quant à la rhétorique catholique forte encouragée par Hitler et son régime en faveur de l’éducation des jeunes à la religion et aux valeurs, il est important de se rappeler que Jésus Christ, le Messie qui a conduit à la fondation et à la diffusion du christianisme, n’est pas né d’origine européenne ni ne parlait français, allemand ou anglais. Jésus-Christ est né de la population d’Israël et parle en araméen. Bien sûr, il n’était pas de foi juive, et les textes religieux et l’héritage du christianisme ont été traduits dans les langues occidentales pour atteindre un large public. Par conséquent, cela aurait aussi pu être fait pour n’importe quelle autre religion si c’était celle qui avait été adoptée et répandue en Europe, par exemple l’hindouisme. Si tel était le cas, tous les textes hindous et les hindous d’Europe parleraient et prieraient dans leurs propres langues européennes, pas nécessairement dans la langue maternelle des dieux, c’est-à-dire l’hindi, puisque tous les textes religieux auraient été traduits dans les langues respectives de la région européenne. De même, les chrétiens modernes d’Europe occidentale ne parlent pas l’araméen, la langue que Jésus parlait.

Le fait est que, comme l’explique la théorie organique, les modèles de communication des primates humains peuvent varier d’une région à l’autre, mais la créativité et le QI ne varient pas, et par conséquent, une fois que l’héritage de l’humanité est traduit dans le langage approprié [modèle de communication], la société devrait être immédiatement soulagée dans sa capacité à se comprendre mutuellement. La synchronisation linguistique devrait donc être une chose qui apaiserait un monde en désaccord, même si les valeurs et les croyances religieuses sépareront toujours les groupes, de sorte que le débat aujourd’hui vers une civilisation harmonieuse devrait certainement commencer sur le langage global de l’humanité à adopter. Un bon exemple serait de voir le succès commercial et l’influence créative de la forme d’art moderne connue sous le nom de « manga » – qui vient d’Asie – sur la France et les autres sociétés d’Europe de l’Ouest une fois qu’elles sont doublées dans la bonne langue.

Et maintenant, après avoir parlé de la Théorie Organique ci-dessus, j’aimerais expliquer son application à une civilisation humaine moderne ainsi qu’à l’évolution et à l’assimilation organiques individuelles, afin que la plupart des non-académiques et des non-initiés qui lisent ceci puissent avoir une vision claire de ce qu’est l’assimilation d’un point de vue objectif et rationnel et aussi de ce que cela implique et exige pour un organisme de considérer si elle a le potentiel et les exigences pour être assimilée dans une société particulière, et comment cela renforce une société sophistiquée, et ici, comment cela aurait aidé dans la politique d’Hitler à créer une Allemagne moderne ou la vision de n’importe quel dirigeant à créer un pays moderne.

En parlant d’évolution, il faut tenir compte de l’évolution et de la condition physique de chacun, car toutes les formes d’Homo Sapiens évoluent ensemble sur cette minuscule planète qu’est la Terre d’une manière si rapide que les manuels scolaires ne peuvent espérer l’expliquer et l’égaler, d’où l’importance des ressources et la créativité de penseurs d’avant-garde dotés d’une intelligence fluide.

Tout d’abord, je voudrais aborder la question de l’assimilation d’un point de vue organique et, étant donné que je suis un parfait exemple de l’école de pensée française avec un côté britannique fort, je vais expliquer ce processus en m’en servant moi-même comme exemple. Maintenant, j’ai hérité des connaissances, de la langue, des valeurs et des philosophies de l’empire français et de l’empire britannique par la transmission culturelle après que ces empires aient conquis des terres et étendu leur royaume. Je ne me suis donc pas réveillé un matin, parlant soudainement français et anglais tout en connaissant l’histoire et la littérature de ces langues. Et si l’île minuscule que je suis née était située près de l’Europe occidentale, elle ferait partie de l’Europe, je n’aurais probablement pas à répondre à toutes ces questions, car elle aurait été considérée comme un produit de la civilisation européenne, à la simple différence que certaines des personnes qui constituent sa nation viennent avec une variété de tons de peau dont beaucoup ont une couleur et une texture très différentes de la majorité commune du rose clair à cause d’un mélange qui a été fait pendant la conquête occidentale européenne. Pourtant, cela n’aurait pas été un tel problème parce qu’il y a beaucoup de pays d’Europe où les gens ne sont pas aussi pâles que la majorité commune, par exemple l’Espagne, le Portugal, l’Italie et la Grèce – c’est simplement une légère similitude dans les attributs physiques, pas la langue, ou autre chose, donc il ne serait d’aucun sens de placer ces nations dans un groupe ! Mais, comme le lieu de ma naissance est un lieu éloigné de l’Europe géographiquement bien que né sur le patrimoine de l’Europe de l’Ouest, et que j’ai voyagé pour rejoindre les racines de mon héritage culturel en Europe occidentale puisque je fais partie des élites littéraires de la nouvelle génération née dans une république indépendante avec un nouveau système culturel et éducatif, une langue et des valeurs française, je pense être un bon exemple pour expliquer le processus de l’assimilation dans une perspective individuelle, en m’aidant de ma propre Théorie organique.

Maintenant que j’ai expliqué que l’organisme individuel né sur la planète terre selon les lois de la nature et de l’évolution est libre et évolue encore puisque l’évolution est un processus sans fin. J’attirerai également l’attention du public sur le fait que, selon les lois de la nature, les barrières érigées par l’homme ne font pas partie des lois naturelles, ce sont simplement des barrières érigées par les groupes politiques. Ainsi, l’organisme individuel naît sur une planète et peut s’adapter et changer en fonction de ses capacités et de son choix d’environnement. Grâce aux progrès d’aujourd’hui grâce à la technologie et à ses installations d’apprentissage accéléré, les organismes peuvent apprendre et se façonner linguistiquement et philosophiquement en fonction de l’environnement dont ils veulent faire partie. Cependant, il y a aussi des limites à ce processus, car un haut niveau de compétence en termes de modèles comportementaux et de communication sera nécessaire pour qu’un organisme s’assimile parfaitement à un environnement choisi et soit vu comme une partie intégrante de celui-ci tout en étant synchronisé avec les natifs. Par exemple, j’avais hérité des modèles communicatifs, comportementaux et sociaux de la France et de l’Angleterre, qui étaient enracinés en moi et j’ai également fait des choix pour approfondir ma compréhension de ces sociétés à travers mes choix éducatifs et, dès mon plus jeune âge, j’ai toujours voulu poursuivre ma carrière et terminer ma vie en Europe de l’Ouest : France et Angleterre. Cela signifie que j’ai investi beaucoup d’efforts pour me redéfinir en tant que Franco-Britannique d’Europe occidentale parce que rien n’arrive à personne sans sacrifice, travail et dévouement.

Il s’agit maintenant d’expliquer que pour qu’un organisme sur terre puisse envisager de s’assimiler dans un environnement choisi, ce n’est pas un processus facile, mais il comporte d’immenses défis et sacrifices. Si nous voulons faire partie d’une nouvelle société, nous ne pourrons pas le faire en restant ce que nous sommes, mais nous devrons nous remodeler et nous adapter à la société et nous efforcer de ne faire qu’un avec son peuple, et d’une certaine façon les voir comme notre propre « sang » – métaphoriquement. En outre, il y a aussi la question de la condition physique, qui n’a rien à voir avec la « beauté », mais plutôt avec la capacité de se fondre dans les organismes de cette société par une certaine forme de synchronisation physique. Ce n’est qu’une partie et non le seul facteur qui définit l’assimilation, mais c’est un facteur qui facilite le processus d’assimilation, bien que ce ne soit pas tout. Par exemple, en utilisant l’organisme que je suis, je suis né avec un héritage indo-européen et bien que je sois peut-être un peu moins pâle que la majorité moyenne des organismes de la sphère occidentale européenne, j’ai encore plus de similitudes physiques avec ces gens puisqu’ils sont aussi d’origine indo-européenne et de ce qui est aussi connu comme la « race aryen ». Ce que j’essaie de dire, c’est que j’ai choisi une société où l’assimilation était réalisable parce qu’il y avait des liens forts dans mon propre patrimoine génétique, linguistique et culturel avec ces pays : Je parlais la langue, lisais la littérature, connaissais l’histoire, chantais, jouais et écoutais la musique, partageais la même religion et étudiais et comprenais la philosophie de ses plus grands esprits. Cela signifie donc que l’organisme que je suis a eu toutes les chances de s’assimiler dans la sphère de l’Europe de l’Ouest, en France comme en Angleterre.

Cela n’aurait peut-être pas été aussi facile si, par exemple, j’avais décidé de m’assimiler dans la civilisation négrière de l’Afrique parce que pour commencer, la forme physique entre l’organisme que je suis et le peuple négrier est incroyablement loin l’un de l’autre ; mais encore plus, je n’ai aucun lien avec la culture, les langues, l’histoire ou la philosophie négrière. Cela ne veut pas dire que ce serait impossible, mais cela aurait été très difficile en raison des différences de civilisation et de mode de vie.

Puisqu’il s’agit du sujet des nègres, si dans les années 1950 une personne avait déclaré que les nègres sont une race et un patrimoine inférieurs, les gens autour d’elle auraient pu dire que l’homme est partial et raciste. Cela ne signifie pas pour autant que tous les nègres sont inadéquats ou non qualifiés, bien sûr, nous avons de grands nègres qui excellent dans la plupart des disciplines physiques comme le sport et quelques autres qui sont devenus des professeurs dans des domaines spécifiques. Mais ce qu’il est généralement sous-entendu par l’affirmation que « les nègres sont une race inférieure » semble suggérer qu’en moyenne, c’est-à-dire que si nous prenons tous les nègres et faisons la moyenne de leurs réalisations et les comparons à toutes les autres civilisations, nous arriverons au fait qu’ils sont en retard sur tout, d’où le terme « inférieur ». Aujourd’hui, si nous regardons toutes les statistiques mondiales concernant les nègres, nous verrons qu’ils sont en effet derrière toutes les autres civilisations. Pourtant, chaque fois que ce sujet revient sur le tapis, nous voyons soudain tous les médias à majorité juive, jetant soudain tous les nègres singuliers des États-Unis qui ont fait de l’argent ; nous voyons des joueurs de basket-ball, des rappeurs avec des diamants la bouche, et tous les autres nègres qui ont réussi financièrement grâce aux industries des médias à capitaux juifs des États-Unis. Ce n’est donc pas encore une fois la question, car je ne dis pas que tous les nègres sont inférieurs, mais simplement que la civilisation négrière est en moyenne inférieure à toutes les autres civilisations de la planète Terre. Et comme si cela ne suffisait pas, ils sont aussi physiquement incroyablement uniques en termes de caractéristiques et de traits par rapport à toutes les autres civilisations de la Terre, ce qui en fait une énigme en matière d’assimilation dans toutes les cultures. Donc, pour moi, les nègres devraient en tenir compte et avec le monde développé dans lequel nous vivons maintenant et avec la technologie qui rend le monde beaucoup plus connecté et qui rend la vie assez semblable sur n’importe quelle partie de la Terre, je crois fermement qu’ils devraient commencer à s’unir et s’organiser pour combler le fossé avec le reste du monde et envisager le développement du continent africain où ils pourraient tous trouver assez de place pour vivre. Le monde a été très charitable envers les causes négrières, mais il est temps pour eux de commencer à s’aider eux-mêmes. L’autre point avec les nègres, c’est qu’eux aussi sont assez semblables aux Juifs lorsqu’ils déménagent dans d’autres sociétés, parce qu’ils se concentrent généralement sur les questions négrières et les nègres, et ainsi forment un groupe de personnes qui cherchent davantage à accroître leur nombre dans un pays qui n’est pas le leur, et ne se concentrent pas sur les questions nationales et les peuples autochtones, ce qui ne constitue pas une assimilation, et ce n’est pas une solution avantageuse pour un système. Donc, encore une fois du point de vue de la théorie organique, cela ne fait que générer et créer des organismes plus problématiques qui ne font pas partie d’un système et qui ont des problèmes d’assimilation en raison d’énormes différences dans la composition organique, les modèles comportementaux, les objectifs et les perspectives et ne fait que ralentir et affaiblir tout système. En 2019, il semble juste d’expliquer ce qu’est la véritable assimilation, et aussi avec le monde plus développé, plus égal et plus connecté, de guider ceux qui ne peuvent ou ne veulent pas s’assimiler en leur expliquant comment des organismes partageant des compositions organiques, valeurs, culture, vision et histoire similaires ont tous les facteurs pour créer des sociétés harmonieuses en étant ensemble. Les nègres et les juifs devraient tous les deux y réfléchir, et peut-être méditer sur la question de savoir s’ils seraient plus heureux dans une société composée de leur propre espèce, ce qui pourrait générer moins de tensions et un sentiment d’être à l’aise dans une atmosphère noire ou juive reflétant leurs croyances et rituels. Parce que la civilisation occidentale est loin d’être parfaite et elle a aussi ses propres problèmes à résoudre, son propre peuple et ses propres questions de gestion à cibler, et si la nation a une foule qui n’est pas déterminée à y contribuer, elle ne fait qu’aggraver ces problèmes.

Nous voyons parfois des gens de la foule occidentale se comparer aux membres des foules du tiers monde et des tribus étrangères pour générer un faux sentiment de supériorité. Je voudrais rappeler aux gens que cela n’améliore en rien leur vie. La société occidentale a beaucoup de problèmes qui sont profondément enracinés et qui ne peuvent pas être perçus à l’œil nu depuis la surface, puisque c’est une société qui semble amoureuse de tout emballer proprement, mais étant un intellectuel qui a étudié la psychologie, je peux dire avec confiance qu’il y a d’immenses problèmes en Occident concernant la culture de l’esprit pour le bien de nos vies. Beaucoup de gens sont malades dans leur esprit et ne s’en rendent pas compte et il reste énormément de travail à faire pour fixer les mentalités et inculquer des valeurs pour une société harmonieuse et saine. Les personnes qui ne s’assimilent pas n’ont généralement pas ces questions à cœur et ont tendance à se garer en Europe occidentale pour un revenu tout en restant étrangères dans leur identité. Ces gens devraient comprendre que s’ils ne s’assimilent pas, ils ne devraient pas s’attendre à être traités comme les organismes natifs qui font partie intégrante du système parce que le système dépend de ses organismes pour sa continuité et son existence, et cela arrivera aussi à leurs enfants s’ils sont élevés selon des croyances, une identité et des valeurs étrangères qui sont incompatibles avec la nation où ils vivent.

Les gens qui sont en Occident en tant que travailleurs hautement qualifiés et qui ne veulent pas s’assimiler devraient clairement se qualifier d’organismes temporaires qui n’ont pas l’intention de rester pour toujours et d’accepter la vie d’un étranger et le fardeau qui l’accompagne, car je ne dis pas que les autochtones sont parfaits ou que tous sont supérieurs puisque nous avons des classes et différents niveaux de scolarité dans toutes les sociétés, mais ce que je répète, c’est que les problèmes de l’Occident ont besoin de la contribution et des préoccupations de sa population pour être résolus et que ceux qui n’y contribuent pas ne contribuent pas à améliorer leur vie et celle du pays, qu’ils soient autochtones ou non autochtones. Ce n’est bien sûr pas un problème pour les touristes qui ne visitent que pour des photos et retournent dans leur pays après le voyage – sans problèmes.

Maintenant que j’ai parlé de l’exemple de moi essayant de m’assimiler dans la civilisation noire, une situation similaire se présenterait si, par exemple, je décidais de m’assimiler dans la sphère orientale asiatique, car les différences tant physiques que culturelles sont immenses et, bien que pas impossible, je me heurterais à d’énormes obstacles avec de telles différences qui rendraient ma tâche difficile pour être considéré comme membre de leur société en accord avec leurs propres autochtones – et il est inutile de discuter des autres obstacles avec des énormes différences de choix alimentaire, de comportement, de communication et de style de vie.

Comme troisième exemple, une situation similaire se produirait si je décidais de m’assimiler en Inde, parce que bien qu’ils puissent être liés au peuple indo-européen, ils sont clairement une civilisation distincte qui s’est divisée et a acquis ses propres modèles de communication et de comportement, que je ne connais pas un seul mot et ne comprends ni ne gère, pour empirer les choses, je n’ai pas non plus l’air d’un Indien typique ou des traits physiques indiens flagrants, même si certains peuvent partager une teinte de peau olive et pour finir, ils sont une civilisation principalement hindoue qui se reflète à travers leur culture et leur art, alors que je suis un chrétien profondément enraciné dans l’art de la civilisation française et de l’Europe de l’Ouest.

Le quatrième exemple, c’est celui d’une tentative d’assimilation dans une civilisation musulmane, l’Algérie par exemple. Encore une fois, je ne pourrais pas, parce que je ne parle pas la langue, je ne reflète pas les valeurs, je ne crois pas en l’islam et enfin, ma vision et mon style de vie sont totalement incompatibles avec les cultures du monde musulman, et pour couronner le tout je ne ressemble pas vraiment aux Algériens.

Par conséquent, si je devais être jeté en Inde, en Asie de l’Est, en Afrique ou dans une société musulmane, regarder dans les yeux de ces organismes serait comme regarder dans les yeux d’un cerf, que je crois être une très bonne métaphore que j’utilise ici pour décrire une créature complètement ignorante, en partie à cause de son innocence, car elle n’a jamais été jetée et n’aura jamais à connaître le drame angoissant et incessant de devoir résoudre les problèmes du monde prétendument moderne de la civilisation occidentale tout en devant constamment endurer l’insécurité et la petitesse de « certains » des plus vils reptiles et cannibales immoraux comme des personnalités publiques vêtues d’un costume que personne n’aurait envie de présenter à ses proches ou d’inviter à dîner une fois qu’ils auront découvert la vérité sur les possibilités illimitées de leur profondeur sauvagement hédoniste et de leur esprit obscur, immoral et pourri.

Cerfs de toutes les couleurs

En fait, en tant qu’élite littéraire, je crois que ce sentiment d’être toujours entouré de cerfs de toutes les couleurs, formes, tailles et origines dans la plupart des endroits de la terre, d’ouest en est, doit être partagé par les autres esprits littéraires, car la plupart des organismes existent simplement, alors que les gens de lettres dans des domaines tels que la psychologie et la philosophie doivent porter le fardeau de penser pour la société et c’est une tâche morale énorme qui vient avec beaucoup de pression et de responsabilité, tout en étant rarement en mesure de communiquer avec les esprits simples que nous rencontrons parfois sur notre route méditative, qui nous laisse seulement l’option soit de sourire, soit de dire quelque chose de doux et anodin, comme de parler du temps.

Donc, pour en revenir à la question de la synchronisation physique, comme je l’ai répété, la condition physique [qui a à voir avec de légères similitudes et non avec la « beauté » comme on le croit communément] ne fait qu’aider et faciliter le processus d’assimilation mais n’est qu’une indication peu profonde d’appartenance, car la profondeur de l’individu est un point encore plus déterminant car la véritable valeur de l’organisme est dans le mental, la vision et les valeurs. Pour aller plus loin dans cette logique, je donnerai l’exemple de quelques autres organismes à peau pâle de certaines sociétés qui, malgré leur ton trompeusement similaire, sont absolument incompatibles avec la société française, ce n’est donc pas parce qu’ils se fondent de manière trompeuse en donnant une impression superficielle d’appartenance à la majorité par leur couleur de peau qu’ils sont parfaitement adaptés pour s’y intégrer car ils ne reflètent ni le patrimoine linguistique ni les valeurs, ni les principes fondamentaux des libertés individuelles, ni la pensée chrétienne même s’ils ne sont pas religieux qui ont marqué la civilisation et le caractère humain et récepteur de la France.

Un bon exemple serait de considérer les Juifs, les Européens de l’Est, les Russes ou certains segments de la population syrienne qui partagent un teint plus pâle. Je ne dis pas que ces gens sont des animaux ou qu’ils devraient être exterminés, alors je vous en prie, ne considérez pas mes observations comme discriminatoires ! Ce que je dis, c’est que « s’assimiler » dans une civilisation sophistiquée ne se résume pas à une simple forme physique, il ne s’agit pas simplement d’accepter les « Gros boudins roses » comme le disait Christian Clavier dans la mini-série « Napoléon » de Yves Simoneau en 2002, car on ne cherche pas simplement à créer une société sans structure, dont le seul point fort serait une peau claire et ensuite d’inonder la société de boules de chair roses non civilisées…pour la photo ! Seule l’industrie hollywoodienne, majoritairement juive, semble voir les choses de cette façon ! Cela peut suffire pour qu’une agence d’escorte, un bar de strip-tease, pour que certains puissent travailler en tant que femmes de loisirs ou répondre aux critères de travailleuses du sexe, mais en dehors de ces entreprises, une société exige davantage de ses citoyens, et ici des organismes avec un sens d’appartenance et de responsabilité ainsi que les comportements et les noms appropriés qui correspondent au domaine thématique pour être en parfaite synchronisation avec les exigences de la société – donc la condition physique ne suffit pas mais facilite simplement le processus d’assimilation, surtout parmi le cerveau courant et non pensant.

En effet, les juifs ont longtemps utilisé cette illusion visuelle pour se fondre parmi ceux qu’ils qualifient de « gentils » ou de « goy » de la sphère européenne, les non-juifs qui, selon leurs écritures, sont des êtres inférieurs nés pour servir les juifs et qui, selon leurs textes religieux, peuvent être traités en animaux et même tués si nécessaire. Il s’agit simplement d’une observation factuelle de ce qui est écrit dans les textes religieux des juifs. Ce sont des écritures qui ont façonné la pensée des sociétés juives depuis l’antiquité, et c’est un fait dont les gens devraient être conscients pour comprendre le train principal de pensée d’un groupe particulier, il est important de connaître les faits des écritures qui les ont façonnées, leurs valeurs et perspectives et pourquoi une grande partie de leurs industries saignent les civilisations et sont desséchées de toute humanité. En effet, en utilisant leurs teintes de peau plus pâles pour se répandre et se cacher au sein de la civilisation chrétienne d’Europe occidentale, ils ont souvent eu, tout au long de l’histoire, un parcours plus facile, et lorsqu’ils changent de nom pour adopter des noms chrétiens dans le processus de se dissimuler, il est parfois difficile de les distinguer du peuple natif de la civilisation occidentale qui a vu le jour grâce aux idées et aux talents chrétiens.

Le problème avec les Juifs est que, bien qu’ils se mélangent, agissent, s’habillent et se nomment comme les natifs des nations européennes dans lesquelles ils se déplacent, ils se classent toujours clairement comme Juifs, se concentrent sur l’amélioration des autres Juifs, et travaillent systématiquement ensemble dans les affaires pour promouvoir les intérêts des Juifs, et même ont des conventions mondiales entre Juifs, et présentent avec fierté les réalisations des Juifs. Si nous remarquons que tous les groupes étrangers le font, sauf les chrétiens occidentaux qui semblent préférer s’entretuer et vivre une vie d’hédonisme égoïste.

Pourtant, ce que font ces groupes étrangers n’est pas l’assimilation, mais simplement le mélange et l’intégration pour dominer systématiquement une société ou un système, et les juifs ont été connus pour le faire méthodiquement et habilement dans de nombreux pays européens à travers l’histoire, avec de violents sacrifices religieux à leurs dieux assoiffés de sang, qui impliquent le sacrifice des enfants chrétiens, comme ils ont fait au fil des ans à travers l’histoire européenne avec de nombreux corps d’enfants chrétiens jeunes mutilés trouvés à travers toute l’Europe vidés de leur sang. C’est pourquoi les Juifs sont le seul groupe qui, tout au long de l’histoire de l’humanité, a été persécuté et banni de tant de pays. Oui, beaucoup de gens ne connaissent pas ces faits car la plupart d’entre eux n’ont pas d’autre choix que de prendre leurs informations dans les industries des médias grand public appartenant aux Juifs, alors apprenez quelque chose de nouveau ici !

Le régime hitlérien n’a pas été le premier régime à interdire et persécuter les Juifs, les Juifs ont même été bannis d’Angleterre en 1290 par Edouard Ier, et aussi en 1306 de France par Philippe IV et ce ne sont que 3 exemples. Les Juifs ont été interdits dans un grand nombre de sociétés où ils se sont installés en raison de leur insolence, de leur manque de respect pour la nation et les valeurs de leur patrimoine qui ont encouragé la destruction systématique et l’asservissement de toutes les civilisations non-juives, de leur habitude de monopoliser la presse pour déformer la perception et aussi de leurs rituels occultes et violents impliquant le meurtre de jeunes enfants chrétiens pour offrir leur sang à leur Dieu païen violent, Baal dont le terme « Holocauste » est tiré – qui a conduit au sacrifice des personnes dans un Tophet de flammes. En fait, les Juifs ont été interdits dans un grand nombre de pays depuis l’an 1 200 AVANT J.-C. jusqu’en 2014 où ils vienned d’être banni au Guatemala, ce qui conduit à environ 3213 ans de persécutions constantes et d’interdictions dans les pays où ils ont migré. En fait, ils ont été interdits à Carthage, à Rome, en Égypte, en Espagne, en Italie, en Suisse, en Hongrie, en Belgique, en Autriche, en Autriche, aux Pays-Bas, en Pologne, en République tchèque, en Lituanie, dans les États baltes et en Russie, pour ne citer que quelques exemples. Si les gens veulent connaître la liste complète, ils peuvent utiliser Internet et chercher « Pays où les Juifs ont été bannis/expulsés » [aussi voir: Les Résolutions contre Israël].

Maintenant, nous pouvons nous poser quelques questions simples : « Est-ce que tous ceux qui ont banni les Juifs pourraient être sans raison de le faire ? » et « Est-ce que les gens pourraient simplement se promener et soudainement décider sans raison de haïr les Juifs ? » et aussi « Si cela leur arrive depuis tant d’années, n’est-il pas probable que le problème soit en fait avec les Juifs eux-mêmes ? Je crois qu’il vaut mieux laisser le public répondre à ces questions et y réfléchir seul.

Je voudrais qu’il soit clair que je parle de la mentalité et de la pensée juive dans son ensemble, mais je ne dis pas que chaque Juif est mauvais ou n’a rien à offrir aux sociétés dans lesquelles il vit. Bien sûr, il y a des personnes étonnantes, admirables et aimables qui s’assimilent complètement, et même abandonnent leur identité juive et se convertissent au christianisme, ou deviennent athées. Il y a bien sûr des gens décents d’origine juive qui deviennent des citoyens à part entière de leurs nouvelles sociétés, qui parlent au nom des autochtones et se considèrent comme faisant partie de la nation, et cela se voit en France, où certains sont devenus plus français que les autochtones et se sont intégrés au cœur de la nation. Il s’agit cependant d’une très petite minorité de juifs qui, après l’avoir fait, considèrent souvent les juifs étrangers comme inadéquats pour la France parce qu’ils se considèrent comme faisant partie du peuple français et comprennent l’identité religieuse du pays qu’est le christianisme. Cependant, la majorité des Juifs ne suivent pas l’exemple des nobles qui s’assimilent, mais ils restent distincts et travaillent pour leurs camarades et organisations juives tout en adoptant leurs valeurs et croyances de circoncision et de supériorité.

Le fait que tous les organismes étrangers doivent comprendre, c’est que pour faire partie de la civilisation de l’Europe occidentale, il faut accepter le fait que le christianisme fait partie de la culture fondatrice, et bien que de nombreuses personnes ne soient pas religieuses, on ne peut ignorer que l’histoire, l’héritage et la littérature ont été fondés par des hommes et des femmes chrétiens, dont certains ne sont pas religieux mais qui étaient indéniablement influencés directement et indirectement par les pensées et l’héritage chrétiens, ce que peuvent refléter les nombreuses allégories et métaphores relatives à la Bible dans les écrits. C’est aussi une immense coïncidence qu’au moment même où je réponds à vos questions que la cathédrale de Notre Dame vient d’être mystérieusement frappée par un incendie le 15 avril 2019, certains y voient peut-être un signe des fondements d’une civilisation en feu – et les coïncidences avec ma vie ne me surprennent plus. Quand le hasard multiplie les coïncidences, ce n’est plus le hasard.

En fait, être pleinement assimilé signifie renoncer à son identité étrangère et adopter l’histoire, la langue, le thème linguistique, la nation et la religion de la nouvelle société comme une option supplémentaire si possible. Les juifs devraient réfléchir à ceci : le fait que l’Europe occidentale est une civilisation chrétienne, tout comme Israël est une société juive et les Etats arabes sont une civilisation musulmane, les gouvernements de ces deux derniers pays considérant la religion comme une question de culture sérieuse sans jamais faire de compromis sur les priorités et les nécessités religieuses par rapport à toute autre religion étrangère. En effet, dans de nombreux États arabes, le crucifix en tant que symbole du christianisme est interdit et illégal, et ils n’y trouvent aucune excuse, parce qu’ils sont de fermes musulmans et que cela fait partie intégrante du tissu de leur gouvernement et de leur culture. Pour compléter cet exemple, il est également ridicule que la Grand-Croix de l’Ordre national de la Légion d’honneur qui est le plus haut ordre français du mérite militaire et civil, établi en 1802 par Napoléon Bonaparte, ait été remise au sultan de Brunei en 1997, un homme qui a récemment institué un nouveau code pénal qui applique aussi strictement que possible la charia – la loi islamique : la mort par lapidation pour punir les homosexuels et l’adultère, l’amputation d’une main ou d’un pied pour les voleurs, la peine de mort pour insulte au prophète. Être juif ou musulman se présentera toujours comme une personne aux valeurs étrangères issues de l’histoire et des valeurs de ces religions les plus incompatibles avec celles de la civilisation européenne de l’ouest.

Lorsque des personnes qui ont la capacité de s’assimiler choisissent de le faire, elles devraient d’abord trouver leur place dans la nouvelle société en fonction de leurs compétences, de leurs aptitudes et de leur profession. De grands efforts et des preuves d’assimilation seront exigés d’eux et cela commence normalement par un nom occidental de la culture chrétienne. Les personnes qui ne s’assimilent pas pleinement, se reconstruisent, se remodèlent et adoptent une identité totalement nouvelle doivent toujours se rappeler qu’elles ne sont pas chez elles et ne doivent pas s’attendre au même traitement que celles qui le sont – c’est une simple question de bon sens. Ceux qui s’assimilent correctement feront automatiquement partie du peuple autochtone et partageront une existence avec des opportunités similaires, parce qu’ils sont devenus natifs par leurs efforts et leur décision d’être loyaux et dévoués à leur nouvelle société et à son peuple, en respectant l’héritage fondateur et les sensibilités religieuses, et bien sûr en maîtrisant les modèles comportementaux et de communication. Cela ne veut pas dire qu’après s’être assimilés, ils doivent être soumis et ne peuvent pas faire une observation critique pour aider à développer le pays et à le faire avancer, mais leur allégeance devrait être à la nation et aux peuples autochtones parce qu’ils devraient se considérer comme faisant partie de ce peuple. Après tout, l’objectif est de créer des citoyens loyaux qui se sentent concernés par la société, pas des esclaves ! Les autochtones aussi devraient apprendre à agir comme des êtres humains et adopter les valeurs de la décence pour comprendre qu’une société fonctionne mieux quand la population est en harmonie et heureuse tout en voyant les citoyens véritablement et convenablement assimilés comme leur propre « sang », même si ces cas sont extrêmement rares.

Ainsi, comme l’explique la théorie organique, un autre facteur est plus fondamental que la condition physique pour l’assimilation, comme nous pouvons le voir en utilisant les Juifs comme exemple pour expliquer que la similarité dans le ton de la peau n’est pratiquement rien, sauf un petit facteur qui aide avec la majorité qui pense rarement. La partie la plus importante et la plus déterminante de l’assimilation concerne la gestion des modèles de comportement et de communication appropriés de la société dont l’organisme veut faire partie intégrante. Pour une assimilation réussie et complète, les organismes doivent aussi intégrer la philosophie, comprendre le cœur du peuple en fonction de son histoire, maîtriser la langue, ne faire qu’un avec la nation, ressentir la joie et la douleur du peuple et aussi être capables d’utiliser le terme « nous » pour se décrire eux-mêmes et les natifs ; en d’autres termes voire le peuple comme leur propre « sang », et c’est ainsi que cela se passe dans la civilisation la plus complexe, cad. La France, où le peuple est prêt à vous aimer et à vous considérer comme son propre sang si vous manifestez le désir sincère de faire partie de la patrie nationale et la loyauté envers la nation.

L’assimilation n’est malheureusement pas facile à réaliser et c’est pourquoi l’assimilation ne doit pas être confondue avec l’intégration, car l’intégration est simplement l’acquisition d’un passeport pour la légalité ; mais l’assimilation, c’est sculpter son cœur et son âme pour être un avec les gens et faire partie du sang national par loyauté et engagement tout en jouant son rôle de citoyen avec ses devoirs civiques. En effet, dans la Grèce antique, tous les membres de la société qui ne participaient pas aux affaires communes ou qui ne s’impliquaient pas et ne s’intéressaient pas aux questions concernant le fonctionnement du pays et l’harmonie du peuple étaient considérés comme des « parasites », et cela inclut tous les citoyens – autochtones et non-autochtones – car toute société a besoin que ses membres travaillent ensemble pour résoudre ses problèmes et suivent la voie sans fin du changement positif pour l’amélioration d’une civilisation.

En France, la plupart des gens comprennent qu’être citoyen est un devoir, et c’est pourquoi, jusqu’à aujourd’hui, ils sont la seule civilisation qui a défendu la fraternité de l’humanité comme individus à traiter avec respect, ils font partie des rares civilisations qui écoutent l’opinion du peuple et font l’éloge d’un empereur à un homme du peuple s’ils estiment que cet homme a la grandeur de ses arguments et le mérite – nous le savons par la légende de Napoléon – et enfin le peuple français est un des plus réceptifs qui est toujours disposé à raisonner avec de nouveaux arguments, quels que soient leurs origines. En fait, la France est la civilisation la moins atavique et la plus sophistiquée du monde moderne, et accomplir une tâche aussi glorieuse sans monarchie est étonnant – cela montre que lorsque les gens se considèrent comme un et se traitent mutuellement avec respect tout en ayant un sens moral et de dignité, ils incarnent un empire ensemble, sans ou avec un empereur – la tête avec une couronne étant simplement une option si nécessaire et jugé assez ingénieux pour guider une civilisation en conquête, mais non une nécessité !

Pour atteindre ce sens de l’harmonie, il faut des organismes qui peuvent trouver un fort sens de synchronisation en tant que peuple et se considérer comme une nation et ressentir la douleur et la gloire des uns et des autres pour raisonner comme un. Bien sûr, comme n’importe quelle société sur terre, nous trouvons de mauvaises pommes, des hommes d’État corrompus et immoraux et des arguments mesquins, surtout parmi les petites classes, mais dans l’ensemble, c’est une société construite sur des valeurs et des philosophies conçues pour favoriser le développement des êtres humains où tout individu peut atteindre le sommet par son propre désir, ses efforts et son engagement. Ce qui est malheureux, c’est qu’à mesure que le temps passe et que la génération passionnée qui a participé à la fondation de ce nouveau monde meurt, ces valeurs s’estompent parfois dans l’esprit de la nouvelle génération et des médiocres hommes d’État « Fisher Price » qu’elle nous a donnés. Ce sont de grands hommes et femmes au caractère admirable qui ont eu le courage, au cours de l’histoire, de prendre la parole pour rappeler au peuple combien de personnes ont perdu la vie et se sont battus pour la société actuelle et combien il est urgent de poursuivre notre route du progrès humain sur la même direction à prendre.

Pour terminer, après avoir parlé de ce que je pensais ne pas avoir été bien planifié sous le régime hitlérien, et expliqué en profondeur la théorie organique et l’assimilation, voici les choses qui inspirent dans l’histoire d’Hitler, et cela commence avec le grand exemple que le peuple allemand a donné à l’époque en donnant le pouvoir absolu à un individu méritant en montrant au monde qu’un artiste en faillite pouvait devenir le tout premier dans une société moderne. Ce qui signifie que nous avons finalement vu un garçon aux prises avec des difficultés financières qui était le premier de sa classe à l’école primaire et qui n’a pas réussi à démarrer sa carrière artistique après avoir échoué à un examen à l’une des meilleures écoles d’art d’Europe de l’Ouest, l’Académie des beaux-arts de Vienne, puis par ses propres efforts après avoir été sans abri et en lutte pendant la guerre, monter au sommet. Cela démontre une mobilité sociale absolue, mais aussi comment un homme peut être un artiste, un soldat et un homme cultivé par ses propres efforts pour ensuite diriger une civilisation moderne et atteindre le sommet. C’est pour moi un exemple moderne clair de la Théorie Organique sur le processus d’autodéfinition et de développement progressif d’un organisme individuel basé sur ses propres désirs et capacités.

La deuxième facette étonnamment inspirante de l’histoire d’Hitler est la façon dont il a donné au monde un exemple avant-gardiste de la réponse à un environnement harmonieux, en étant un végétarien qui a été le premier à initier des lois de protection animale.

Le troisième côté admirable d’Hitler était son charisme et sa loyauté envers sa société, mais aussi sa modestie et sa confiance envers les gens de tous les milieux, étant la seule personnalité publique de son niveau à se promener librement dans son pays et à rencontrer des gens de tous horizons et de toutes classes sans aucune protection, tout en gagnant leur confiance absolue pour les guider.

Le quatrième côté d’Adolf Hitler était qu’il avait du style dans son goût pour l’architecture de son pays, comme on peut le constater aujourd’hui à travers les plans qu’il a élaborés avec Albert Speer. On peut imaginer ce qu’aurait été l’avenir de l’Allemagne et de Berlin. Ces plans révèlent les bâtiments et les plans d’une ville qui reflétait la grandeur de l’humanité et même les uniformes de son personnel ont été confiés à Hugo Boss – montrant un homme qui vénérait la perfection. Et si nous regardons les uniformes et les costumes du gouvernement national-socialiste, nous devrons peut-être accepter qu’il s’agît de certains des costumes les plus stylés et les plus beaux jamais vus dans l’histoire moderne, peut-être seulement égalés par des couturiers français comme Yves Saint Laurent.

Le cinquième côté étonnant avec Hitler était son amour pour la science et l’évolution et sa passion pour garder une perspective mise à jour de toutes les dernières découvertes. Il serait donc assez partial de supposer qu’Hitler est un homme rigide qui n’a aucun goût pour le changement. Cela se reflète dans son empressement à encourager la recherche afin de reconstruire les installations médicales, technologiques et militaires de l’Allemagne. Cela ajoute aussi à mon opinion qu’Hitler aurait été disposé à écouter les nouvelles découvertes et à changer ses opinions en conséquence s’il avait été conseillé et convaincu par des gens authentiques, avant-gardistes et honnêtes – il aurait dû me consulter. Haha ! Mais bien sûr, l’entourage proche du Führer n’était pas particulièrement composé des esprits les plus éthiques ou les plus sophistiqués où beaucoup se sont révélés déloyaux et maléfiques, ce qui a probablement conduit aux horreurs du régime sans aucun lien avec Hitler lui-même.

La sixième chose admirable à propos d’Hitler, c’est le fait qu’il était un leader qui voyait vraiment les gens comme des organismes qui avaient besoin des mêmes chances de réussir et de s’élever et non comme une foule qui devait être divisée en segments gauche, droite et centre. Hitler considérait tous ses citoyens comme des gens de son système et s’efforçait de synchroniser l’ensemble de la société pour travailler comme une machine singulière. C’est certainement admirable en comparaison avec les personnes corrompues et immorales à la tête de la plupart des systèmes actuels où les critères utilisés pour gouverner les êtres humains sont des facteurs économiques et commerciaux. Diriger une civilisation d’êtres humains sans valeurs, sans philosophie et sans morale est un moyen sûr d’échouer à long terme parce que les êtres humains ne sont pas des objets ou des biens, mais des organismes complexes qui nécessitent un système très sensible pour vivre harmonieusement, et toute personne qui se dit leader et ne comprend pas la psychologie, la philosophie et les éléments qui conduisent à un environnement humain moderne harmonieux se mentent à eux-mêmes et la société.

Hitler Person of the Year Time

Il faut aussi se rappeler comment Hitler a même proposé de démanteler l’armée allemande et de détruire toutes les armes si tous les autres pays faisaient de même, ce à quoi ils n’ont jamais répondu. Ainsi, nous comprenons maintenant pourquoi Hitler a même été présenté comme la personne de l’année par le magazine Time, et cela ne pourrait pas être pour transformer les Juifs en viande hachée. Et l’autre question énigmatique est de savoir pourquoi tant d’argent est consacré aujourd’hui à la défense et à l’armée alors qu’il est clair que nous sommes une civilisation solitaire sur une planète solitaire qui devrait chercher à étendre sa portée en commençant une nouvelle civilisation sur une planète de réserve pour obtenir le statut de civilisation spatiale ? Ces partis qui dépensent tant d’argent pour l’équipement et la technologie militaires n’ont-ils que la défense et rien d’autre à l’arrière de leur esprit, peut-être inconscient ? Est-ce simplement pour la décoration ?

La septième chose inspirante à propos d’Hitler, c’est qu’il n’était pas d’origine allemande, mais comme moi, pleinement assimilé dans la société allemande et de gagner aussi le cœur de toute une nation et de s’élever au sommet et finalement devenir plus d’Allemands que les Allemands eux-mêmes, est quelque chose d’assez spectaculaire. Peut-être, une autre chose admirable a été la réponse d’Hitler dans une procédure judiciaire après l’échec de son coup d’État contre pour prendre le pouvoir, où il a répondu après qu’on lui ait demandé s’il était allemand en demandant si cela est prouvé sur un morceau de papier ou dans le cœur d’un homme ; car bien qu’il avait déjà gagné le cœur de la nation, il n’avait toujours pas de passeport allemand. Dans ses premières années en Allemagne, alors qu’il luttait financièrement et qu’il était sans abri, certains Allemands lui ont également dit qu’il ressemblait à un Juif et qu’ils pensaient qu’il en était un, puis de surmonter tout cela pour atteindre le sommet est tout à fait admirable.

Le huitième et dernier point que je crois inspirant pour Hitler, c’est qu’il ne semble pas avoir vu les choses du point de vue d’un cadre moyen ordinaire, d’un économiste, d’un banquier, d’un médecin ou d’un autre cadre financier qui a tendance à se frayer un chemin dans un parti politique simplement pour apparaître à la télévision ou dans un journal sans aucune présence, vision ou valeurs fortes et voir une civilisation comme une boutique à gérer. Hitler avait une vision plus profonde comme les empereurs légendaires l’avaient, et voulait guider une nation avec la philosophie, l’architecture inspirante, les œuvres d’art intemporelles et voulait mélanger et synchroniser tous les départements allant des affaires, l’économie, l’éducation, la science, la recherche, l’histoire et les arts pour créer le genre de civilisation éternelle comme il est souvent décrit dans la littérature mythologique qui tient le test du temps en marbre et pierre.

Les planifications d'Hitler

Plus important encore, Hitler semblait être d’avis que si une civilisation n’est pas en expansion, elle ne progresse pas et cela reflétait les qualités d’un conquérant, rappelant celles d’Alexandre le Grand ou encore Napoléon.

Alexandre Le Grand vainqueur du lion de Bazaria, sculpté par jacques Dieudonné

Image: Alexandre Le Grand vainqueur du lion de Bazaria, sculpté par Jacques Dieudonné, Jardin des Tuileries, 1er arrondissement, Paris | Source: Les Musées de la Vile de Paris

Aujourd’hui, des cadres pathétiques et médiocres qui dirigent une équipe qu’ils appellent un parti politique sont guidés par le seul désir de rester au pouvoir, et en raison de leur allégeance aux donateurs de leur parti, ils doivent respecter et satisfaire certaines demandes pour rester financés, cela détruit une civilisation car elle n’est pas dirigée avec la liberté et les valeurs qu’elle exige, et donc, cela conduit à une atmosphère mondaine d’une société statique et ennuyeuse où le même genre d’hommes agissent et parlent d’une manière noble en public, mais se comportent comme des personnages ignobles et immoraux dans leur décision et leur gestion – ce cycle est déprimant et répétitif depuis des décennies sans qu’aucun personnage légendaire ne semble se dresser contre une telle absurdité et changer les choses. Aujourd’hui, avec tant de conventions, il n’est guère possible pour un grand empire de prendre les choses en main et d’envisager l’expansion et la conquête à cause de croyances hypocrites d’égalité absolue de toutes les sociétés et langues et de politiques du tiers monde qui ont piégé les grands empires occidentaux comme la France en soumission et à genoux pour se conformer à des règles irrationnelles, les exigences ridicules et hypocrites qui l’ont contraint à respecter les conventions et l’ont progressivement transformée, lui et bien d’autres empires, en pépinières paralysées par les exigences des sociétés inférieures, alors qu’elle a toutes les ressources pour transformer le monde entier en colonies et mieux le gérer tout en donnant à tous les peuples de la Terre le rêve de faire partie de son patrimoine, comme le faisaient autrefois les grands empires.

Donc, pour conclure avec une réponse à votre question, je ne suis ni un fan d’Hitler, ni un haineux Hitler, mais un homme qui voit « Le Führer » comme l’une des grandes figures du siècle dernier avec des éléments à s’inspirer et des erreurs à apprendre à ne pas commettre aussi.

Enfin, j’aimerais souligner que si personne ne parle, rien ne change… alors j’ai choisi de parler, qu’avez-vous choisi de faire ?

 

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[EN] Answer to Question VI. « Are you a Hitler fan?”

 

I guess this question is being asked to me because I have often linked Hitler videos throughout my essays and writings.

Well, to begin I have never quite understood the term “fan”, because this seems to involve some form of obsession to a particular person. No, I have admired many people’s works and values, and if this qualifies me as being “fan”, then perhaps I am. “Admiration” for “some” aspects of many great men and women’s works throughout history – that makes me an admirer of amazing work with respect for the artist or creator. This extends to Adolf Hitler, whom I would say had many things right in regards to managing a civilisation, but not everything. He, or his advisors did make some mistakes like most humans do, that cost him and his regime everything.

So, I would say, I do admire a lot of Hitler’s philosophies and achievements such as the need to unite the people by ridding the country of the divisions of left, centre and right, while also critical of some of his proceedings, because after all he was a human being who only went by the reality of his era, while I am living in 2019 and today see things from another perspective because I am lucky to have inherited a great amount of knowledge and scientific findings that were not yet available in the times of Hitler. The advancement of technology has today made it possible to be extremely mobile since most of the major works and research are now available in digital form and this has made the world more connected without the absolute need to travel to ancient libraries to find academic resources, and in some way, we could be managing a team or a company in Europe from the Amazonian jungle, from a tree house in Mexico or a tent in Denmark, as long as we have high speed broadband and decent technology – imagine what Da Vinci would have achieved if he had those in his time!

To begin with the Hitler dossier, this cannot be a simple answer since there are many things to say and explain so that people from the world over may understand my views and also have an understanding of all the controversy surrounding the “Fuhrer”. While answering this question I will also refer to the “Organic Theory” in explaining human existence, adaptation and evolution and also refer to my own case as an assimilated Franco-British Western European fairly similar to the case of Hitler or Napoleon who were both also not natives from the society they led, but were assimilated, surprisingly it seems that the two most powerful leaders in Western Europe had to come from another land as if sent by fate to solve the problems of a civilisation that had no legendary leader with vision among their own natives, and received a leader who won his nativity and became more national than the natives themselves. Hitler was born in Austria, while Napoleon was born in Corsica, and perhaps surprisingly 7 years before the birth of the future Emperor of France, Rousseau said that Corsica would shake Europe.

I have to say that from a very young age I was fascinated with the reputation of Adolf Hitler because like the great majority we were all taught that he was the most-evil person to have existed throughout human history, and his murderous obsession with the genocide of the Jews was something no sane human could possibly justify. Being just like most of people who grew up in the late 80s to the late 90s, information was and is still mainly distributed through the mainstream majority Jewish owned media outlets, a time when the internet was still blooming – specially video streaming websites – so, I was forced to digest the only perspective available to me until of course 10 decades into the millennium where a tremendous amount of Hitler files that were buried started to surface all over the internet, giving the world a clearer perspective of the war and its economic, philosophical and religious implications from both sides of the argument.

There is also the great confusion, misinterpretation and gossip media fabrication that exists regarding Hitler’s supposed desire for world conquest and obsession with the assumed superiority of the Germanic Caucasian race, especially the Nordic subtype with blond hair and blue eyes being one that should in the long run replace all the other races who are not of German descent – such as many inferior Eastern European societies with a fair amount of Jews e.g. Poland and Russia, which he considered as cheap and inferior in culture, comparing them to minor animals – at least this is what the majority were told and made to believe. While the societies of Eastern Europe may not be as sophisticated as Western European societies, this assumption of inferior and superior subtype going only by genetic inheritance and physical attributes is not scientifically valid since we now know that organisms can be shaped with the right guidance and education to adapt to their chosen societies and this would have to be the case if an empire conquers and expands, and also that talent and genius, although very rare, can appear and have appeared from any corner of the earth in any society and of any organic composition, so a superior organism [intellectually or physically] can be born from any society and be part of any type of organic composition, not only the Nordic subtype of the Germanic Caucasian race, indeed even Mussolini who was another fascist and nationalist leader disagreed with Hitler on this Nordic subtype issue, and said that he did not believe in the superiority of just one particular subtype but in the overall quality of all subtypes, including the Mediterranean subtype with dark hair that creates a healthy mix among the nation.

However, the amplification of Hitler’s argument into a desire for extermination created a lot of confusion and which was further exaggerated and amplified by the mainstream gossip press mostly owned and managed by Jews to give the Hitler regime some bad publicity and worldwide hatred. As far as the recordings go, we only know of Hitler being focussed on national matters and clearly asking all other countries to leave him and Germany alone to focus on their own society and to be allowed to shape their society as they so wished since they inherited everything from their ancestors and wanted to preserve their society after having been given the authority to do so in democratic elections, and also keep the national German race “pure” [which of course made no sense because no race is pure since we are the result of migration, interbreeding and evolution from different subtypes and Hitler himself was the result of inbreeding between a man and his niece, the type of union that the man behind the theory of evolution, Charles Darwin was himself against along with marriage between cousins which he tried to make illegal by law due to the amount of deformities and disabled infants this led to and the dangerous genes this would spread].

So, to begin answering your question I will first say that Hitler was a firm patriot and a defender of the society and people he represented [not different from myself and my views for France and Western Europe in fact] and saw that to strengthen a country in more ways than one, the emphasis should first be on those who are part of, identify with and love the native people of the country, the latter being those who created the individual identity of the nation and those who represent the majority who drive the country and contribute to its functioning and continuation – this is a philosophy in line with the good management of a civilisation and my very own philosophy of the “Organic Theory” but only in part because the complete solution also involves taking into consideration the influx of talent and the evolutionary adaptation of other skilled organisms who also contribute to the maintenance and progress of the nation and who gained their nativity and completely identify with the nation, being a part of it.

Unfortunately, Hitler and his advisors exaggerated and misinterpreted the understanding of organic evolution and followed an atavistic and retrograde policy with a team who proceeded savagely, without carefully considering the fundamental logic that exist in all fields of life, which is that we have always had exceptions to the rules for exceptional cases – this applies to mathematics, arts, medicine, and science – which should also apply to any system deemed practical, modern and evolved. All organisms on this planet adapt and evolve from an organic and socio-linguistic standpoint, although not in equal measures and as I have said, if the laws of nature and evolution that contain all life on earth decided otherwise, then organisms from different organic compositions would not be able to procreate.

Hitler’s team was also composed of many traitors with fairly basic education who took murderous decisions that they hid from the “Fuhrer”, resulting in his downfall and the complete annihilation of his plans and system; towards the end they all placed the blame on one man as if Hitler had drugged a whole nation and hypnotised them into mechanical puppets – which is also clearly impossible without a nation’s faith, will and desire to go into the directions of his vision. It is also worth mentioning that up to this day, not a single recording or written message has been found of Hitler giving the go ahead for the extermination of any sort of people and what can today be concluded was that Hitler thought all societies and races should simply be nationalised so that all societies and races can better themselves similarly to the German Reich. On the issue of mass murder, the blame today according the facts that have been collected are mainly attributed to Göring and Himmler, the latter going by ancient Aryan scriptures of Hinduism believing himself to be acting like the great warrior Arjuna who was purging his people and the whole world from evil and who believed that in the long run people would see him as the mythological hero cleaning the earth of evil which to him were the Jews and their values being the cause of all human suffering on earth as they destroy other civilisations and bend and control the minds of the masses through their media businesses.

First of all, I will explain what I am critical of the Hitler regime before also explaining what I believe is admirable about the legend of Adolf Hitler as a leader and a human being on this planet. There are a couple of things that I sincerely think are not acceptable in today’s enlightened society of 2019, and Hitler would have built a stronger Reich if he was better advised into smarter policies regarding the management, maintenance and shaping of a productive and sophisticated population with strong patriotic sentiments and a sense of synchronisation and understanding. Hitler was not aiming to simply create a society of pink meat balls, but was a cultivated leader guided by philosophy, ethics, morals, dignity, values and arts.

It is fundamental to understand that at the time of Hitler, Germany was being taken over by communists who were methodically focussed in taking over Germany without any real sense of belonging to it, with the intention to simply turn it into a form of trading area and an economic backyard in Europe, similar to what the influential mainly Jew business geniuses have turned the United States into nowadays – a mechanised an industrialised society lacking a human touch and values, where selfish individualism has left everyone in a constant struggle to survive at whatever cost even if it means killing one another which is also common with firearms being legal there. The leaders of these communist groups in Germany at the time of Hitler were composed of a majority of foreigners which included many Jews. While the death count of Jews has been exaggerated and used to vilify Hitler, no major focus has been placed over the amount of horrific deaths that Jews caused in the Russian revolution and many revisionist historians have been claiming a much higher death count than the Hitler regime. However, it was clear that besides Jewish immigration and political influences from Jewish communists gradually weakening and corrupting German society, there was also a huge problem with the immigration of populations who were not native Germans. This implied that for a man like Hitler to achieve his dream of a strong, stable and modern Germany, the immigration issue would have had to be addressed, and being one with a vision of national focus and excellence, the offloading of excessive, incompatible and alien crowds who did not want to fully assimilate and become German citizens was something necessary to his vision.

However, there is no question also about the fact that Hitler should also have realised that there was a great amount of human beings who were highly talented and had completely assimilated in German society that had to be kept and treated as citizens who gained their nativity along with a strong sense of identification with the native crowd through their own adaptation and evolution. And since this was not the case, we ended up with World War II, many people dying in badly supplied detention camps after the allied bombed the connecting railways and disrupted food and hygienic supplies leading to an outbreak of typhus which killed thousands. Also many Germans who happened to have some distant link to the Jewish population where treated as criminals to be deported and this lead to an irrational operation that discarded people who were perfectly fit to be part of a functional society as today’s scientific standards have proven along with a proper interpretation of the theory of evolution: that we are organisms who can adapt and change identities to fit new environments if we make the choice and have the abilities and desire to do so.

The other side, was that of the superiority of the German people that Hitler was obsessed about and who in fact turned out to be fairly uncreative by not considering people who had part German inheritance and cultural affiliation as an example of a form of German conquest, as it was also a way for a civilisation to spread its genes further and wider, and encourage the people resulting from this blending to mix with the founding civilisation which would lead to their future lineage to share an even greater amount of German genes. In fact, if science and evolution along with the average superiority of the “Aryan Race” was what guided the policy of the National Socialist regime, then they should have also encouraged the widespread of the Aryan genome by encouraging the healthiest and finest men and women from the Aryan race to donate eggs and sperm and encourage couples to use healthy donors of the Aryan race in breeding children, and this service should have been offered to couples from all walks of life to prevent the creation of malformations and unhealthy organisms. This would have been a sophisticated and modern way of thinking of human evolution and societal evolution in a Hitlerian way. A way of saying is that to change their society biologically, one great way is to make sure that they have enough “cream tarts”. Because, I believe that after all, human beings should be given the freedom of their choice of partnership, which was not the case in the Reich; as native Germans who did not breed with native Germans were considered as traitors.

Hence, this form of extremism was one of the major doctrines that lead to so much hate and resentment to the Third Reich from a large amount of Germans themselves, leading to an allied army to work consistently to bring down the whole show, although the opposing side represented values of a society that were not any better in providing a solution to a harmonious civilisation but were mostly fuelled by hate, strong Jewish financial motives and the desire to cripple Germany at any cost, but mostly to bring down the charismatic and overly powerful Adolf Hitler, as it is often the case whenever a gifted man rises to the top and dwarfs his competition with his talent and magnetism. We can also find this happening to Napoleon, when the whole of Europe gathered all their forces to bring him down. This seems to be the case nowadays, as if society cannot accept that some organisms are superior to the mediocre majority. This seems hypocritical since we can all nowadays accept that we have superior food from a nutritional standpoint, superior computers, superior cars, superior football players, superior watches, superior cameras, superior guitars, superior pianos, superior horses, so, this should also apply to the human organism; meaning we do also have superior individuals with superior intelligence, and hence superior vision and managerial skills. It is important to also note that superior objects are always rare, and hence a minority, in fact, that is why they have immense value. If diamonds were as abundant as steel and steel was as rare as diamonds, then jewellery would be made of steel and diamonds would be used in construction. So, we seem to live in a world where the mediocrity of the masses seem to find it hard to accept that some individuals are superior as a whole, and instead of encouraging, learning from, being inspired by, and being proud of being led by such individuals, we seem to instead find a union of mediocrity trying whatever they can to bring those individuals down. This is something society has to work on globally, to nurture excellence! Respect and appreciation are after all words that exist in all dictionaries, and noble and cultivated beings know how to display them, and those who have never considered these values may try to learn, it certainly would turn them into more complete beings.

Getting back to the management of the population of Germany for a healthy, strong and stable nation, Hitler should have found a systematic form of “filtration”, involving forms of interview, health assessment, skill assessment & cultural assessment that analysed the whole segment of German population who were of foreign origin in whole or in part, and divided them into 2 groups: those that were fit, safe and synchronised with the German society to keep, and those that were a burden due to their inability to adapt and unwillingness to be German due to firm religious or foreign convictions to be diplomatically relocated to an environment and society more suited to their characteristics in the most respectful of ways. Those who were deemed fit for German society could even have been given a form of classification [subtype of the German society] if deemed necessary and should also have been made to swear allegiance and priority to their newly found identity and people which they should have respected if this is where they thought they belonged, otherwise it would be best for an individual to move and live in a society compatible with their heritage and with people they feel a part of, after all nowadays in 2019, income inequality has gone down and the world is becoming a more equal planet along with the technological advances that make life fairly similar from one part of the world to another. The organisms who assimilated could also have the right to 3 warnings before considering deporting them for not respecting their contract of allegiance after serious offences, and hence becoming “traitors” to the nation.

The filtration solution was not an easy one but was in fact a sophisticated solution that would have been more apt for a civilisation that was evolving and getting more complex decade after decade – we cannot expect easy solutions to suit a complicated civilisation. This was of course not the solution the regime opted for, but instead chose the fastest and easiest route to deport all Jewish, non-German and part-Jewish people which resulted in so much unnecessary suffering and misunderstanding, when many of these people were not even religiously affiliated to any religion and considered themselves more German that anything else, such as Sigmund Freud for example who was a product of the intellectual thought of the German tradition who later influenced psychology globally and Albert Einstein, another great man of science who was also without any religious sentiments, and had to flee to the United States.

It is also important to remember that the policies devised by the National Socialist regime also targeted all the people who were deemed as burden and unnecessary to the progress of the German society, which also led to many Germans being euthanised for genetic and other incurable diseases that was seen as impure to a healthy society and race, along with a lot of elderly people who were thought as unfit to live. So, this shows that even a great amount of Germans lost their lives, not only Jews and foreigners trapped in deportation camps during a heavy bombardment of German soils.

I find it also important to bring to the discussion here the fact that Hitler’s Germany was not some form of 100% pure native-German Caucasian only society where any other person found to be different were taken away, locked and shot. No… of course, Hitler was not such an idiot, and realised that he needed many foreign workers to complete the construction of his country [roads, buildings, etc] and indeed had many Eastern European and foreign workers on his construction sites, he also knew that the German economy should like all countries embrace tourism, and hence people of all kinds were allowed to visit Germany. Indeed, Hitler even hosted the Olympic Games where athletes from all around the world were present. Many modern historians who revisit World War II tend to leave out those details.

Hitler indeed wanted to concentrate on the Germans, but did realise that it was impossible to run a country without a fair share of foreign population that were fundamental. And this can be reflected nowadays in the example of Western Europeans’ absolute love for foreign cuisine, for example Chinese food or Indian food that they love to have at hand with the touch of a button. And using those examples to explain the logic, it would be impossible to provide quality Asian food to the European market without some people from these regions present to manage the distribution and ensure the quality of the food. This extends to Italian food, Mexican food, Greek and/or French cuisine. Another example would be the scientifically proven benefits of Yoga as a health discipline, that has been adopted by the French society and many other Western societies, similarly, it would be impossible to expect the widespread of the lifestyle if we did not have some of the founders of Yoga to instruct a generation, and it is without doubt that the experts would have to be from where the discipline originates, which is India, who would lead to the training of other experts from other parts of the world, this also applies to other disciplines such as Martial Arts which also originates from the Asian continent.

The point is that Western Europe is not a region like any other, because it is the birth place of some of the greatest intellectuals, thinkers and inventors who have had a major impact on the world, and this has also led to the best learning institutions in various fields being in Europe. This attracts some of the finest academics from all over the world who pay huge fees to study in those institutions, which also bolsters the economy of Europe and when this happens, it means that the government has more money to spend on its own people, system and infrastructures. When these top foreign scholars complete their studies, a great amount move back to their homeland but some are also employed as highly trained specialists and skilled workers in their fields by giants of the European business world in fields ranging from engineering to medicine. It is important to also realise that these people’s contribution lead to the progress of European institutions and their reputation. Hence, these skilled workers while not part of the cultural sphere or show business or the mainly Jewish-owned Hollywood industry, are sometimes part of the team who find a new invention, a new engine, a cleaner way of harvesting energy, a new cure, a new treatment, and where the world is dangerously heading at the moment with antibiotics becoming useless, who knows whether one among them will find the ultimate antibiotic, and if they do, this will lead to saving so many producers, composers, meso-sopranos, pianists, ballet dancers and painters, along with their loved ones and children throughout time from dying from petty infections such as Frédéric Chopin. So, it is important to also note that some things are bigger than outer beauty, but has more to do with the inner beauty of the mind reflected in intelligence and academic abilities.

The other scenario is that in many cases these skilled workers having spent so much of their life in the Western civilisation end up in a marriage with a wife from the countries they work, for example, skilled foreign doctors marrying their nurse, offering the latter a life that she never dreamt of. So, these are things that happen in the human world, and these minor blending of genes has always happened since the beginning of mankind, as I have repeatedly explained since our current breed is a result of movement across the plains of the earth, interbreeding and evolution. So, trying to stop such a force that has shaped our kind, seems like a fight against nature itself, hence it seems unnatural. The only thing that can be done is to guide people into a better understanding of their own society, its people and its identity along with its continuity and the efforts this requires from all its citizens – otherwise any system crumbles and disintegrates – and those who become part of a society should know that if they do not assimilate and become part of the people they will always live a mundane and incomplete existence, that could be compared to that of a rat. Minor cases of genetic fusion in some cases also adds highly talented genes to the gene pool of a civilisation since excellence may stem from any organic composition and when made part of a civilisation only strengthens it, because it spreads among the civilisation throughout time. The decent thing to do would be for the State to always control the amount of foreign people in the country by imposing a strict limit in relation to the native population, perhaps agree on a percentage that should never be exceeded, excluding university students.

Hence, the Hitler regime should have known that it was only going to fail and create a lot of resentment and hate by trying to separate human beings legally through rigid formalities and proof of genetic identity through obsolete ideas such as German genealogy as the National Socialist regime did. This is because, society had already evolved and many links had been made among people who married and had children, some of different religious faiths, origins and nationalities among the German nation. And these types of rigid rules that would expel those not conforming to them through genealogy and ancestry could only lead to families being separated and even many German individuals having their wife or husband deported, and when these scenarios happen, humans tend to fight to the death to save those who are dear to them. Hitler’s regime should have known that this kind of policy was doomed to fail.

What I believe would have instead worked, was an “informal” execution of the vision of a strong Germany. That is, Hitler should have created a society, focussed on German citizens – both natives and those who firmly assimilated and saw themselves as native Germans – with a strong German identity and sense of concern for the people and nation, while nationalising the industries and ensuring that the people at the top are completely dedicated without any other motive than the progress of the nation and have national values, humane dignity and understand the religious identity of the nation by favouring people with proven strong German sentiments. After doing this, the regime and the nation would automatically have generated a climate that would portray the vision of a strong nationalist Germany, with industries focussing on the German people, and without any formal policy of deportation and genetic screening, the people would have soon found themselves in a society that had been reshaped to reflect the values of a nationalist Germany, with pride in its history, people, culture and values without systematically attacking others. After this, the businesses that could not adapt would automatically close and leave if the authorities adamantly declared that no Jewish tradition will be tolerated on German soil and no person of the Jewish religion or community would be allowed to run any form of business except those who have given up on their Jewish identity and fully embraced German tradition with the official religion as optional. The people who wanted to remain in the National Socialist Germany would automatically evaluate their abilities and possibilities and would either force themselves to abide by the rules and embrace, develop and learn to be German citizens or leave. It would automatically have generated a sense of “adapt, perish or leave” logic in the minds of the population of Germany, which would have led to assimilated people of Germany to get closer and strengthen their links with the German native people to be part of the great vision of a Nationalist Germany, or they would have left due to their inability or refusal to adapt!

So, this is what I think should have been done, the ideas and vision of the National Socialist regime should have been applied informally and not formally through strict military regime, deportation camps, genealogy investigation, and the atavistic and unscientific claim of “blood”. Indeed, there is no such thing as “blood” as it is referred to in culture, blood is a liquid that runs in the veins of human beings, yet even family sometimes do not have compatible blood since they differ by group and sometimes need complete foreigners or individuals from a different society to donate blood to save the lives of others who are not related to them. So, this idea of “blood” should be carefully used and best suits metaphors in “culture and literature” than reality, since it seems to be used to explain loyalty, togetherness and relatedness through a similar nation, society, values and outlook. Using this example, I can today say that I have Franco-British blood running in my veins and that would work culturally, but medically it would not make much sense, since my blood will only be compatible to individuals of my blood group who may be from any part of the world and of any type of organic composition or society, as long as they are humans beings and not animals.

The last thing I also question in the Hitler regime situation is the true power of democracy in our times, yes! I mean, the people of Germany had voted for the National Socialists to come into power after clearly knowing their manifesto and ideas of a nationalist Germany without Jewish presence. Hence, I question whether if tomorrow I campaign and for example say – note that this is just an example, not a statement of intention – that I will make it illegal in the country to have any form of Islamic worship areas because we know from historical facts that it is a religion that has waged tremendous amounts of violent wars upon Western Classical civilisation and all other non-Muslim religions and is a cult of war, blood, conquest and domination by all means; and if I am elected, I guess I would be bombarded by allies and jailed for trying to do so! This means that even if a form of democratic referendum supported my ideas, all other conventions would prevent me from doing it, hence this seems to suggest that countries have lost their democratic power and cannot satisfy their own people anymore, and this should leave authorities out there with a lot to ponder about.

The other issue of cultural assimilation which involves becoming fully part of the nation requires embracing the cultural theme of the nation and this applies to individuals and their names. What I mean is that assimilating generally involves carrying a name in line with the society’s heritage, and many Jews understood that, unfortunately the rest still do not seem to understand that with a name like “Mangia Fazula”, “Okolo Sambaweh”, “Munjabar Sakalamaktoum”, “Soupovic Boringov”, “Adnan Sawey” or “Aharon Azriel” they will automatically be seen as outsiders in a country of Western Europe founded on Western Christian culture. So, people who want to be fully part of a nation through assimilation should also be intelligent enough to understand the cultural theme that also applies to names, along with the combination of physical fitness that simply eases the process and a mastery of communicative and behavioural patters and a strong sense of togetherness with the nation, while also accepting the religious identity of the nation even if this is optional – being a matter of spiritual connection and the sanctity of one’s soul and it is between the individual and his own conscience and “God” if he believes in him.

As for the strong Catholic rhetoric encouraged by Hitler and his regime towards the education of religion and values to the youth, it is somehow important to remember that Jesus Christ, the messiah who led to the foundation and widespread of Christianity was not born of European stock or speak French, German or English. Jesus Christ was born out of the population of Israel and spoke in Aramaic. Of course, he was not of Jewish faith, and the religious texts and inheritance of Christianity was translated to the Western languages to reach a wide public. Hence, this could have also been done to any other religion if it was the one to have been adopted and spread in Europe, e.g. Hinduism. If that was a scenario that took place, then all Hindu texts and hindus of Europe would sill be speaking and praying in their own European languages, not necessarily the native language of the gods, i.e. Hindi, since all the religious texts would have been translated into the respective languages of the European region. Similarly, modern day Christians of Western Europe do not speak Aramaic, the language that Jesus spoke.

The point is that as the Organic Theory explains the communicative patterns of human primates may vary from one region to the other, but creativity and IQ do not, and hence, once the legacy of humanity is translated into the appropriate language [communicative pattern], society should instantly be relieved in the ability to understanding one another. So linguistic synchronisation should be one thing that would appease a world in disharmony although values and religious beliefs will always separate groups, so the debate today towards a harmonious civilisation should certainly begin on the global language of humanity to adopt. A good example would be to see the commercial success and creative influence of the modern art form known as “manga” – which originates from Asia – on France and other Western European societies once they are dubbed into the right language.

And now, having spoken of the Organic Theory above, I would like to explain its application to a modern human civilisation along with individual organic evolution and assimilation, so that most non-academics and lay people reading this out there may have a clear vision of what assimilation is from an objective and rational standpoint and also what it involves and requires for an organism to consider whether it has the potential and requirements to assimilate in a particular society, and how it enhances a sophisticated society, and here, how it would have helped in the policy of Hitler to creating a modern Germany or any leader’s vision to creating a modern country.

When talking evolution, the evolution and fitness of everyone should be taken into consideration, because all forms of Homo Sapiens are evolving together on this tiny planet called Earth in ways that are so fast that the textbooks cannot hope to match and explain – hence the importance of resourcefulness and creativity from avant-garde thinkers gifted with fluid intelligence.

First of all I would like to address the issue of assimilation from the organic stand point and since I am a perfect example of the French school of thought along with a strong British side, I will be explaining this process using myself as an example. Now, I have inherited the knowledge, language, values and philosophies of the French empire and the language of the British empire through cultural transmission after these empires conquered lands and expanded their realm. So, I did not wake up one morning, suddenly speaking French and English while also knowing the history and literature of these languages. And if the tiny island that I was born was near Western Europe, it would be part of Europe, then I probably would not have to answer all those questions, because it would have been seen as a product of European civilisation with the simple difference that some of the people that constitutes its nation come with a variety of skin tones with many being high in colour and texture differing from the common majority of pale pink because of some blending that happened through the course of Western European conquest. Yet, this would not have been such an issue because there are many countries of Europe where the people are not as pale as the common majority, for example Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece – this is simply a slight similarity in physical attributes, not language, or anything else, so it would not make any sense to place those nations in one group! But, since the location of my birth is a place far from Europe geographically although born on Western European heritage, and I travelled to join the roots of my cultural inheritance in Western Europe since I am among the literary elites of new generation that was born in an independent republic with a new culture and educational system, language and French values, I feel that I am a good example to explain the process of assimilation from the Individual Organism’s perspective using my very own Organic Theory.

Now since I explained that the individual organism born on planet earth according to the laws of nature and evolution is free and is still evolving since evolution is a never-ending process. I will also bring to the attention of the public that according to the laws of nature, man-made barriers are not part of natural laws, they are simply barriers that have been erected by political groups. Hence, the individual organism is born on a planet and can adapt and change according to its abilities and its choice of environment. With today’s advancements due to technology and its accelerated learning facilities, organisms can learn and shape themselves linguistically and philosophically for the environment that they want to be a part of. However, there are some limits to this process too, as a high level of proficiency in terms of behavioural and communicative patterns will be required for an organism to assimilate perfectly with a chosen environment and be seen a complete part of it while being synchronised with the natives. For example, I had inherited the communicative, behavioural and social patterns of France and England, these were embedded in me and I also made the choices to deepen my understanding of these societies through my educational choices and from a very early age always intended to pursue my career and end my life in Western Europe: France and England. This means that I invested a lot of effort in redefining myself as a Franco-British Western European because nothing happens to anyone without sacrifice, work and dedication.

The point now is to explain that for an individual organism on earth to consider assimilating into a chosen environment, it is not an easy process, but comes with immense challenges and sacrifices. If we are to become part of a new society, we will not be able to do it by remaining who we are, but we will have to reshape our selves and adapt to the society and strive to become one with its people, and in some ways see them as one’s own “blood”- metaphorically. Furthermore, there is also the issue of fitness, which has nothing to do with “beauty” but rather the ability to blend in with the organisms of this society through some form of physical synchronisation. This is only one part and not the sole factor that defines assimilation but it is one factor that eases the assimilation process, although it is not everything. For example, using the organism that I am, I was born with an Indo-European heritage and although I may be slightly less pale that the average majority of organisms from the Western European sphere, I still have more physical similarities with these people since they are also of Indo-European heritage and of what is also known as the “Aryan Race”. What I am trying to say is that I chose a society where assimilation was achievable because there were strong links in my own genetic, linguistic and cultural heritage with those countries: I spoke the language, read the literature, knew the history, sang, played and listened to the music, share the same religion and studied and understand the philosophies of its greatest minds. So, this means that the organism that I am had all the chances of assimilating in the Western European sphere of both France and England.

This may not have been as easy if for example I decided to assimilate in the Negro civilisation of Africa because to begin with the physical fitness between the organism that I am and the Negro people is incredibly far from each other; but even more, I do not have any links with Negro culture, languages, history or philosophy. This does not mean that it would be impossible, but it would have been very hard due to the difference in civilisation and ways of living.

Since we are on the negro topic, if in the 1950s a person had made the statement that negroes are an inferior race and heritage, people around may have said that the man is biased and racist. Yet, this is not implying that every single negro is inadequate or unskilled, of course we do have some great negroes who excel in mostly physical disciplines such as sports and a couple of others who have become professors in specific fields. But what it is generally implied through the statement that “negroes are an inferior race” seems to suggest that on average, meaning that if we took all the negroes and averaged their achievements and compared it to all other civilisations, we will come to the fact that they are lagging behind in everything, hence the term “inferior”. Nowadays, if we look at all the statistics globally concerning the negro people, we will see that indeed they are behind all other civilisations. Yet, every time this topic surfaces, we suddenly see all the mainly Jewish owned media, suddenly throwing all the singular negros in the United States that have made money; we see basketball players, rappers will grills in their mouth, and all the other negroes that have succeeded financially through the Jewish-owned media industries of the United States. Hence it is once again, not the point, because I am not saying that all negroes are inferior, but simply pointing to the fact that on “average” the negro civilisation is inferior to all other civilisations on planet Earth. And if this is not enough, they are also physically incredibly unique in terms of features and traits compared to all the other civilisations on Earth, which makes them a conundrum in matters of assimilation into any culture. So, for me, the negro people should take this into account and with the developed world that we now live in and with technology making the world a much more connected place that makes life fairly similar on any part of the Earth, I firmly believe that they should start uniting and organising themselves to bridge the gap with the rest of the world and consider the development of the African continent where they would all find enough space to live. The world has been very charitable to negro causes, but it is time for them to start helping themselves. The other point with negro people is that they too are fairly similar to Jews when they move to other societies, they are generally focussed on negro matters and negro people, they are a group of people who are more focussed on expanding their numbers in a country that is not theirs, rather than focussing on the national matters and the native people, this is not assimilation and if it is not, it is not beneficial to any system. So, once again from the Organic Theory’s perspective, this only generates and creates more problematic organisms that are not part of a system and that has problems with assimilation due to immense differences in organic composition, behavioural patterns, goals and outlook and only leads to slowing and weakening any system. In 2019, it seems fair to explain what true assimilation is, and also with the world more developed, more equal and more connected, to guide those who cannot or do not want to assimilate by explaining them how organisms sharing similar organic compositions, values, culture, vision and history have all the factors to create harmonious societies by being together. Negroes and Jews should both consider this, and perhaps meditate on whether they would be happier in a society composed of their own kind, which may generate less tension and a feeling of being at home in a negro or Jewish atmosphere reflecting their beliefs and rituals. Because, the Western civilisation is far from perfect and also has its own problems to tackle, its own people and matters of management to be focussed and if the nation has a crowd that is not focussed in contributing to this it only worsens the problems.

We do sometimes see people of the Western crowd comparing themselves to members of third world crowds and foreign tribes to generate a fake sense of superiority. I would like to remind people that this by no means leads to the betterment of their lives. The Western society has a lot of problems that are deeply rooted and cannot be perceived with the naked eye from the surface, since it is a society that seems in love with packaging everything neatly, but being an intellectual who studied psychology, I can confidently say that there are immense problems in the West regarding the cultivating of minds for the betterment of our lives. Many people are sick in their minds and do not realise it and tremendous amounts of work remains to be done is fixing mentalities and instilling values for a harmonious and healthy society. People who do not assimilate generally do not have these matters at heart and tend to simply park themselves in Western Europe for an income while remaining foreign in their identities. These people should understand that if they are not assimilating, they should not expect to be treated as the organisms that are native and are fully part of the system because the system relies on its organisms for its continuity and existence, and this will also happen to their children if they are raised on foreign beliefs, identity and values that are incompatible with the nation they live in.

People who are in the west as highly skilled workers and do not want to assimilate should clearly classify themselves as temporary organisms who do not intend to stay forever and accept the life of a foreigner and the burden that goes with it, because I am not saying that the natives are perfect or that all of them are superior since we do have classes and different levels of education in all societies, but what I am repeating is that the problems of the West need contribution and concern from its population to be resolved and those who do not contribute are not helping to make life better for themselves and the country – natives and non-natives alike. This is of course not a problem for tourists who are only visiting for photos and return to their countries after the trip is over – no problems.

Now having spoken of the example of me trying to assimilate in the negro civilisation, a similar situation would be faced if for example I decided to assimilate in the Eastern Asian sphere, since the differences both physical and cultural are immense, and although not impossible, it would come with huge hurdles with such differences that would make it a hard task for me to be seen as a member of their societies in line with their very own natives – and there is no point discussing the further hurdles with huge differences in eating, behavioural, communicative and living patterns.

As a third example, a similar situation would occur if I chose to assimilate in India, because although they might be related to the Indo-European people, they are clearly a distinct civilisation that split and gained their very own communicative and behavioural patterns, which I do not know a single word of and do not understand or handle, to make things even worse I also do not particularly look typically Indian or have blatant Indian physical traits even if some may share an olive skin tone and to finish off, they are a predominantly Hindu civilisation which is reflected throughout their culture and artwork, while I am a Christian deeply embedded in the artistry of the French civilisation and Western Europe.

The fourth example, would be myself trying to assimilate in a Muslim civilisation, of Algeria for example. Once again, I would not be able to, because I do not speak the language, reflect the values, believe in Islam and finally, my outlook and lifestyle is completely incompatible with the cultures of the Muslim world.

Hence, if I was to be thrown in India, Eastern Asia, Africa or a Muslim society looking in the eyes of these organisms to me would be like looking into the eyes of a deer, which I believe is a very good metaphor that I am using here to describe a completely ignorant creature partly because of its innocence since it has never been thrown into and will never have to know the agonising and non-stop drama of having to solve the problems of the supposedly modern world of the western civilisation while constantly having to endure the insecurity and pettiness of “some” of the vilest and immoral cannibalistic reptilian-like public figures dressed in suit whom no one with a sane mind and enough insight would ever want to introduce to their close ones or have over for dinner once they discover the truth about the limitless possibilities of their savagely hedonistic depth and immoral and rotting dark minds. In fact, as a literary elite, I believe this feeling of always being surrounded by deer of all colours, shapes, sizes and origins in most places, all over the Earth from the West to the East, must be shared among other literary minds, because most organisms simply exist, while literary people into fields such as psychology and philosophy have to carry the burden of thinking for society and it is a huge moral task that comes with a lot of pressure and responsibility, while rarely being able to connect with the simple minds we sometimes come across on our meditative road, which only leaves us with the option of either smiling, or saying something insignificant and sweet, such as talking about the weather.

So, getting back to the issue of physical synchronisation, as I have repeated, physical fitness [which has to do with slight similarities and not “beauty” as it is commonly believed] only helps and eases the process of assimilation but is only a shallow indication of belonging, since the depth of an individual is an even more defining point, because the true worth of an organism lies in the mind, the outlook and the values. To further this logic, I will give the example of a few other pale skinned organisms from some societies who despite their deceivingly similar tone are absolutely incompatible with the society of France, so it is not because they blend deceptively by giving a surface impression of being part of the majority through their skin tone that it means they are perfectly adapted to assimilate, because they do not reflect the linguistic heritage, the values, the founding philosophies of individual freedom, the Christian thought that shaped the civilisation even if they are not religious, and the receptive and human character of France.

A good example would be to consider Jews, Eastern Europeans, Russians or some segments of the Syrian population who happen to share a paler skin tone. Now I am not saying that these people are animals or that they should be exterminated, so please do not see my observations as discriminatory! What I am saying is that to “assimilate” in a sophisticated civilisation requires more than only physical fitness, it is not simply a matter of accepting “Big pink sausages” as Christian Clavier termed it in the mini-series “Napoléon” by Yves Simoneau in 2002, because we are not simply trying to create a society that has no structure, with the only defining point being a pale skin tone and then to flood the society with uncivilised pink balls of meat for the photo… no! Only the mainly Jewish-owned Hollywood Industry seems to see things that way! This may be fairly sufficient for an escort agency, a strip bar, to work as ladies of leisure or meet the criteria as sex workers, but apart from these businesses, a society requires more from its citizens, and here organisms with a sense of belonging and responsibility along with the appropriate behavioural and communicative patterns and names that fit the thematic sphere to be in complete synchronisation with the requirements of the society – so physical fitness is not enough but it simply eases the assimilation process especially among the common brains that do not think.

Indeed, the Jews have long used this visual illusion to blend among those they quality as “gentiles” or “Goy” of the European sphere, the non-Jews who according to their scriptures are inferior beings who were born to serve the Jewry and that can, according to their religious texts, be treated as animals and even killed if necessary. This is simply a factual observation of what is written in the religious texts of Jews. These are scriptures that have shaped the thought of Jewish societies since ancient times, and it is a fact that people should be aware of to understand the leading train of thought of a particular group, it is important to know the facts of the scriptures that shaped them, their values and outlook and why a great deal of their industries bleed civilisations dry of all their humanity. Indeed, using their paler skin tones to spread and hide among the Christian Western European civilisation, they have often throughout history had an easier ride, and when they change their names to adopt Christian ones in the process of blending in, it is sometimes hard to differentiate a great amount of them from the native people of the Western European civilisation that was born out of Christian thought and artistry.

The issue with Jews is that although they blend, act, dress and name themselves as the natives of the European nations they move to, they always clearly classify themselves as Jews, and focus on the betterment of other Jews, and work systematically together in business to further the interests of Jews, and even have worldwide conventions among Jews, and parade the achievements of Jews with pride. If we notice all foreign groups do this, except Western Christians who seem to prefer killing each other and live a life of selfish hedonism.

Yet, what these foreign groups do is not assimilation, but simply blending and integrating to systematically dominate a society or system, and Jews have been known to methodically and skilfully do this in many European countries throughout history, along with violent religious sacrifices to their blood thirsty gods that involve the sacrifice of Christian children, which they have done over the years throughout European history, with many mutilated corpses of young Christian children found across Europe drained of all their blood. This is why the Jews are the only group who throughout human history has been persecuted and banned from so many countries. Yes, many people do not know these facts since most people are without any choice but to take their information from Jewish owned mainstream media industries, so learn something new here!

The Hitler regime was not the first regime to ban and persecute the Jews, the Jews have even been banned from England in 1290 by Edward I, and also in 1306 from France by Philippe IV and these are only 3 examples. The Jews have been banned throughout a wide range of societies they moved to due to their insolence, their disrespect to the nation and the values of their heritage that encouraged the systematic destruction and enslavement of all non-Jewish civilisations, their habit of monopolising press business to distort perception and also their occult and violent rituals involving the killing of young Christian children to offer their blood to their violent pagan God, Baal from which the term “Holocaust” itself derives – which involved throwing people to their death in a burning Tophet. In fact, Jews have been banned in a wide range of countries since 1200 B.C until 2014 where they have recently been banned from Guatemala, which leads to about 3213 years of constant persecution and bans from countries they migrated to. In fact, they have been banned from Carthage, Rome, Egypt, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Hungary, Belgium, Austria, Netherlands, Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania, the Baltic States, and Russia to name a few. If people want to know the full list, they can use the internet and search “Countries where Jews were banned/expulsed”.

Now, we can ask ourselves a few simple questions here, which is “Could all the people who have banned the Jews be without any reason to do so?” and “Could people simply walk around and suddenly without any reason decide to hate Jews?” and also “If this has happened to them for so many years, is it not likely that the problem is in fact with the Jews themselves?” I believe it is best to leave the audience to answer these questions and reflect on them alone.

I would like to make it clear, that I am talking of the Jew mentality and train of thought as a whole, but I am not saying that every single Jew is evil or has nothing to offer to the societies they move to. Of course, there are some amazing, admirable and loveable individuals who completely assimilate, and even give up their Jewish identity and convert to Christianity, or become atheists. There are of course, some decent people of Jewish heritage who become fully citizens of their new societies, speak for the natives and see themselves as part of the nation, and this can be seen in France, where some have become more French that the natives and have embedded themselves in the heart of the nation. However, this concerns a very tiny minority of Jews who after doing so, often see foreign Jews as inadequate for France because they see themselves as part of the French people and understand the religious identity of the country being Christianity. However, the majority of Jews do not follow the example of the noble ones who assimilate, instead they remain distinct and work for their Jew comrades and organisations while embracing their values and beliefs of circumcision and superiority.

The fact that all foreign organisms need to grasp is that to be part of the Western European civilisation, means accepting the fact that Christianity is part of the founding culture, and while many people are not religious, it cannot be ignored that the whole history, inheritance and literature were founded by Christian men and women with some not being religious but who were undeniably directly and indirectly influenced by Christian thoughts and inheritance and this can be reflected in the large amount of allegory and metaphors related to the bible in the literature. It is also an immense coincidence that right at the same period when I am answering your questions that the Notre Dame cathedral has been mysteriously struck by a fire on the 15th of April 2019, some may see it as a sign of the foundations of a civilisation burning – and coicidences with my life are today not suprising anymore to me. When hasard multiplies coincidences, it is not hasard anymore.

In fact, to be fully assimilated means giving up on one’s foreign identity and embracing the new society’s history, language, linguistic theme, nation and religion as an added option if possible. Jews should reflect on this: the fact that Western Europe is a Christian civilisation, just like Israel is a Jewish society and the Arab states are a Muslim civilisation, with the governments of the latter two countries taking religion as a serious matter of culture without ever compromising on religious priorities and necessities over any other foreign religion. Indeed, in many Arab states, the crucifix as a symbol of Christianity is banned and illegal, and they make no excuses for it, because they are firm Muslims and this is embedded in the fabric of their government and culture. To further this example, it is also ridiculous that the Grand Cross of the National Order of the Legion of Honour which is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte, was given to the Sultan of Brunei in 1997, a man who recently instated a new penal code that applies the sharia – Islamic law – as strictly as possible: death by stoning to punish homosexuals and adultery, amputation of a hand or foot for thieves, death penalty for insulting the prophet. Being Jewish or Muslim will always portray oneself as a person with foreign values derived from the history and values of those religions that are for the most incompatible with those of Western European civilisation.

When people who have the ability to assimilate choose to do so, they should first find their place in the new society based on their skills, abilities and profession. Tremendous efforts and proofs of assimilation will be required of them and this normally starts with a Western name of Christian culture. People who do not assimilate fully, rebuild and reshape themselves and adopt a completely new identity should always remember that they are not at home and should not expect the same treatment as those who are – this is a simple question of common sense. Those who assimilate properly will automatically become part of the native people and share an existence with similar opportunities, because they have become natives through their efforts and decision to be loyal and dedicated to their new society and its people, by respecting the founding heritage and religious sensibilities, and of course by mastering the behavioural and communicative patterns. This does not mean that after assimilating, they have to be subservient and cannot make a critical observation to help develop the country and push it forward, but their allegiance should be to the nation and the native people because they should consider themselves as part of that people. The objective after all is to create loyal citizens with a strong sense of concern for the society, not slaves! Natives too should learn to act like human beings and adopt the values of decency to understand that a society works better when the population is in harmony and happy while seeing genuinely and propery assimilate citizens as their own “blood” even if these cases are extremely rare.

So as the Organic Theory explains, another factor is more fundamental than physical fitness for assimilation as we can see using Jews as an example to explain that similarity in skin tone is hardly anything except a tiny factor that helps with the majority who rarely think. The most important and defining part of assimilation concerns handling the appropriate behavioural and communicative patterns of the society that the organism wants to fully be a part of. For successful and complete assimilation, organisms need to also embed the philosophy, understand the heart of the people according to their history, master the language, feel at one with the nation, feel the joy and pain of the people and also be able to use the term “us” to describe themselves and the natives; in other words see the people as their own “blood”, and this is how it is done in the most sophisticated civilisation, i.e. France, where the people are willing to love you and see you as their own blood if you show the genuine desire to be part of the people and loyalty to the nation.

Assimilation unfortunately is not easily achieved and this is why assimilation should not to be confused with integration, because integration is simply the acquisition of a passport for legality; but assimilation is sculpting one’s heart and soul to be one with the people and be part of the national blood through loyalty and dedication while playing one’s part as a citizen with civic duties. Indeed, in Ancient Greece, all members of society who did not partake in communal matters or get involved and take interest in matters concerning the running of the country and the harmony of the people were seen as “parasites”, and this includes all citizens – natives and non-natives alike – because all societies need its people to work together to address its problems and follow the never-ending course of positive change for the betterment of a civilisation.

In France, most people understand that being a citizen is like a duty, and hence until today they are the only civilisation who stood up for the brotherhood of mankind as individuals to be treated with respect, they are among the rare civilisations who listen to the opinions of the people and give the praise of an emperor to a common man if they feel the man has the grandeur in his arguments and deserves so – we know this from the legend of Napoléon – and finally the French people are one of the most receptive people who are always willing to reason with new arguments in the noblest of ways no matter who the arguments are from. In fact, France is the least atavistic and most sophisticated civilisation of the modern world, and to achieve such a glorious task without a monarchy is amazing – it shows that when people see themselves as one and treat each other with respect while having a sense of moral and dignity, they embody an empire together, without or with an emperor – the head with a crown being simply an option if needed and deemed ingenious enough to guide a conquering civilisation, but not a necessity!

To achieve this sense of harmony requires organisms that can find a strong sense of synchronisation as a people and see themselves as a nation and also feel each other’s pain and glory to reason as one. Of course, just like any society on earth, we do find some bad apples, and corrupt and immoral statesmen along with petty arguments, especially among the minor classes, but as a whole, it is a society that was built on values and philosophies devised to foster the development of human beings where any individual can rise to the very top through his or her own desire, efforts and dedication. The unfortunate thing is that as time passes, and the passionate generation who were part of the foundation of this new world dies, these values sometimes fade in the minds of the new generation and the mediocre “Fisher Price” statesmen it has given us and it is great men and women with admirable character that throughout history have had the courage to stand up, speak and remind the nation of the number of people who fought and lost their lives for the society we now have and the need to push in the same direction to continue on the route of human progress.

So now to finish off, having already spoken of what I thought was not well planned in Hitler’s regime, along with a fairly deep explanation of the Organic Theory and assimilation, here are the couple of things that are inspiring with Hitler’s story, and it starts with the great example the German people set at the time in terms of giving power to the deserving individual by showing the world that a failed artist could rise to the very top of a modern society. Which means that we eventually saw a financially challenged boy who was the top of his class in primary school who then failed to kickstart his artistic career after failing an exam to one of the finest art school in Western Europe, the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, and then through his own efforts after being homeless and struggling through the war, rise to the very top. This to me shows absolute social mobility, but also how a man can be an artist, a soldier, and a cultivated man through his own efforts to then lead a modern civilisation and rise to the very top. This to me is a clear modern example of the Organic Theory on the process of self-definition and progressive development of an individual organism based on his/her own desires and abilities.

The second amazingly inspiring side to the story of Hitler is how he gave the world an avant-garde example of the answer to a harmonious environment; by being a vegetarian who was the first to initiate animal protection laws.

The third admirable side to Hitler was his charisma and his loyalty to his society, but also his modesty and confidence with people of all walks of life, being the only public figure of his level to freely walk around his country and meet the crowd from all walks of life and classes without any protection, while also gaining their absolute trust to guide them.

The fourth side to Adolf Hitler was that he had style in his taste in architecture for his country as we can today find through the blueprints he devised along with Albert Speer. We can imagine what would have been the future Germany and Berlin. These plans reveal buildings and plans of a city that reflected the grandeur of mankind and even the uniforms of his staff were contracted to Hugo Boss – showing a man who revered perfection. And if we take a look at the uniforms and the suits of the National Socialist government, we may have to accept that they were some of the sharpest and best-looking suits ever seen throughout modern history, perhaps only matched by French couturiers such as Yves Saint Laurent.

The fifth amazing side with Hitler was his love for science and evolution and his passion to keep an updated perspective of all the latest discoveries. So, it would be fairly biased to assume Hitler to be a rigid man who had no taste for change. This can be reflected is his eagerness to foster research in order to rebuild Germany’s medical, technological and military facilities. This also adds to my view that Hitler would have been willing to listen to new discoveries and shift his opinions accordingly if advised and convinced by genuine, avant-garde and honest people – he should have consulted me. Haha! But of course, the close entourage of the Fuhrer was not particularly composed of the most ethical of minds or the most sophisticated where many turned out to be disloyal and evil, which likely led to the horrors of the regime without any link to Hitler himself.

The sixth admirable thing about Hitler, is the fact that he was a leader who really saw people as organisms requiring the similar chances to succeed and rise and not as a crowd to be divided into segments of left, right and centre. Hitler saw all his citizens as people of his system and worked to synchronise the whole society to work as one machine. This is certainly admirable in comparison to the corrupt and immoral people at the head of most systems today where the criteria used to govern human beings are economic and business factors. To run a civilisation of human beings without values, philosophy and morals is a sure way to fail in the long run because human beings are not objects or goods, but are complex organisms that require a very sensible system to live harmoniously, and any person who calls himself a leader and does not understand psychology, philosophy and the elements that lead to a modern harmonious human environment are fooling themselves and lying to society. It is also to be remembered how Hitler even proposed to dismantle the German military and destroy all weapons if all other countries did the same, which they never responded to. So, we now understand why Hitler was even paraded as person of the year by Time magazine, and it could not possibly be for turning Jews into minced meat. And the other enigmatic question is why so much today is being spent on defence and military when it is clear that we are a lonely civilisation on a lonely planet that should be looking to extend its reach by starting a new civilisation on a backup planet to gain the status of a space civilisation? Do these parties spending so much on military equipment and technology only have defence and nothing else in the back of their perhaps unconscious minds? Is it simply for decoration?

The seventh inspiring thing about Hitler is that he was not a native German, but just like me, fully assimilated in German society and to also win the heart of a whole nation and rise to the very top and eventually become more Germans that the Germans themselves, is something quite spectacular. Perhaps, another admirable thing was Hitler’s reply in a court proceeding after his failed coup against the state to take power, where he responded after being asked if he was German by asking whether this is proved on a piece of paper or in a man’s heart; because although he had already won the heart of the nation, he still did not have a German passport. In his early years in Germany as he struggled financially and was homeless, he was also told by some Germans that he looked like a Jew and that they thought he was one, to then overcome all this to rise to the top is quite frankly admirable.

The eighth, and final point that I believe is inspiring with Hitler is that he did not seem to have seen things from the perspective of the regular average exec, economist, banker, doctor or other financially motivated executive who tend to claw their way in a political party just to appear on television or newspaper without any presence, greater vision or strong values and see a civilisation as a store to manage. Hitler had a deeper view like legendary emperors had, and wanted to guide a nation with philosophy, inspiring architecture, timeless artworks and wanted to blend and synchronise all the departments ranging from business, economy, education, science, research, history and arts to create the kind of timeless civilisation as it is often depicted in mythological literature that stands the test of time in marble and stone. Most importantly, Hitler seemed to be of the opinion that if a civilisation is not expanding then it is not progressing and this reflected the qualities of a conqueror, reminiscing of those like Alexander the great or Napoleon. Nowadays, pathetic and mediocre execs who lead a team that they call a political party are guided by the sole desire to stay in power, and because of their allegiance to donors to their parties, they need to abide and meet some demands to remain funded, this destroys a civilisation because it is not being managed with the freedom and the values that it requires, and hence, this leads to a mundane atmosphere of a static and boring society where the same kind of men act and speak in a noble way public, but behave like ignoble and immoral characters in their decision and management – this has been a depressing and repetitive cycle for decades now without any legendary character appearing to stand against such absurdity and turn matters around. Today, with so many conventions, it is hardly possible for any great empire to take matters into their own hands and consider expansion and conquest because of hypocritical beliefs of absolute equality of all societies and languages along with third world policies that have trapped great empires of the West such as France into submission and onto its knees to comply with irrational, ridiculous and hypocritical demands that bound it to comply with conventions and gradually has today transformed it and many other empires into nurseries paralyzed by the demands of inferior societies, when it has all the resources to turn the whole world into its colonies and manage it better while giving all the people on Earth the dream of being part of its heritage, like great empires once did.

So, to conclude with an answer to your question, I am neither a Hitler fan, nor a Hitler hater, but a man who sees “The Fuhrer” as one of the great figures of the last century with elements to be inspired by and mistakes to also learn from.

Finally, I would like to point out that if nobody speaks, nothing changes… so I chose to speak, what did you choose to do?

 

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QUESTION VII.

[FR] – Qui est votre leader préféré de tous les temps et pourquoi ?

[EN] – Who is your all-time favourite leader and why?

 

[FR] Réponse:

 

Après avoir beaucoup réfléchi et éliminé d’une liste constituée de Chirac, Sarkozy, Hitler, De Gaulle et Napoléon Bonaparte, j’ai dû choisir ce dernier, l’Empereur du peuple français, car il s’avère être un des leaders les plus énigmatiques jamais vu dans l’histoire de l’humanité. Je crois que l’humanité n’a pas eu de dirigeants de ce calibre depuis. Nous avons eu surtout des cadres médiocres qui sont devenus chef de partis politiques et ont joué avec la civilisation jusqu’à ce que leur temps passe, tout en faisant le maximum pour assurer une retraite financièrement confortable et assez de photos encadrées avec des célébrités pour les accrocher à leurs murs.

Avant d’en arriver à Napoléon, je dois dire qu’il y a quelques personnalités publiques assez décentes qui avaient des éléments à leur sujet que je trouve inspirants. Nous avons l’ancien président français Chirac, qui, je crois, avait une personnalité incroyablement charismatique et magnétique, qui incarnait également la joie de vivre française et qui avait une touche de jeunesse éternelle dans son caractère, et cette touche d’humanité est admirable car je crois qu’être humain est un facteur fondamental pour gérer les autres humains. Chirac aimait la foule et était à l’aise avec les gens de tous les milieux tout en ayant un grand sens de l’humour.

Un autre président français que je trouve également inspirant est Nicola Sarkozy, qui est aussi un grand exemple d’assimilation et quelqu’un qui a également rencontré de nombreux obstacles dans ses premières années en tant que fils de Hongrois et petit-fils d’un Juif mais qui a finalement tout surmonté pour se prouver comme un vrai français qui avait la France dans son cœur. Sarkozy est aussi celui qui inspire les autres à s’élever, contrairement à beaucoup de personnalités égoïstes d’aujourd’hui qui, une fois à l’intérieur d’un parti, semblent rendre la vie plus difficile aux jeunes générations, qui sont les figures marquantes de demain.

Hitler aussi a été un cas de grande assimilation et après avoir parlé de ce que je trouve inspirant à son sujet ci-dessus, je pense que nous pouvons passer au dernier, qui est Charles de Gaulle.

Juin 1958, l’Assemblée donne les pleins pouvoirs à De Gaulle

Ce dernier, pour moi, est un grand exemple d’un homme qui savait ce qu’il voulait et qui avait une grande vision d’une civilisation avec une modestie exemplaire et qui ne se noyait pas égoïstement dans le luxe mais pensait à l’Etat et au peuple avant son propre confort. L’autre chose admirable de Gaulle, c’est qu’il a gagné la confiance de la France pour diriger librement comme un monarque et est peut-être aujourd’hui connu comme le dernier « roi démocratique de France ».

Le dernier avant Napoléon est Alexandre le Grand, qui fut la seule personne d’origine européenne à avoir presque conquis le monde, de la Grèce au fleuve Indus. C’était un général et un explorateur qui était aussi incroyablement cultivé de ses enseignements par le grand Aristote qui lui a enseigné la science, la philosophie, la littérature et les techniques de combat – toutes les compétences nécessaires pour un futur grand leader.

Aristote instruisant Alexandre le Grand et ses camarades

Image: Aristote instruisant Alexandre / Alexandre le Grand (2011) . Arte

Dès ses premières années, il a enduré un père incroyablement exigeant qui s’attendait à ce qu’il ne soit jamais faible et qu’il soit le plus grand dans tous les domaines. Alexandre avait soif de connaissance et était inspiré par le modèle grec et voulait être le meilleur comme Achille, le héros légendaire de la mythologie grecque à qui son père avait dit que pour se comporter comme un homme, il devait toujours être le meilleur et avoir un meilleur jugement que les autres.

Alexander the Great

Après avoir été enseigné par Aristote pendant 3 ans, Alexandre a dit qu’il aimait Aristote comme un père et si son père biologique lui a donné la vie, c’est Aristote qui lui a montré comment vivre. Ce dernier lui raconta comment l’empire perse s’étend jusqu’à la fin du monde jusqu’en Inde, et comment leur roi a envahi la Grèce il y a environ 100 ans, détruit toutes les villes, pris Athènes et brûlé l’Acropole avant que les Grecs s’unissent et chassent les Perses. Aristote a dit à Alexandre comment les Perses sont une menace permanente avec leurs troupes amassées aux portes de la Grèce et qui avaient le tombeau du valeureux Achille encore dans leurs mains, et que le rêve de la gloire éternelle réside dans l’acte d’unir les Grecs et de poursuivre les troupes persanes comme cela serait l’acte d’un héros. Son père lui a dit qu’il devrait trouver un empire à sa taille puisque la Grèce est trop petite.

Alexander

Image: Alexandre le Grand (2011) . Arte

Après avoir commencé à conquérir la Perse, il vainquit l’armée de Darius en surnombre et fit prisonniers la mère, la femme et les sœurs, et dans un acte de chevalerie il leur promit même qu’elles seraient traitées avec respect et qu’aucun de ses hommes ne serait impuni s’ils ne respectaient pas les femmes perses à la colère et à la frustration d’un de ses généraux les plus proches et talentueux, Philotas. Il a même dit à ce derniers qu’après leur bravoure et leur victoire héroïque contre l’armée perse, comment pourraient-ils se comporter en lâches avec leurs femmes ? Alexandre a continué son exploration et a presque pris le monde avec de nombreuses villes, y compris Babylone le recevant comme un libérateur – il voulait surpasser ses ancêtres. Aujourd’hui, son héritage est présent en politique aux côtés des légendes et de la littérature. Il envisageait un empire universel où les sociétés auraient une administration autonome et pourraient coexister pacifiquement sous un gouvernement impérial. Alexandre n’a pas seulement conquis le monde, il a changé le cours de son histoire pour toujours.

Mais mon chef préféré de tous les temps est Napoléon. Napoléon pour sa grandeur en presque tout et sa présence motivante et inspirante qui a touché des hommes et des femmes du monde entier. Napoléon est quelqu’un à qui je semble me lier parce qu’il est peut-être l’une des plus grandes histoires d’assimilation étonnante et qu’il est passé d’un simple militaire à général, puis consul puis empereur et tout cela grâce à la reconnaissance du pays tout entier.

BONAPARTE AU PONT D'ARCOLE (1796) Antoine-Jean GROS (1771 - 1835) dpurb site d'purb

Image: Bonaparte au pond d’Arcole (1796) par Antoine-Jean Gros (1771 – 1835)

Napoléon est une source d’inspiration car, comme moi, il n’est pas né en France, mais il a quitté sa maison en Corse et est parti étudier en France. Dans ses premières années, il ne maîtrisait même pas la langue française et avait un fort accent corse, et il a également été intimidé au collège alors qu’il était à Brienne, une académie d’élite et a été traité comme un petit immigré étranger dans ces premières années. Pourtant, avec un tel dévouement, en tant qu’étudiant déjà étonnant et grand autodidacte solitaire, il a lu tous les grands esprits de l’Europe, s’est cultivé et est devenu l’un des plus grands Français à avoir jamais vécu. En effet, du petit étranger à l’accent louche, devenir alors plus français que les Français, et s’élever au rang d’Empereur est vraiment inspirant. Napoléon était aussi une personne qui personnifie le courage, tant sur le champ de bataille que dans les affaires officielles de l’État. Napoléon, un homme guidé par des valeurs et non par l’argent, était entièrement dévoué à la France et plaçait le peuple et la grandeur de sa nation avant sa propre santé et son confort.

Jacques-Louis David - 1801 - Le Premier Consul franchissant les Alpes au col du Grand Saint-Bernard

Image: « Le Premier Consul franchissant les Alpes au col du Grand Saint-Bernard » par Jacques-Louis David (1801)

En plus d’être un génie militaire et politique, il était aussi un homme amoureux des arts et avait le sens de la dignité et des valeurs, qui voulait permettre à tous les Français, toutes classes confondues, de croire en la capacité de grandir et de s’élever par leurs propres efforts – il voulait que tous les membres de sa société puissent rêver. Pour Napoléon, l’impossible n’était pas français ! Le code Napoléon a aussi été écrit par lui, et il a influencé des pays du monde entier et a donné à la société française une structure nécessaire après la révolution et la terreur. Napoléon était pour moi le vrai chef des hommes et pouvait les motiver avec son honnêteté ancrée dans ses discours électrisants et il était aussi quelqu’un qui avait les qualités d’un conquérant et qui croyait qu’un empire avait besoin d’expansion pour progresser. Napoléon avait donc la grande vision d’étendre la France et semblait suivre les traces d’Alexandre le Grand. Je pense que Napoléon Bonaparte est l’exemple de la grandeur de la civilisation française et aussi la preuve que la France est la civilisation qui incarne la grandeur de l’humanité et ses rêves et les valeurs de méritocratie et d’excellence.

La Légende de Napoléon

 

—-|—-

 

[EN] Answer to Question VII. « Who is your all-time favourite leader and why?”

 

After a great amount of thinking and eliminating from a list constituted of Chirac, Sarkozy, Hitler, De Gaulle and Napoléon Bonaparte, I had to go with the latter, the Emperor of the French people because he turns out to be one of the most enigmatic leaders ever seen throughout the history of mankind. I believe that humanity has not had leaders of this calibre since. We have had mostly mediocre execs who became the head of political parties and played around with civilisation until their time passed while making the most to ensure a financially comfortable retirement and enough framed photographs with celebrities to hang on their walls.

Before getting to Napoleon, I have to say that there are somehow a couple of fairly decent public figures that had some elements about them that I find inspiring. We have the former French president Chirac, who I believe had an incredibly charismatic and magnetic personality who also embodied the French “joie de vivre” and had a touch of an eternal youth about his character, and this touch of humanity about him is admirable because I believe being human is one factor that is fundamental to manage other humans. Chirac loved the crowds and was at home with people from all walks of life while also having a great sense of humour.

Another French president that I also find inspiring is Nicola Sarkozy, who also is a great example of assimilation and someone who also faced many obstacles in his early years as the son of Hungarian and the grandson of a Jew but who eventually overcame everything and everyone to prove himself as a true Frenchman who had France in his heart. Sarkozy is also one who inspires others to rise unlike a lot of selfish public figures nowadays who once inside a party seem to make life harder for the younger generation who are the defining figures of tomorrow.

Hitler too was also a case of great assimilation and having spoken about what I find inspiring about him above, I think we can skip to the last one, which is Charles de Gaulle. The latter, is to me a great example of a man who knew what he wanted and who had a grand vision of a civilisation along with an exemplary modesty who did not selfishly drown himself in luxury but thought of the state and the people before his own comfort. The other admirable thing about de Gaulle was that he gained the confidence of France to lead freely like a monarch and is perhaps today known as the last “democratic King of France”.

The last one before Napoleon is Alexander the Great, who was the only person of European heritage to have nearly conquered the world starting from Greece to the Indus River. He was a general and an explorer who was also incredibly cultivated from his teachings by the great Aristotle who taught him science, philosophy, literature and combat techniques – all the necessary skills for a future great leader. From his early years he endured an incredibly demanding father who expected him to never be weak and to be the greatest in all fields. Alexander had a thirst for knowledge and was inspired by the Greek model and wanted to be the best like Achilles the legendary hero of Greek mythology who was told by his father that to behave like a man he always had to be the best and have a better judgement than the others. After being taught by Aristotle for 3 years, Alexander said that he loved Aristotle as a father and if his biological father gave him life, it was Aristotle who showed him how to live. The latter told him how the Persian empire extends to the end of the world until India, and how their king invaded Greece about a 100 years ago, destroyed all the cities, took over Athens and burned down the Acropolis before the Greeks united and drove out the Persians. Aristotle told Alexander how the Persians are a permanent menace with their troops amassed at the doorsteps of Greece and who had the tomb of the valorous Achilles still in their hands, and that the dream of eternal glory lies in the act of uniting the Greeks and chasing the Persian troops as this would be the act of a hero. His father told him that he should find an empire to his size since Greece is too small. After he started conquering Persia, he defeated the army of Darius even outnumbered and made the mother, the wife and sisters prisoners, and in an act of chivalry he even promised them that they would be treated with respect and that none of his men would be unpunished if they disrespected Persian women to the anger and frustration of one of his closest and most talented generals, Philotas. He even told the latter that after their bravery and heroic win against the Persian army, how could they act like cowards with their women? Alexander continued his exploration and nearly took over the world with many cities including Babylon receiving him as a liberator – he wanted to surpass his ancestors. Today his heritage is present in politics along with legends and literature. He envisioned a universal empire where societies would have an autonomous administration and could co-exist peacefully under an imperial government. Alexander did not only conquer the world; he changed the course of its history forever.

But my all-time favourite leader is Napoleon. Napoleon for his grandeur in nearly everything along with his motivating and inspiring presence that touched men and women from all around the world. Napoleon is someone I seem to connect to because he is perhaps one of the greatest stories of amazing assimilation and rose from a simple military, to general, consul then emperor and all through the acknowledgement of the whole country. Napoleon is inspiring because like myself, he was not born in France, but left his home in Corsica and went to study in France. In his early years, he did not even handle the French language properly and had a strong Corsican accent, and he was also bullied in college while at Brienne, an elite academy and was treated as a little foreign immigrant in these early years. Yet, with such dedication, as an already amazing student and a great self-educated solitary, he read all the great minds of Europe, cultivated himself and became one of the greatest Frenchmen to have ever lived. Indeed, from the little foreigner with a dodgy accent, to then become more French than the French, and rise to become the Emperor is truly inspiring. Napoleon was also a person who impersonated courage, both on the battlefield and in official matters of the State. Napoleon, was a man guided by values and not by money, and was completely dedicated to France and put the people and the grandeur of his nation before his own health and comfort. Besides being a military and political genius, he was also a man in love with the arts and had a sense of dignity and values, who wanted to allow everyone in France of all classes to believe in the ability to grow and rise through their own efforts – he wanted all people of his society to be able to dream. For Napoleon, impossible was not French! The Napoleon code was also written by him, and it influenced countries from all around the world and gave the French society a much-needed structure after the revolution and the terror. Napoleon to me was the true leader of men and could motivate them with his honesty embedded in his electrifying speeches and he was also someone who had the qualities of a conqueror and who believed that an empire needs to expand in order to progress. Hence, Napoleon had the grand vision of expanding France and seemed to follow the routes of Alexander the Great. I think Napoleon Bonaparte is the example of the grandeur of the French civilisation and also the proof that France is the civilisation that embodies the greatness of mankind and his dreams and the values of meritocracy and excellence.

 

_________________________________

 

 

QUESTION VIII.

[FR] – Avez-vous l’intention de vous lancer en politique?

[EN] – Do you plan in getting into politics?

 

[FR] Réponse:

 

Après avoir constamment critiqué les systèmes politiques mondiaux et la race des politiciens pour la plupart médiocres, corrompus et désagréables qui ont fait surface au cours des 5-6 dernières décennies, il serait certainement controversé que je réponde « oui » à cette question. Cela semblerait hypocrite à mon auditoire. J’ai toujours pensé qu’il était de mon devoir de guider la civilisation sur la bonne voie et je crois fermement que le modèle actuel de gouvernement politique n’est pas approprié pour atteindre un tel objectif.

La démocratie est un concept qui donne une voix au peuple, mais la politique est quelque chose de très différent qui n’est pas à l’abri des âmes immorales et corrompues et de leur égoïsme. En plus d’avoir constamment critiqué la politique comme un concept dépassé et mal appliqué qui découle d’une mauvaise application de la démocratie, ainsi que les politiciens qui, tout au long de la civilisation, ont joué un rôle significatif dans les tragédies de la civilisation humaine, ce ne serait certainement pas ma fierté de devenir un homme politique.

La corruption à travers le monde visualisée

La corruption à travers le monde visualisée / Source: WEF

Les organisations connues sous le nom de « partis politiques » sont à l’origine d’un grand nombre de problèmes auxquels la civilisation humaine est confrontée, puisqu’il s’agit de diviser la population en segments qui correspondent à leurs politiques de gauche, du centre et de droite. Je ne voudrais donc jamais être considéré comme un « politicien », mais plutôt comme un leader d’êtres humains sans affiliation politique parce qu’ils imposent trop à la vision créative d’un grand leader et conduisent à trop de concessions pour satisfaire les donateurs et satisfaire des motifs financiers qui ne sont pas vraiment dans l’intérêt de la nation et du pays. Je crois en la science et la philosophie et je considère les gens comme des organismes d’un système que nous devons trouver un moyen de synchroniser pour réaliser le rêve d’une civilisation noble et sophistiquée. Même la logique de ma théorie organique conduit à la même conclusion.

Ainsi, aujourd’hui, en 2019, j’ai pu toucher les esprits et les cœurs des gens grâce aux outils technologiques extraordinaires que notre civilisation moderne nous a donnés, et il y a peut-être 200 ans, il serait impossible de se bâtir une réputation publique et de se faire un nom en tant que leader sans un parti, des donateurs et des fonds.

Pourtant, pour changer la vie des gens et le système qui est utilisé pour les gérer aujourd’hui, il n’est malheureusement pas possible de le faire sans emprunter la voie sale de la politique. Je ne peux donc pas dire avec certitude que je n’emprunterai jamais cette voie, car c’est peut-être la seule, jusqu’à ce que quelqu’un de sophistiqué et de juste change le système et en crée un nouveau qui puisse gouverner les hommes et apporter la stabilité dans la gestion de la civilisation tout en appliquant la démocratie de manière optimale.

Pourtant, si jamais je me lance en politique, je veux que les gens sachent que je ne me qualifierai jamais comme politicien, mais comme un homme qui veut conduire sa civilisation et ses hommes et femmes à la grandeur. Les termes « politique » et « homme politique » sont aujourd’hui des symboles d’inadéquation, de corruption, de méchanceté, de mesquinerie, de division, d’égoïsme, de mensonge, de tromperie et bien d’autres choses qui ne sont pas dans l’intérêt du genre humain.

Louis Léopold Boilly, Etude de trente-cinq têtes d'expression, 1825 Danny D'Purb dpurb site web

Image: « Etude de trente-cinq têtes d’expression », vers 1825 par Louis Léopold Boilly

Je m’efforcerai de faire de tout cela une histoire morte et de construire un nouveau système.

En ce moment, je me concentre sur l’écriture de mes livres, car je crois qu’ils contiennent un grand nombre de découvertes et d’innovations fondamentales et décisives pour la psychologie, la philosophie et les valeurs de notre civilisation fragmentée et confuse actuelle. Une fois qu’ils auront été publiés pour un large public, allant des jeunes aux plus âgés, je crois qu’ils auront présenté ma vision, ma pensée et mon orientation aux masses. Pour moi, il est fondamental que les gens comprennent mon esprit et mon cœur avant qu’ils puissent me voir comme un leader possible, parce que je veux que les gens me fassent confiance sur la base du contenu de mon cerveau, et non pour ma popularité ou pour mon visage étant sur les journaux et leurs rues par le pouvoir des portefeuilles des donateurs immoraux avec la seule intention de saigner l’état pour leur compte en banque. Cela ne veut pas dire que je suis contre les affaires ou que je suis pour une économie faible ! Bien sûr, je veux une économie forte, mais je crois aussi fermement que de bonnes affaires peuvent être totalement éthiques en respectant les sensibilités des gens et de l’environnement. Il y a des hommes d’affaires décents qui réussissent et qui ont réalisé leur rêve tout en étant éthiques, moraux et justes. Les affaires peuvent être nobles lorsqu’elles sont faites avec les bonnes valeurs, et n’ont pas besoin d’être faites aux dépens du sang du peuple, et beaucoup d’hommes d’affaires sauvages aujourd’hui ne semblent toujours pas comprendre cela et ils trouvent des moyens d’infiltrer et de détruire le système en corrompant des politiciens immoraux qui ne peuvent résister au goût de l’argent sale. Cela conduit à la souffrance et à un système sans humanité, et je m’oppose à ces scénarios parce que mon objectif est l’harmonie dans tout le système et je sais qu’il peut être atteint avec le bon leader, les bons esprits, les bons cœurs et les bonnes valeurs.

Je déteste donc le terme politique et, pour l’instant, je me concentre sur mon devoir d’éclairer et de guider la civilisation à travers mon travail intellectuel. Mon objectif est de changer le système et de le réorganiser en quelque chose de stable, efficace et honorable tout en rendant la vie des gens meilleure, plus heureuse et plus sophistiquée. Je ne peux pas dire si l’avenir me forcera à entrer dans le monde de la politique, mais je ne me présenterai jamais comme un politicien, et c’est quelque chose que je veux que les gens connaissent et ancrent dans leur esprit et dans leur cœur. Si je suis forcé de faire de la politique, ce serait pour la changer pour toujours, et même enterrer le terme politique et politiciens pour créer quelque chose de plus grand, de meilleur, de plus noble, de plus stable, de plus organisé, de plus sophistiqué et de plus civilisé.

Donc, votre réponse à cette question semble être une réponse que seul le temps peut répondre.

Alexandre le Grand - ARTE - 2016

Image: Alexandre le Grand (2011) . Arte

 

—-|—-

 

[EN] Answer to Question VIII. « Do you plan in getting into politics?”

 

After constantly criticising the political systems globally and the breed of mostly mediocre, corrupt and nasty politicians that have surfaced over the last 5-6 decades it would certainly seem controversial if I was to answer “Yes” to this question. It would come across as hypocritical to my audience. I have always thought of my duty in this lifetime to guide civilisation into the right path and firmly believe that the current model of political government is not appropriate in achieving such a goal.

Democracy is one concept that gives the people a voice, but politics is something quite different that is not safe from immoral and corrupt souls and their selfishness. Besides having constantly criticised politics as an outdated and badly applied concept that stems from the wrong application of democracy, along with politicians who throughout civilisation have played a significant part in the tragedies on human civilisation, it would certainly not be my pride to become a politician.

Organisations known as “Political parties” are at the root of a tremendous amount of problems that human civilisation faces, since it involves dividing the people into segments that fit their policies into left, centre and right. So, I would never want to be seen as a “politician”, but rather a leader of human beings without any party affiliation because they impose too much on the creative vision of a great leader and leads to far too many concessions to please donors and satisfy financial motives that are not truly for the benefit of the nation and country. I believe in science and philosophy and see people as organisms of a system that we must find a way to synchronise to achieve the dream of a noble and sophisticated civilisation. Even the logic of my Organic Theory leads to the same conclusion.

So, today in 2019, I have been able to reach minds and hearts among the people through the amazing technological tools that our modern civilisation has given us, and perhaps 200 years ago, building a public reputation and a name for oneself as a leader would be impossible without a party, donors and funds.

Yet, in order to change the life of people and the system that is used to manage them today, it is sadly not possible without taking the filthy route of politics. So, I cannot say for sure that I will never take this route, since it may be the only route until someone sophisticated and righteous changes the system and sets up a new one that can govern men and bring stability to the management of civilisation while also applying democracy in an optimal way.

Yet, if I ever get into politics, I want the people to know that I will never qualify myself as a politician, but a man who wants to lead his civilisation and his men and women to greatness. The term “politics” and “politician” are today symbols of inadequacy, corruption, nastiness, pettiness, division, selfishness, lies, deceit and so much more that are not for the benefit of mankind. I will work towards making all this dead history and build a new system.

At the moment, I am focussed on writing my books, since I believe they contain a great amount of fundamental, life-changing and pivotal discoveries and innovations to the psychology, philosophy and values of our current fragmented and confused civilisation. Once, they are published for a wide audience, ranging from the young to the old, I believe they will have introduced my vision, train of thought and direction to the masses. To me, it is fundamental that the people understand my mind and heart before they can see me as a possible leader, because I want people to trust me based on the contents of my brain, and not for my popularity or for my face being on petty papers and their streets through the power of the purse of immoral donors with the sole intention to bleed the state for their bank accounts. This does not mean that I am against business or stand for a weak economy! Of course, I want a strong economy, but I also firmly believe that good business can be completely ethical by respecting the sensibilities of the people and the environment. There are decent businessmen out there who are successful and have achieved their dream while also being ethical, moral and righteous. Business can be noble when done with the right values, and does not need to be done at the expense of the people’s blood, and many savage businessmen today still do not seem to understand this and they find ways to infiltrate and destroy the system by corrupting immoral politicians who cannot resist the taste of dirty money. This leads to suffering, and a system without any humanity, and I am against these scenarios because my aim is harmony across the system and I know that it can be achieved with the right leader, the right minds, the right hearts and the right values.

So, I hate the term politics, and for the time being I am focussed in my duty of enlightening and guiding civilisation through my intellectual work. My aim is to change the system and re-organise it into something stable, efficient and honourable while making the life of the people better, happier and more sophisticated. I cannot tell if the future will force me into the world of politics, but I will never portray myself as a politician, and this is something I want the people to know and embed in their minds and hearts. If I am forced into politics, it would be to change it forever, and even bury the term politics and politicians to create something bigger, better, nobler, more stable, grander, and truly sophisticated and civilised.

So, your answer to this question seems one that only time can tell.

 

_________________________________

 

QUESTION IX.

[FR] – Quels changements apporteriez-vous au système politique si vous en aviez l’occasion un jour ?

[EN] – What changes would you make to the political system if you have the chance to one day?

 

 

[FR] CET ARTICLE EST EN COURS D’ÉDITION ET SERA ENTIÈREMENT MIS À JOUR DANS LES SEMAINES À VENIR

[EN] THIS ARTICLE IS CURRENTLY BEING EDITED AND WILL BE FULLY UPDATED IN THE COMING WEEKS

 

 

 

 

Mis à jour le Mardi, 17 Avril 2019 | Danny J. D’Purb | DPURB.com

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Essay // Psychoanalysis: History, Foundations, Legacy, Impact & Evolution

Hampstead dpurb.com d'purb website Psychoanalysis

Photographie: Danny D’Purb © 2008

History and Background

In contemporary psychology, the psychoanalytic movement’s place is both unique and paradoxical. Focussing on the study of the mind as a “software” running on the brain as the “hardware”, psychoanalysis remains the only discipline that truly focuses on the mechanism and processes behind our thoughts. Unlike empirical behavioural science and other “cogno-sciences” that can be fairly barbaric and obstinate in the forced application of the rigid mathematical and systematic procedures embedded in the classic scientific method when dealing with an entity as complex and organic as the human mind; psychoanalysis has remained focussed in understanding human psychology by capturing it in all its details, depths, dimensions and linguistic aspects.

The scientific method although a proven mathematical approach to inquiries in the hard sciences [e.g. biology, medecine, physics, chemistry, astrophysics, material science, astronomy, etc], shows its limitations when used as a tool for psychological inquiry in the measurement of variables that are incredibly hard to measure such as emotions, values, motives, desires, libidinous intensity or dreams. It is also fair noting that humans are different from simple organisms, molecules or robots, hence psychoanalysis remains the only discipline focused on the mind [the software] assuming that most human beings have a physiologically healthy brain [the hardware].

However, modern sciences have discovered how abnormalities in the brain’s physiology due to birth defects or injury may result in behavioural problems linked to a deficient mind due to the defective brain [hardware] at its disposal. Hence, nowadays most good intellectuals in the field of psychoanalysis would likely be a better psychologist with an in-depth knowledge of the physiology of the brain, i.e. the major areas affecting core functions such as speech [Wernicke and Broca’s], vision [the occipital lobe], and motor abilities [parietal lobe], etc.

Cerveau & Fontions dpurb-com

This is because some psychological problems may on rare occasion be caused by brain injuries or physiological abnormality due to virus, trauma, stroke or injury. In those cases where such a scenario materialises, the psychotherapist may refer the patient to a neurosurgeon who may be more appropriate to inspect the extent of the problems on the defective brain [hardware] which may lead to a clearer perspective of the limitations being imposed on the mind of the affected individual and how it impacts processes such as the conscious, the preconscious and the unconscious [based on Sigmund Freud’s 1st ground breaking theory of mental life, the Topographic Model, which was also adopted by Jacques Lacan who argued convincingly that post-Freudian psychoanalysts had swayed too far from the fundamental concepts and turned psychoanalysis into a confusing genre].

However, as we are in the developmental stages of conception of the organic theory, a theory that takes the focus on the individual organism’s creative ability to another level, we are going to remain focussed on the mind. The organic theory was inspired by the brain’s magnificent ability to learn any age, and thus give the individual human organism the ability and freedom to define, create, redefine, recreate and shape itself based on its inherited and acquired abilities, desires and personal constructionist developments throughout its life – yes, the individual does have choices and these impact the person’s internal working model of mental life and the person as a whole along with his or her environment.

While psychoanalysis remains one of the most widely known schools of psychology it is perhaps not universally understood. The founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud is perhaps one of the most famous psychologist of the last century even if his chosen discipline, psychoanalysis, has little in common with the other schools of thought and psychology.

Psychoanalysis views the mind as an active, dynamic and self-generating entity, and this is in the German tradition of mental life [it was also a founding assumption for Jean Piaget as he developed his Theory of Cognitive Development in Children].

Exploding Raphaelesque Head - Salvador Dali (1951) dpurb d'purb website

« Tête Raphaélesque Éclatée » par Salvador Dali (1951)

It is also important to note that Freud was trained in hard sciences, yet his system shows little appreciation for systematic and reductionist empiricism. As a physician, Freud used his observational skills to build his system within a medical framework, basing his theory on individual case studies. He did not depart from his understanding of 19th-century science in the effort to organise his observations, neither did he attempt to test his hypotheses rigorously through independent verification. As he testified, he was psychoanalysis and did not tolerate dissension from his orthodox views. Nevertheless, Freud had a tremendous impact on 20th century psychology, perhaps more importantly, the influence of psychoanalysis on Western thought, as reflected in literature, philosophy and art, significantly exceeds the impact any other system of psychology.

 

The Active Mind

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Photographie: Danny D’Purb © 2012

Going back to the philosophical foundations of modern psychology in Germany during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, we found that the tradition of Leibniz and Kant clearly emphasised mental activity. This is in contrast to British empiricism, which assumed the mind to be a passive entity [such as a sponge that simply soaks in what is thrown at it]. The German tradition held the most logical and creative assumption that the mind itself generates and structures human experience in characteristic ways [being « active »]. Whether through Leibniz’s monadology or Kant’s categories, the psychology of the individual could be understood only by examining the dynamic, inherent activity of the mind.

Throughout the years, as psychology evolved into an independent discipline in the latter part of the 19th century under Wundt’s tutelage, the British model of mental passivity served as a guiding philosophy. Clearly, Wundt’s empiricistic formulation was at odds with German philosophical precedents, recognised by both Stumpf and Brentano. Act psychology and the psychology of non-sensory consciousness represented by the Würzburg School were closer to the German philosophical assumptions of mental activity than to Wundt’s structural psychology. The Gestalt movement encompassed these alternatives to Wundt’s psychology in Germany. Eventually, as the rational outcome guided intellectuals, Wundt’s system was replaced by Gestalt psychology, turning into the dominant psychology in Germany prior to World War II – one based on a model of the mind that admitted inherent organisational activity.

The assumptions underlying mental activity in Gestalt psychology were highly qualified, where construct for mind involves the organisation of perception, based on the principle of isomorphism, which resulted in a predisposition toward patterns of personal-environmental interactions. The focus on organisation meant that the way of mental processes, not their content, was inherently structured. In other words, individuals were not born with specific ideas, energies, or other content in the mind; rather, the organisational structure was inherited to acquire mental contents in characteristic ways. Accordingly, the Gestalt movement, while rightly rejecting the rigidity of Wundt’s empiricistic assumptions and concepts, did not reject empiricism completely [as a technique to study some basic and easily defined variables (such as traits) and their relation(s) to others]. Instead, the Gestaltists advocated a compromise between the empiricist basis of British philosophy and the German model of activity. Consequently, this opened psychological investigation to the study of complex problem-solving and perceptual processes.

Consistent with the Gestalt foundations, psychoanalysis was firmly grounded in an active model of mental processes, however it shared little of the Gestalt commitment to empiricism. Freud’s views on personality were consistent not only with the activities of mental processing suggested by Leibniz and Kant, but also with the 19th century belief in conscious and unconscious levels of mental activity. In acknowledging the teachings of such philosophers as Von Hartman and Schopenhauer [Read the Essay on our Review of « Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung »(The World as Will and Idea), Freud developed motivational principles that depended on energy forces beyond the level of self-awareness.

Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 – 1860)

Moreover, for Freud, the development of personality was determined by individual, unconscious adaptation to these forces. The details of personality development as formulated by Freud are outlined below; however, is also important to recognise the fundamental basis of Freud’s thinking. Psychoanalysis is based on the implication of mental activity further than any other system of psychology. As a major representative of a reliance on mental activity to account for personality, psychoanalysis is set apart from other movements in contemporary psychology. In addition, psychoanalysis unlike the other branches of psychology, did not emerge from empirical academic research; rather it was the product of the applied consequences of clinical practice [i.e. it was a force that was born on the field to treat mental problems as they surfaced throughout human history].

 

The Treatment of Mental Illness

Besides being the founder of the psychoanalytic movement in modern psychology, Freud is also remembered for his efforts in pioneering the upgrade in the treatment of mental and behavioural abnormalities, and was instrumental in psychiatry’s recognition as a branch of medicine that specifically deals with psychopathology. Before Freud’s works in attempting to devise effective methods of treating the mentally ill, individuals who deviated from socially acceptable norms were usually treated as if they were criminals or demonically possessed. Although shocking controversies in the contemporary treatment of mental deviancy appear occasionally, not too long ago such abuses were often the rule rather than the exception.

The treatment of mental illnesses was never a pleasant chapter in Western civilisation and it has been pointed out many times that abnormal behaviour is often mixed up with criminal behaviour as with heresy and treason. Even during the period of enlightenment during the European Renaissance, the cruelties and tortures of the inquisition were readily adapted to treat what we nowadays qualify as mental illness. Witchcraft continued to offer a reasonable explanation to such eccentric behaviour until recent times. Prisons were established to house criminals, paupers, and the insane without any differentiation. Mental illness was viewed as governed by evil or obscure forces, and the mentally ill were looked upon as crazed by such weird influences such as moon rays. Lunatics or “moonstruck” persons, were appropriately kept in lunatic asylums. As recently as the latter part of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the institution of for the insane in Utica, New York, which was progressive by the standards of the time, was called the Utica Lunatic Asylum. The name reflected the prevailing attitude toward mental illness.

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« Dr. Philippe Pinel at the Salpêtrière », 1795 by Tony Robert-Fleury. Pinel ordering the removal of chains from patients at the Paris Asylum for insane women

Reforms in the treatment of the institutionalised insane were slowly introduced during the 19th century. In 1794, Philippe Pinel (1745 – 1826) was appointed the chief of hospitals for the insane in Paris, and managed to improve both the attitude toward and the treatment of the institutionalised insane. In the United States, Dorothea Dix (1802 – 1887) accomplished the most noticeable reforms in the treatment of the mentally ill. Beginning in 1841, Dix led a campaign to improve the condition of indigent, mentally ill persons kept in jails and in poorhouses. However, these reforms succeeded in improving only the physical surroundings and maintenance conditions of the mentally ill; legitimate treatment was minimal. [Even today, in 2018, the US seems to have more people with eccentric behaviours and with questionable mental stability, for example, Donald Trump, who has been singled out as being mentally ill by more than one. See: (1) The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump, (2) Trump Is ‘Mentally Ill’ Says Former Vermont Governor and Doctor Howard Dean, (3) American psycho? Donald Trump’s mental health is still a question, (4) Psychiatrist: Trump Mental Health Urgently Deteriorating & (5) Stanford’s Zimbardo asks: Is President Trump mentally ill?

Confidence in US

Around the world, favorability of the U.S. and confidence in its president decline / Source: Pew Research Center

The US has more women in prison than China, India & Russia combined

According to the International Centre for Prison Studies, nearly a third of all female prisoners worldwide are incarcerated in the United States of America. There are 201,200 women in US prisons, representing 8.8 percent of the total American prison population. / Source: Forbes

Most people in prison

Highest to Lowest – Prison Population Total / Source: World Prison Brief

Efforts to develop comprehensive treatments were plagued by various quacks, such as the pseudoscience developed by Mesmer that dealt with the “animal spirit” underlying mental illnesses [although it may be true today if expressed as a metaphorical description to some of the behavioural manifestations of some mental disorders in some individuals].

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« White Dogs and Tootsie Pops » by Marie Hughes

Similarly, the phrenology of Gall and Spurzheim advocated a physical explanation based on skull contours and localisation of brain functions – which was of course also wrong.

Gradually however, attempts were made to develop legitimate and effective techniques to treat emotional and behavioural abnormalities. One of the more productive investigations involved hypnotism and was pioneered by a French physician, Jean Martin Charcot (1825 – 1893). Charcot gained widespread fame in Europe, and the young Freud amazed by his abilities, studied under him, as did many other talented physicians and physiologists. He treated hysterical patients with symptoms ranging from hyper-emotionality to physical conversions of underlying emotional problems that the patient could not confront when conscious.

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Une leçon clinique à la Salpêtrière (1887) » with Jean Martin Charcot in Front (A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière) par André Brouillet à l’Université Paris Descartes

Another French physician in Nancy, namely Hippolyte Bernheim (1837 – 1919), developed a sophisticated analysis of hypnosis as a form of treatment, using underlying suggestibility to alter the intentions of the patient. Finally, Pierre Janet (1859 – 1947), a student of Charcot, used hypnotism to resolve the forces of emotional conflict, which he believed were basic to hysterical symptoms. However, it was Sigmund Freud who went beyond the techniques of hypnotism to develop a comprehensive theory of psychopathology from which systematic treatments evolved.

 

A Biography of Sigmund Freud

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Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) / Image: Freud Museum London

Since psychoanalysis as we know it today is hugely influenced by the foundations laid by Sigmund Freud, it is worthwhile to have an understanding about the major points in his life. Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) was born on the 6th of May 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia, at that time a norther province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, today a part of the Czech Republic.

Freud was the eldest of 8 children, and his father was a relatively poor and not very successful wool merchant. When his business failed, Freud’s father moved with his wife and children [as many jews are accustomed to migrating to better places in the quest for a better life and income] first to Leipzig and then to Vienna when Freud was 4 years old. The young Freud remained in Vienna for most of the rest of his life, and his precocious genius was recognised by his family, and he was allowed many concessions and favours not permitted to his siblings. For example, young Freud was provided with better lighting to read in the evening, and when he was studying, noise in the house was kept to a minimum so he would not be disturbed.

Freud’s interest were varied and intense, and he showed an early inclination and aptitude for various intellectual pursuits. Unfortunately, Freud was a victim of the 19th century Jew-dislike which was obvious and severe in central and Eastern Europe after the numerous accounts of Jews being banished from places all over Europe due to their occult and violent religious practices on Christian infants [e.g. human sacrifices] along with their known habits in monopolising the majority of the press businesses to then distort news and heritage to their agendas and economic advantage.

However, although Freud was an atheist and more scientifically minded, his Jewish birth precluded certain career opportunities, most notably an academic career in university research. Indeed, medicine and law were the only professions open to Vienna Jews.

Freud’s early reading of Charles Darwin intrigued and impressed him to the point that a career in science was most appealing. The closest path that he could follow for training as a researcher was an education in medicine. Hence, Freud entered the university of Vienna in 1873 at the age of 17. However, because of his interests in a variety of fields and specific research projects, it took him 8 years to complete the medical coursework that normally required 6 years.

Eel

In 1881, he received his doctorate in medicine. While at university, Freud was part of an investigation of the precise structure of the testes of eels, which involved his dissecting over 400 eels. Later, he moved on to physiology and neuroanatomy and conducted experiments examining the spinal cord of fish. While at Vienna, Freud also took courses with Franz Brentano, which formed his only formal introduction to 19th century psychology.

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After waiting for Freud for about 4 years, his fiancée, Martha Bernays, a jewish girl from a business family and the grand-daughter of a famous Rabbi in Hamburg, married him. While she did not show great interest in Freud’s intellectual pursuits, her younger sister Minna became a very close intellectual partner of Freud. Carl Jung one of Freud’s intellectual ally who would become one of his firmest critic would even later say that he learned from Minna that Freud was in love with her and their relationship was very “intimate” – although we have no factual confirmation of such. She was so close to the young couple, that she moved in with them in the 1890s to set up was has been “jokingly” called a “ménage a trois”. As for Martha, she was also a charmer, intelligent, well-educated and fond of reading who as a married woman ran her household efficiently and was almost obsessive about punctuality and dirt. Firm but loving with her children, French analyst René Laforgue said that she spread an atmosphere of peaceful joie de vivre through the household. Shortly after Freud’s wedding, he recognised that a scientific career would not provide adequate income, since anti-Jewish sentiments were strong around Europe and this worked against Jewish advancement in academia even if Freud himself was not a practising Jew or had any religious sentiments. So Freud reluctantly decided to begin a private practice. Although the young couple were very poor in the early years of their marriage, Freud was able to support his wife and his growing family, which eventually included 6 children. The early years in private practice were very difficult, requiring long hours for a meagre financial reward that basically did not challenge him. Freud was also an atheist and did not want psychoanalysis to be seen as a purely Jewish endeavour, and his close network although were mainly Jewish later slowly grew to incorporate European intellectuals where some of the most significant would disagree with some of his assumptions and leave his circle after keeping only a few of his fundamental concepts about the theory of the mind.

During his hospital training, Freud had worked with patients with anatomical and organic problems of the nervous system. Shortly after starting private practice, he became friendly with Josef Breuer (1842 – 1925), a general practitioner who had acquired some local fame for his respiration studies. This friendship provided needed stimulation for Freud, and they began to collaborate on several patients with nervous disorders, most notably the famous case of Anna O., an intelligent young woman with severe, diffuse hysterical symptoms. In using hypnosis to treat Anna O., Breuer noticed that some specific experiences emerged under hypnosis that the patient could not recall while conscious. Her symptoms seemed to be relieved after talking about these experiences under hypnosis. Breuer treated Anna O. daily for over a year, and became convinced that the “talking cure”, or “catharsis”, involving discussion of unpleasant and repulsive memories revealed under hypnosis, was an effective method in alleviating her symptoms. Unfortunately, Breuer’s wife became jealous of the relationship; that would later be called “positive transference of emotional feelings to the therapist” [this would later be explained as patients falling in love with the new object at which they had redirected feelings and desires retained in childhood] at characteristic stages of therapy, this looked suspicious to her. As a result, Breuer terminated his treatment of Anna O. Freud was also very professional with his clients and never had any mistresses or took advantage of his female patients.

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Jean-Martin Charcot (1825 – 1893) / Charcot first began studying hysteria after creating a special ward for non-insane females with « hystero-epilepsy ». He discovered two distinct forms of hysteria among these women: minor hysteria and major hysteria. His interest in hysteria and hypnotism « developed at a time when the general public was fascinated in ‘animal magnetism’ and ‘mesmerization' », which was later revealed to be a method of inducing hypnosis.
Charcot argued vehemently against the widespread medical and popular prejudice that hysteria was rarely found in men, presenting several cases of traumatic male hysteria. He taught that due to this prejudice these « cases often went unrecognised, even by distinguished doctors » and could occur in such models of masculinity as railway engineers or soldiers. Charcot’s analysis, in particular his view of hysteria as an organic condition which could be caused by trauma, paved the way for understanding neurological symptoms arising from industrial-accident or war-related traumas.

In 1885, Freud received a modest grant that allowed him to go to Paris to study with Jean-Martin Charcot for 4 and half months. During that time he not only observed Charcot’s method of hypnosis [which he never managed to master as Charcot did] but also attended his lectures, learning about the master’s views on the importance of unresolved sexual problems in the underlying causality of hysteria. When Freud returned to Vienna, he gave a report of his work with Charcot to the medical society, but its cold reception left him with resentment that affected his future interactions with the entrenched medical establishment and its rigid and reductionist methods at understanding and solving the problems of the mind.

Freud continued his work with Breuer on hypnosis and catharsis, but gradually abandoned the former in favour of the latter, being not very gifted with hypnotic techniques, but also for 3 major reasons regarding its effectiveness as a treatment with general applicability. First, not everyone can be hypnotised; hence its usefulness is limited to a select group. Second, some patients refuse to believe what they revealed under hypnosis, prompting Freud to conclude that the patient must be aware during the step-by-step process of discovering memories hidden from their accessible consciousness. Third, when one set of symptoms were alleviated under hypnotic suggestibility, new symptoms often emerged. Freud and Breuer were moving in separate directions, and Freud’s increasing emphasis on the primacy of sexuality as the key to psychoneurosis contributed to their break. Nevertheless, in 1895 they published Studies on Hysteria, often cited as the first work of the psychoanalytic movement, although it sold only 626 copies during the following 13 years – perhaps due to the lack of sophistication and interest in the workings of the mind at that particular point in history, or the level of the academic discussions that may not have been adequate for the intellect of the average mind at the time.

Freud’s preferred method of treatment, catharsis, involves engaging with patients and encouraging them to speak of anything that comes [occupies] their mind, regardless of how discomforting or embarrassing it might be. This “free association” took place in a relaxed atmosphere, usually on the classic psychologist couch in a reclined position to promote comfort. The main reason behind the logic of catharsis and free association is that – like hypnosis – it would allow hidden thoughts and memories to manifest in consciousness. However, in contrast, to the method of hypnosis, the patient would be aware of these emerging recollections. Another ongoing process during free association is “transference”, which involves which involves emotionally laden experiences that allow the patient to relieve earlier, repressed episodes. Since the psychoanalysis is often part of the transference process [as mentioned earlier where the repressed emotions are often redirected onto] and is often the object of emotions, Freud recognised transference as a powerful tool to assist the patient in resolving sources of anxiety.

In 1897, Freud began a self-analysis of his dreams, which evolved into another technique important to the psychoanalytic movement. In the analysis of dreams, Freud distinguish between the manifest content [the actual depiction of the dreams] and the latent content, which represented the symbolic world of the patient. In 1900, he published his major work, The Interpretation of Dreams. Although it sold only 600 copies in eight years, it later went through eight editions in his lifetime. In 1901, he published The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, the book in which his theory began to take shape. Freud argued that the psychology of all people, not only those with neurotic symptoms, could be understood in terms of the unconscious forces in need of resolution.

When his reputation as a pioneer in psychiatry started to grow due to his prolific writings, Freud attracted admiring followers, among them was the notable Carl Jung. In 1909, G. Stanley Hall, president of Clark University, invited him to the United States to give a lecture series as part of that institution’s 20th anniversary. The lectures were published in the American Journal of Psychology and later in book form, serving as an appropriate introduction to psychoanalytic thought for American audiences.

As psychoanalysis was perceived as radical by the medical establishment, early believers form their own associations and found the journals to disseminate their competing views. However, Freud’s demand for strict loyalty to his interpretation of psychoanalysis led to some discord within the movement [perhaps for the betterment of the field itself as many branches kept the fundamental concept of unconscious (Id), pre-conscious (SuperEgo), and conscious (Ego) but fused other theoretical and scientific perspectives to explain and treat a range of mental illnesses]. Carl Jung broke away in 1914, so that by the following year, three arrival groups existed within the psychoanalysic movement. Nevertheless, Freud’s views continued to evolve. Impressed by the devastation and tragedy of World War I, Freud came to view aggression, along with sexuality, as a primal instinctual motivation. During the 1920s Freud expanded psychoanalysis from a method of treatment for mentally ill or emotionally disturbed persons to a systematic framework for all human motivation and personality.

In 1923, Freud developed cancer of the jaw and experience almost constant pain for the remaining 16 years of his life. He underwent 33 operations and had to wear a prosthetic device. Throughout this ordeal however, he continued to write and see patients, although he shunned public appearances. With the rise of Hitler and the anti-Jewish sentiments that arose with his campaigns with the National Socialists, Freud’s works were unfortunately singled out as they were not seen as a scientific endeavour but rather as a Jewish science, and his books were burned throughout Germany. However, Freud resisted fleeing from Vienna. When Germany and were politically united in 1938, the Gestapo began harassing Freud and his family. Pres Roosevelt indirectly relayed to the German government that Freud is intellectual must be protected. Nevertheless, in March 1938 some thugs invaded Freud’s home. Finally, for the efforts of friends, Freud was granted special permission, but only after promising to send for his unsold books in Swiss storage so that they could be destroyed. After he signed a statement saying that he had received good treatment from the police, the German government allowed him to leave for England, where he died shortly after, on September 23, 1939.

 

An overview of the Psychoanalytic System based on Freud’s Research

Before our in depth examination of psychoanalytic theory, it is important to recognise that the theory has an unusually broad focus. Psychoanalysis contains a theory of personality, but it also offers theoretical tools for understanding culture, society, art and literature. It is also a clinical theory that aspires to explain the nature and origins of mental disorders, and that is associated with an approach to their treatment. To give some more sense to Freud’s breadth, consider that he wrote on topics as diverse as the meaning of dreams and jokes, the origins of religion, Shakespeare’s plays, the psychology of groups, homosexuality, the causes of phobias and obsessions, and much more besides. Even as a theory of personality, psychoanalysis is primarily an account of the processes and mechanisms of the mind, rather than an account of individual differences.

In addition to its breadth of focus, the psychoanalytic theory has many distinct components that have also been modified and explored by a range of skilled psychoanalysts, making it hard to integrate into a single unitary model of the mind since they are inter-connected in complex ways.

Freud’s views evolved continually throughout his long career in the collective result of his extensive writings as an elaborate system of personality development. Personality was described in terms of an energy system that seeks an equilibrium of forces. This homeostatic model of human personality was determined by the constant attempt to identify appropriate ways to discharge instinctual energies, which originate in the depths of the unconscious. The structure of personality, according to the psychoanalytic model consists of a dynamic interchange of activities energised by forces that are present in the person at birth. This homeostatic model was consistent with the prevailing views of 19th-century science, which saw the mechanical relations of physical events studied by physics as the term of scientific inquiry. Freud’s model for psychoanalysis translated physical stimuli to psychic energies or forces and retained an essentially mechanical description of how such forces interact.

As the writings on the dpurb.com website are the foundations for the Organic Theory of the mind, we are going to be focused not on the later structural model which repositioned the Unconscious, Conscious and Pre-Conscious across the Id, Ego and SuperEgo, but with the first topographic model (1900 – 1905) adopted by both Carl Jung and Jacques Lacan. This model, has been more influential and is more flexible in accommodating competing view points about the structure of mental life across individuals.

The topographic model refers to the levels or layers of mental life. Freud proposed that mental content – ideas, wishes, emotions, impulses, memories, and so on – can be located at one of the three levels: Conscious (later known as the Ego), Preconscious (SuperEgo), and Unconscious (Id). It is important however, to understand that Freud use these terms to describe degrees of awareness and unawareness, but also to refer to distinct mental systems with their own distinct laws of operation. Unconscious cognition is categorically different from Conscious cognition, in addition to operating on mental content that exists beneath awareness. To convey this point, the three levels of the topographic model was referred to as the ‘systems’ Cs., Pcs., and Ucs.

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The Conscious (which would later be known as Ego with a partial unconscious side, and also “Le Moi” in Lacanian Theory)

Consciousness is merely the proverbial ‘tip of the iceberg’ of mental activity. The contents of the Conscious are simply the small fraction of things that the person is currently paying attention to: objects perceived, events recalled, the stream of thought that we engage in as a running commentary on everyday life. [This is the main focus of most other branches of Psychology such as Biological Psychology and Cognitive Psychology]

 

The Preconscious (which would later be known as the Super-Ego)

Of course, not all of all mental life happens under the spotlight of awareness and attention. There are many things to which we could readily be attention to but do not, such as ideas or plans we have set aside all memories of what we were doing last week or yesterday. Without any great effort these things or events, which in the present out of consciousness, can be made conscious. Those form the domain of the Preconscious.

The boundary between the Conscious (Ego) and the Preconscious (Super-Ego) is a permeable one. Thoughts, memories and perceptions can cross without great difficulty according to the momentary needs and intentions of the individual. They also share a common mode of cognition, which in psychoanalysis is known as the ‘secondary process’. Secondary process cognition is the sort of everyday, more or less rational thinking than generally obeys the laws of logic.

 

The Unconscious (which would later be known as the Id)

The Unconscious (Id) is perhaps one of the most celebrated theoretical concepts in Freud’s legacy. However, he did not invent or discover the unconscious as is sometimes claimed – versions of the concert had been floating around intellectual circles for some time – but he gave it a much deeper theoretical analysis than anyone before him. Freud distinguished between mental contents and processes that are descriptively unconscious and those that are dynamically unconscious. The descriptively unconscious simply exists outside consciousness as a matter of fact, and therefore include Preconscious material that can become conscious if it is attended to. Freud’s crucial contribution was to argue that some thoughts, memories, wishes and mental processes are not only descriptively unconscious, but also cannot be made conscious because of a countervailing force keeps them out of awareness. In short, mental life that is dynamically unconscious is a subset of what is descriptively unconscious, one whose entry to consciousness is actively thwarted. The Freudian unconscious corresponds to the dynamic unconscious in this sense.

Freud held that the Unconscious contains a large but unacknowledged proportion of mental life that operates according to its own psychological laws. The barrier between the Unconscious (Id) and the Preconscious (SuperEgo) is much more fortified and difficult to penetrate than the border between the Preconscious (Super-Ego) and Conscious (Ego). In addition, it is policed by a mental function that Freud likened to a “censor”. The censor’s role is to determine whether the contents of the Unconscious would be threatening or objectionable to the person if they became conscious. If the censor judges them to be dangerous in this type, the person will experience anxiety without knowing what caused it. In this case, these thoughts come wishes and so on, will normally be repelled back into the Unconscious, in a process referred to as “Repression” [it is fundamental and very important to understand that Repression is something else than a judgement which rejects and chooses, repression is unconscious]. Unconscious material, by Freud’s account, has an intrinsic force propelling it to become conscious. Consequently, repression required an active opposing force to resist it, just as effort is required to prevent a surf board made of white foam to rise to the surface when it is submerged in the ocean.

Under the constant pressure of Unconscious material bubbling towards the Preconscious, the censor cannot possibly bar entry to everything. Instead, it allows some Unconscious material to cross over the barrier after it has been transformed or disguised in some way so as to be less objectionable. This crossing might take the form of a relatively harmless impulsive behaviour, or in the form of private fantasy, the telling of a joke, or in a slip of the tongue, where the person says something ‘unintentionally’ that reveals to the trained eye and mind the repressed concerns and wishes [such as that of a psychoanalyst – as Jacques Lacan proposed: repression can take the form of a metaphor and the brilliant psychoanalyst must be able to decipher a chain of clues with a great deal of verbal dexterity where crossword puzzles may help in training]. Psychoanalytic training teaches how phenomenal such as these can be interpreted, the process that involves uncovering the unconscious material that is concealed within their “disguises” [i.e. forms].

To Freud, dreams represent a particularly good example of the disguised expression of the Unconscious wishes. They offered, he wrote, “the royal road to the Unconscious”. One reason for this is that during sleep, the sensor relaxes and allows more repressed Unconscious material to cross the barrier. This material, transformed into a less threatening form by a process referred to as the “dream-work”, then takes the shape of a train of images in the peculiar form of consciousness that we call dreaming. It is believed, that each dream has a “latent content” of Unconscious wishes that is transformed into the “manifest content” of the experienced dream. This transformation has to allow the Unconscious wishes to be fulfilled while concealing the elements of threat they contain. If the latent content is not concealed sufficiently through the “dream-work” process, the sleeper will register the threat and be awoken [sometimes in shock and sweat]. To avoid this the dream-work may alter the identities of the people represented in a wish. For example if a person has an Unconscious wish to harm a loved one, the dream work might produce a dream in which the individual instead harms someone else or in which the loved one is harmed by another person. Neutralised in this way, the Unconscious wish finds conscious expression.

Dreams also showcase the distinct form of thinking that operates in the Unconscious. “Primary processthinking, unlike the secondary process than governs the Conscious (Ego) and Preconscious (Super-Ego), shows no respect for the laws of logic and rationality. In primary process thinking, something can stand for something else, including its opposite, and can even represent two distinct things at once. Contradictory thoughts can coexist and there is not orderly sense of the passage of time or of causation. Basically, primary process thinking captures the magical, chaotic quality of many dreams, the mysterious images that seems somehow significant, the fractured storylines, the impossible and disconnected events. To Freud, dreams are not simply night-time curiosities, but reveal how the greater part of our mental life proceeds beneath the shallows of conscience.

 

Foundations of the later “Structural” model: concepts to consider and synthesise with the Topographic Model

We are now going to have a look at the later version of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory where the Unconscious [this time referred to as the Id] is still the fundamental concept, however decades later in 1923, another 3-way dissection of the mind was proposed. This time Freud called it the Psychic Apparatus and the 3-way dissection of the mind was defined in terms of distinct mental functions instead of levels of awareness and their associated processes. In original German, the terms das Es (Id), Ich (Ego) and Über-ich (Super-Ego) were used. As we take a look at these structures, it is important to remember that they were not proposed as real underlying entities, but rather as a sort of conceptual shorthand for talking about different kinds of mental processes. Our aim here is to synthesise the logical concepts of the Structural Model with the Topographic Model of the Unconscious (Id), the Conscious (Ego) and the Preconscious (Super-Ego), however although it is convenient to talk about the Id, Ego and Super-Ego “doing” such-and-such or being “in charge of” so-and so, it is important to remember that they were not intended to refer to distinct sub-personalities within the individual.

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The Id [completely/dynamically unconscious] represents the part of the personality that is closely linked to the instinctual drives that are the fundamental sources of motivation in Freudian theory. According to Freud, these drives are chiefly sexual and aggressive in nature. On one hand we have the “life instincts” concerned with preserving life and binding together new “vital unities”, the foremost expression of this concern being loving sexual union. Opposed to these life instincts, on the other side, we have the set of “death instincts”, whose corresponding concern is with breaking down life and destroying connections, its goal is a state of entropy or nirvana, where there is a complete absence of any form of tension [motivation]. The most obvious form of these instincts were aggressiveness expressed inward towards the self or outward towards others. Freud proposed that the instinctual drives were powered by a reservoir of instinctual “psychic energy” grounded in basic biological processes. The sexual form of this energy was referred to as libido.

Although Freud proposed that the Id is a biological underpinning, its contents are psychological phenomena such as wishes, ideas, intentions, and impulses. These phenomena are therefore sometimes described as “instinct- derivatives”. Some of these phenomena are innate, whereas others have been consigned to the Id by the process of repression. All of the Id’s contents, however are unconscious.

Freud proposed that the Id operated according to what he called the “pleasure principle”. Simply stated, this principle states that the Id’s urges strives to obtain pleasure and avoid “unpleasure” without delay. Pleasure, in Freud’s understanding, represented a discharge of instinctual energy which is accompanied by a release of tension. In short, the Id strives to satisfy its drives enabling immediate, pleasurable release of instinctual energy. It is the most primitive and least accessible structure of personality. As originally described by Freud, the Id is psychic energy of an irrational nature and sexual character, which instinctually determines unconscious processes. The Id is not in contact with the environment, but rather relates to the other structures of personality that in turn must mediate between the Id’s instincts and the external world. Immune from reality and social convention, the Id is guided by the pleasure principle, seeking to gratify instinctual libidinal needs either directly, through a sexual experience, or indirectly, by dreaming or fantasizing. The latter, indirect gratification was called the primary process. The exact object of direct gratification in the pleasure principle is determined by the psychosexual stage of the individual’s development [as explained in 3rd part of the essay on The 3 Major Theories of Development].

The Ego, is another mental function and complicates this picture of immediate gratification. This “psychic agency” arises over the course of development as the child learns that it is often necessary and desirable to delay gratification. The bottle or breast does not always appear the instant that hunger is first experienced, and sometimes it is better to resist the urge to urinate at the bladder’s first bidding if one is to avoid the unpleasure of wet pants, embarrassment, and a parent’s howls of dismay. The Ego, often called the “executive” of personality because of its role in channeling Id energies into socially acceptable outlets [ego is believed to start developing between the ages of 1 and 2 as the child confronts the environment]. The Ego crystallises out this emerging capacity for delay, and in time becomes a restraint on the Id’s impatient striving for discharge. However, it cannot be an inflexible restraint. Its task is not to delay the fulfilment of wishes and impulses endlessly, but to determine when and how it would be most sensible or prudent to do so given the demands of the external environment at a particular time. It operates, that is, on the “Reality principle”, which simply requires that the Ego regulate the person’s behaviour in accordance with external conditions [at a given time or place according to certain rules or laws or conventions, and of course this changes as society redefines “reality” in terms of what it acceptable and not].

Freud emphasized that the Ego is not the dominant force in the personality [unlike Ego psychologists in the US has stated], although he believed it should strive to be. A famous statement of Freud regarding the goal of Psychoanalytic treatment is “Where Id was, there Ego shall be”. By his account, the Ego not only emerges out of the Id in the course of development – beforehand, the infant is pure Id – but it also derives all of its energy from the Id. Freud had a gift for metaphor, and he likened the Ego’s relation to the Id as a rider’s relation to a wilful horse. The horse supplies all of the pair’s force, but the rider may be able to channel it in a particular direction.

Fortunately, this “rider” has a repertoire of skills at its disposal. Freud proposed that the Ego could employ a variety of “defence mechanism” in the service of the reality principle. These mechanisms come in a diverse range, and all represent operations that the Ego performs to deal with the threats to the rational expression of the person’s desires, whether from the Id or the external environment. These Ego defence mechanisms are common processes in everyday mental life, and many of them are carried out by the Ego unconsciously, showing that there is an unconscious part in the Ego.

The Ego being governed by the reality principle, is aware of environmental demands and adjusts behaviour so that the instinctual pressures of the id are satisfied in acceptable ways, and the attainment of specific objects to reduce libidinal energy in socially appropriate ways was called the “secondary process” [the “primary process” being the Unconscious (Id)].

Some of the most well known defence mechanisms are denial, isolation of affect, projection, reaction formation, repression and sublimation.

Finally, the differentiation of the structures of personality, called the Super-Ego, is believed to start appearing by the age of 5. In contrast to the Id and Ego, which are internal developments of personality, the Super-Ego is an external imposition. That is the Super-Ego is the incorporation of moral standards perceived by the Ego from some agent of authority in the environment, usually an assimilation of the parents’ views as the child develops – both positive and negative aspects of these standards. The Super-Ego’s emergence complicates the task of the Ego in regulating the expression of the Id’s impulses in response to demands and opportunities of the external environment. The Super-Ego represents an early form of conscience, an internalised set of moral values, standards, and ideals. These moral precepts are not the sort of flexible, evolving, reasoned, and discussable rules of conduct that we tend to imagine when we think of adult morality, however, instead they tend to be relatively harsh, absolute and punishing; adult morality as refracted through the immature and fearful mind of a child. The Super-Ego therefore represents the shrill voice of societal rules and restrictions, a voice that condemns and forbids many of the sexual and destructive wishes, impulses and thoughts that emerge from the Id.

The positive moral code is the Ego ideal, i.e. a representation of behaviour for the individual to emulate. The conscience embodies the negative aspect of the Super-Ego, and determines which activities are to be taboo. Conduct that violates the dictates of the conscience produces “guilt” in healthy individuals. Hence, the Super-Ego and the Id are in direct conflict, leaving the Ego to mediate. The Ego now becomes the servant of three masters: the Id, the Super-Ego and the External Environment [Societal Rules]. It is now not enough to reconcile what is desired with what is possible under the circumstances. The Ego now also needs to take into consideration what is socially prohibited and impermissible. Instinctual drives must still be satisfied; which is a constant, however the Ego now attempts to satisfy them in a way that is flexibly “realistic” – that is, in the person’s best interests under current conditions – but also “socially” permitted. These prohibitions are often very unreasonable and inflexible, rejecting any expression of the drive with an unconditional “NO”, either because the moral structures of a particular “culture” are intrinsically rigid, atavistic or unsophisticated, or because the child’s internalisation of these structures is simply black-and-white, without any grey area to compromise for an adequate expression of the drive. Thus, the Super-Ego imposes a pattern of conduct that results in some degree of self-control through an internalised system of rewards and punishments.

Given the demands that it faces, the Ego can either find a way to express the Id’s desires successfully, or its attempts to arbitrate can fail. In this case, psychological trouble is likely to follow. If the Id wins the struggle, and the desire finds expression in a more-or-less unaltered and primitive form, the person may experience guilt or shame: the Super-Ego’s sign that it has been violated, and may also have to pay the price of a short-sighted, impulsive action. If on the other hand, the Super-Ego wins the struggle and dominates a person excessively, that individual may become overly rigid, rule-bound, uncreative, unquestioning, anxious and joyless. The forbidden desires may well go “underground” and manifest themselves in symptoms such as anxieties, compulsions or in occasional “out-of-character” impulsive behaviour or emotion.

The major motivational constructs of Freud’s theory of personality was derived from instincts, defined as biological forces that release mental energy. Hence, from the account of the Unconscious (Id), the Conscious [and partly unconscious, Ego) and the Preconscious (Super-Ego), it implies that conflict within the mind’s opposing forces is inevitable, because the demands of society – or “civilisation” – are generally opposed to our natural instincts and drives. Indeed, intrapsychic conflict is one of the fundamental and defining concepts of psychoanalysis. Conflict within the mind is at the root of personality structure, mental disorder, and most psychological phenomena [e.g. artistic expressions of various forms]. The goal of personality is to reduce the energy drive through some activity acceptable to the constraints of the Super-Ego [Preconscious].

Freud classed inborn instincts to life (eros) and death (thanatos) drives. Life instincts involve self-preservation and include hunger, sex and thirst. The libido is that specific form of energy through which life instincts arise in the Id. The death instinct (Thanatos) may be directed either inwards, as in suicide or masochism, or outwards, as in hate and aggression. The notion that personality equilibrium must be maintained by discharging energy in acceptable ways, leads to anxiety which plays a central role. Essentially the view is that anxiety is a diffuse fear in anticipation of unmet desires and future evils. Given the primitive character of Unconscious (Id) instincts, it is unlikely that primary goals are ever an acceptable means of drive reduction; rather they are apt to give rise to continual anxiety in personality. Freud described three general forms of anxiety.

(i) Reality (or Objective) Anxiety
(ii) Neurotic Anxiety
(iii) Moral Anxiety

Reality or objective anxiety, is a fear of the real environmental danger [e.g. heights, depth, fire, etc] with an obvious cause; such fear is appropriate as it has survival value for the organism. Neurotic anxiety comes about from the fear of potential punishment inherent in the goal of instinctual gratification. It is a fear of punishment for expressing impulsive desires. Finally, moral anxiety is the fear of the conscience through guilt or shame in healthy individuals. In order to cope with anxiety, the Ego develops defence mechanisms, which are elaborate, largely unconscious processes that allow a person to avoid unpleasantness and anxiety-provoking events. For example, an individual may avoid facing anxiety by self-denial, conversion [whereby the anxiety caused by repressed impulses and feelings are ‘converted’ into a physical complaint such as a cough or feelings of paralysis], or projection, or may repress thoughts that are a source of anxiety into the unconscious. Many defence mechanisms are described in the psychoanalytic literature, which generally agrees that although defence mechanisms are typical ways of handling anxiety and maintaining a sense of psychological stability, they must be recognised and controlled by the individual himself/herself for psychological health.

Denial Refusing to acknowledge that some unpleasant or threatening event has occurred; common in grief reactions
Isolation of Affect Mentally severing an idea from its threatening emotional associations so that it can be held without experiencing its unpleasantness; common in obsessional people
Projection Disavowing one’s impulses thoughts and attributing them to another person; common in paranoia
Reaction formation Unconsciously developing wishes or thoughts that are opposite to those that one finds undesirable in oneself; common in people with a rigid moral codes
Repression Repelling threatening thoughts from consciousness, motivated forgetting; common in post-traumatic reactions
Sublimation Unconsciously deflecting sexual aggressive impulses towards different, socially acceptable expressions; central to artistic creation and sports.

Table 1: A List of The Most Common Defence Mechanisms

Freud placed great emphasis on the development of the child because he was convinced that neurotic disturbances manifested by his adult patients had origins in childhood experiences. And as the last model proposed by Freud, the Genetic Model, explains, the psychosexual stages are characterised by different sources of primary gratification determined by the pleasure principle. Freud basically wrote that the child is essentially autoerotic. The genetic model has been previously described in the 3rd section of the essay, The 3 Major Theories of Childhood Development. [Please refer for more details]

However, the genetic model in psychoanalysis has been extensively revised and most of the concepts are not considered as reliable nowadays due to other theories that have shown how personality continues to evolve and only stabilises around the age of 30. However, the genetic model laid the groundwork for other theorist such as John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth who based their guiding principles to uncover the theory of attachment on pre-oedipal developments first mentioned by Sigmund Freud. These attachment types have been discussed in the Essay, The 3 Major Theories of Childhood Development, and although it may not be completely true for all people, the logic behind the psychosexual stages should always be considered to some extend when analysing clients along with attachment types – not to forget to assess the self-reflective abilities of the person, since this has been proven to have more impact on adult personality, emotional intelligence and attachment types.

 

The Relationship between the Topographic Model and the Structural Model

It is important to assimilate the knowledge from the structural model and synthesise them with the topographic model. It can be seen that although the later model is conceptually distinct from the first model, they do map onto one another to some degree. The content of the Id, of course, lies firmly within the Unconscious, and is forbidden from entry to the consciousness unless disguised in the form of dreams, slips of the tongue, symptoms, and so on. However the Ego is not completely conscious unlike many ego psychologist may claim along with cognitive psychologist, as it has a strong Unconscious component, given that a great deal of psychological defence mechanisms are conducted instantly out of awareness, and hence is sometimes inaccessible to introspection by the patient – hence requiring a skilled psychoanalyst to guide therapy and treatment. The Super-Ego also has an Unconscious fraction, reflecting as it does and often “primitive” and irrationally punishing morality at least as much as it reflects our reasoned beliefs and principles. Although many concepts have been revised and alternative treatments relating to mental illness have also been devised by other schools of thought in psychology, the sheer complexity and uniqueness of the psychoanalytic system has formed a remarkable achievement. Indeed, Freud even had to invent new terminology to express his thoughts, and these terms have become an accepted part of our vocabulary.

 

Psychoanalytic Evidence: From the perspective of Empirical Methodology (Mainstream Science)

Freud ardently believed along with all good psychoanalysts that psychoanalysis is a science, not an empirical science, but a science of the mind that slices not with blades or questionnaires, but with concepts through the linguistic and philosophical realm of a patients subjective reality. It is also fair to consider that Freud himself was an accomplished biological scientist before he developed psychoanalytic theories. Biological ideas are interwoven in his work, as is his concepts of drive, instinct, and psychic energy. Nevertheless, the methods that he used to obtain evidence for the psychoanalytic theory were very different from the reductionist and empirical methods used by the laboratory scientists or the statistical psychologists with their quantified questionnaires exploring basic “traits”. As an anatomist and physiologist, Freud made systematic observations of living and dead organisms, and conducted controlled experiments. Hence, he must have come to the same conclusion as ourselves, which is, mental life cannot be fully explained by the mechanical explanations, although a lot can be learnt from understanding the physiology of the brain, but the “software” itself, that generates the mind, is an entity that empirical science comes short in terms of its methodologies. Hence, as a psychoanalyst, Freud introspected and speculated about his own mental life, and listened closely to what his patients told him during sessions of psychoanalytic therapy. If is quite clear, that dissecting an eel is completely different from dissecting a personality with all its complexities, and that observing the stream of one’s consciousness or another’s speech is very different from conducting a controlled experiment with observable variables. So, psychoanalytic evidence is clearly unlike the evidence on which most “hard physical sciences” are based.

However, it is important to understand that the critique of psychoanalysis from the methodology of empirical science may not be rational. Because psychoanalysis was never intended to be a mechanical science, although it learns from neuroscience of certain aspects of the physiology of the brain. These questions about Empirically Supported Treatment (EST) came to the forefront of psychotherapy literature in 1993, when Division 12 of the American Psychological Association worked to publish a list of criteria for what constitutes EST (Chambless, et al., 1996; Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 1995; Taskforce on Psychological Intervention Guidelines, 1995). A list of treatments were published that we empirically supported and very few psychodynamic treatments were included, nor were interpersonal or humanistic therapy included. Not surprisingly, these guidelines and list became anything but unifying for psychotherapists and psychotherapy researchers.

Westen, Novotny and Thompson-Brenner (2004) made some important critiques of the literature on ESTs. They noted that ESTs are often designed for a single, Axis I disorder, and patients are screened to maximise their homogeneity and to minimise their diagnostic comorbidity. Treatments are manualised and brief, and outcomes are assessed often by reductions in the primary symptom reduction for that particular disorder. Westen et al. suggested that EST researchers always tend to assume the following:

  • Psychopathology is highly malleable
  • Most patients can be treated for a single problem or disorder
  • Psychiatric disorders can be treated without much attention to underlying personality factors
  • Experimental methodology used to develop ESTs has ecological validity in clinical practice

Westen et al. (2004) basically contended that these assumptions are not valid, not to say wrong. There is considerable diagnostic comorbidity, making most patients ineligible to participate in EST research trials. There also is considerable stability of psychopathology of psychiatric symptoms, even after “successful” completion of EST. And clinicians of all theoretical orientations see patients well beyong the time allotted in treatment manuals (see Morrison, Bradley, & Westen, 2003; Thompson-Brenner, Glass, & Westen, 2003; Westen & Morrison, 2001 for an excellent review of these issues).

Norcross (2002a) offered an additional perspective on why the EST literature has been so controversial. First, he explained that EST research rarely addresses the fact “that the therapist is a person, however much he may strive to make himself an instrument of the patient’s treatment” (Orlinsky & Howard, 1977, p.567 as cited by Norcross 2002a). This idea has been demonstrate very well in empirical literature. For example, Wampold (2001) concluded in a meta-analysis of psychotherapy studies that the qualities of the therapist play a much stronger role in the outcome of treatment that does the treatment itself. Second, Norcross stated that therapy research has savagely neglected the important question of studying the therapy relationship. Instead, the focus has been more on the application and mastery of a technique (not a relationship). Third, who the patient is affects treatment outcome. As attention has been directed towards the study and implementation of psychotherapy techniques to different categories of disorders, small attention has been given to the patient characteristics that affect outcome, such as comorbid conditions, capacity for insight, and a history of interpersonal relatedness.

Psychoanalytic and psychodynamic therapies certainly are related to these issues. Analytic and Dynamic models of therapy are very focused on the behaviour and qualities of the therapist, with special attention to issues of the therapeutic alliance, neutrality, transference, and countertransference.

Freud's Couch at Freud Museum London

The couch that started everything: Freud’s psychoanalytic couch at the Freud Museum in London

It is important to also consider that one’s training in how to conduct psychoanalytic or psychodynamic psychotherapy is focused on how therapists present themselves and how patients respond to this. Such a focus automatically puts the therapeutic alliance at the centre of attention, something that has taken on more interest over the years (Fairbairn, 1952; Greenberg, 1986, 2001a; Pine, 1998; Stolorow, Atwood & Brandchaft, 1994; Wallerstein, 2002). Psychoanalysts have also recognised that the personality and qualities of the patient affect how therapy should be conducted (e.g., Gabbard, 2000, 2004); that is, one approach to working with patients does not fit all patients. Furthermore, many psychotherapists have been reluctant to allow their therapy relationships to be subject to empirical investigation (Bornstein, 2005), as a form of respect for the privacy of their clients, making it very hard to provide more objective data that the support the validity of psychoanalysis. In contrast, other schools of thoughts derived from the behavioural school and the medical fields have very willingly offered their data for empirical investigations.

Often accompanying this philosophical criticism regarding scientific testability is a factual criticism that psychoanalysts have seldom tried to test their theories scientifically. This criticism may have some truth to it, however many psychoanalysts have responded to the call for more scientific inquiry by asserting that it is unnecessary and that clinical evidence of the treatments curing mental illness of various types is quite sufficient.

FIGURE B - SUCESS RATES WITH ADULTS & CHILDREN

Success Rates of Psychotherapy with adults and children, and Therapy from other schools of thought [traditions] based on Effect Sizes from Meta-analyses / Source: dpurb.com

Other psychoanalysts have argued that scientific support for their theories is irrelevant. Psychoanalysis, they suggest, is not an empirical science, but a science of subjective experience and linguistic dissection, so it is inappropriate to judge it by the mainstream reductionist empirical scientific standards of modern day academia.

Many see psychoanalysis as a “hermeneutic” discipline, an approach to interpretation which is rather like a school of literary criticism or biblical scholarship. To them, psychoanalytic theory is a way to decipher mental life, an interpretative technique for uncovering meaning. Its goal, they say, is to understand psychological phenomena in terms of their underlying reasons rather than explaining them as objective science in terms of causes. Some have gone so far as to suggest that the goal of psychoanalytic understanding is not to ascertain literal or scientific truth – for example, what “truly happened in a person’s past to make them the way they are today” – but instead to formulate “narrative truth”, a story that gives coherent meaning to the person’s experiences [from their perspective in terms of what matters to them] (Spence, 1980).

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Photographie: Danny D’Purb © 2018

It would also be fair to acknowledge that there is something quite “special” about psychoanalytic evidence, for all its empirical flaws. A completed psychoanalytic treatment may sometimes [depending on the type of patient] occupy four or five sessions each week over a period of several years, amounting to perhaps 1000 hours in which the analyst listens closely to the patient’s innermost thoughts. These thoughts, often too intimate and raw to be shared even with loved ones, range widely over the patient’s personal history and lived experiences. They are recounted in a wide variety of mood-states and frames of mind. These millions of spoken words and feelings may not represent the kind of systematically and objectively collected data on which the scientific theory of personality [that the hardcore empiricist loves] can easily be built. However, it is hard to declare that the analyst does not understand the patient’s personality better than someone who might interpret the patient’s responses, dashed off in a matter of minutes, to a trait questionnaire.

Indeed, there is something valuable about psychanalytic evidence, but it is very hard to build an empirical theory out of it since we are not dealing with matters of hard sciences [e.g. biology, medecine, physics, chemistry, astrophysics, material science, astronomy, etc], but the mind of human beings that embodies their whole existence and worlds.

 

Empirical Evidence for the Existence of Unconscious Processes

More and more psychoanalytic thinkers and sympathisers are starting to find creative ways to test psychoanalytic hypotheses in rigorous empiricistic ways to conform with academic science, despite all the difficulties that this involves. This research is now very extensive, and therefore difficult to summarise. However, two very broad conclusions can be drawn from it. First, specific Freudian claims typically fail to receive experimental support but do work in treating mentally ill patients in clinical practice. For example, repression, castration anxiety and penis envy [although Adler suggested that this should be expressed symbolically as women’s frustration at not being able to match male dominance in society] cannot be experimentally demonstrated. Dreaming does not seem to preserve sleep by disguising latent wishes, and there is very little evidence to back up the theory of Psychosexual stages, although it influenced the Theories of Attachment devised by John Bowlby. However, more general Freudian concepts have often received a good deal of scientific support.

There is today, plenty of evidence to suggest the existence of unconscious mental processes, for the existence of conflict between these processes and conscious cognition, and for the existence of processes resembling some of the defence mechanisms. 2 illustrative studies can support his work. First, Fazio, Jackson, Dunton and Williams (1995) found that people who sincerely profess to having absolutely no racial prejudice can be shown to associate negative attributes with Black faces more than White faces in a laboratory task. This finding which has been replicated countless times by social cognition researchers, shows that the conscious attitudes of individuals may conflict with their “implicit” attitudes [unconscious]. Second, Adams, Wright and Lohr (1996) hooked male subjects up to a daunting instrument called the penis plethysmograph, which measures sexual arousal by gauging penile circumference. It was found that men who reported strong anti-gay (homophobic) attitudes demonstrated an increased arousal when shown videos of homosexual acts, whereas non-homophobic men did not. This finding seems to reveal some form of defence mechanism consistent with the psychoanalytic view that homophobia is a reaction formation against homoerotic desires. However, none of these illustrative studies can be considered as completely conclusive, and all have been controversial and subjected to various interpretations. For example, anxiety, shock, or anger rather than sexual arousal may have caused the increased penile blood flow of Adams et al.’s homophobic subjects.

These experiments prove that with enough creative ingenuity, some psychanalytic propositions can be scientifically tested. Doing so should contribute to the important task of sifting what is worth retaining in psychoanalytic theory for strict empiricists of the hard sciences.

 

Unconscious Processes: Integrating Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychodynamic Theory

In various ways, the evidence for the existence of mental processes that are outside of direct conscious awareness are apparent in every scenarios of life. Here are some examples:

  1. We sometimes cannot remember the name of a particular person of importance, only to be able to recall it hours or days later at a time and place when knowing the name is not required
  2. Despite one’s intention to offer some control over the process, dreaming appears to occur at its own timing and pace.
  3. On September 11, 2001, and the days following, many Americans watched hours of news report focussed on the same attacks on the United States. Although deeply upset by the contents, many individuals could not stop themselves from watching these videos, saying that it was as if something in them drew them to reports in spite of conscious awareness of disbelief and outrage
  4. Many patients who seek psychotherapy are unable to stop unwanted behaviours or interpersonal problems, despite conscious awareness of their harmfulness to them and their life. These problems range from relatively simple [e.g. drinking too much alcohol] to relatively complex [e.g. placing oneself in situations in which one is often taken advantage of or obsessing about one’s body image if certain kinds of fattening foods are consumed].

Other examples are evident too, simple exercises that can be easily performed. For example, consider when 3 lines are drawn in the shape of a triangle with the ends of each line however, not touching one another, leaving a small gap between all their extremities. We can come to realise that, depending on the space between the lines, the image is instantly perceived as a triangle by the individual, a triangle with missing edges; 3 lines that are coming together like a triangle, or just 3 lines at different angles.

When taking into consideration perceptual phenomena such as this [i.e. an example of the Gestalt principle of closure], it is evident that the mind does the following very quickly, without conscious awareness of how the process occurs, yet meaning and understanding are formed.

  • Takes in sensory information
  • Determines what the information is
  • Assembles the information in such a way that a percept or concept is formed
  • The percept or concept is “perceived” and “understood”

The evidence for the existence of unconscious processes is widely known in cognitive psychology. In a seminal paper in the American Psychologist, Shevrin and Dickman (1980) demonstrated how conclusions from the studies of selective attention, cortical evoked potentials, and subliminal perception provide support for the concept of an unconscious mind and posit that “no psychological model that seeks to explain how human beings know, learn, or behave can ignore the concept of unconscious psychological processes” (p. 432). They also noted that the initial stage for processing all stimuli occurs outside of consciousness and that is affects what is known consciously. This early stage is different in how it operates from conscious cognition, and conscious cognition necessarily occurs after considerable preconscious processing. Years, later, their conclusions and ideas appear to be no less true.

 

Empirical and Cases Studies Demonstrating Unconscious Processes

In studies of subliminal perception, which began in 1950s, the processing of unperceivable stimuli and its effect on behaviour has provided interesting results about the unconscious mind. Shevrin and Fisher (1967) subliminally presented participants with a picture of a pen and knee just prior to falling asleep. When they awoke from rapid eye movement (REM; dream stage) sleep, participants’ associations to their dreams were of a pen or knee or included less rational kinds of associations (a finding that had been well demonstrated in past sleep studies). These included words that sound like pen or knee, such as pennant, hen, or neither. In contrast, those who awoke during non-REM sleep, which had been associated with few dreams or dreams that were more rational, had associations such as penny (pen + knee) or related words, such as nickel and dime.

Shevrin (2006) noted that this study demonstrated that 2 levels of unconscious processing – irrational and rational – were taking place. He deduced that once inhibitions [e.g. defences] weaken – in this case, being awakened from sleep – more rational processes overtaken by irrational ones. Surprisingly, the more irrational process observed in this study produced content similar to what was found in severe types of psychopathology: repetition and clanging. In a follow-up study with the same methodology, Shevrin (1973) presented participants with the same stimuli, this time while they were fully awake and more proximal  to entering the sleep state. Again, they found a similar pattern of results in which the type of associations produced varied depending on when participants were awakened.

Even more interesting results were described by Shevrin and colleagues (Shevrin, 1988; Shevrin, Bond, Brakel, Hertel & Williams, 1996; Shevrin et al., 1992), who set out to demonstrate that unconscious and conscious processes operate differently. In these studies, patients were selected who had either pathological phobic reactions or extended grief. They were then assessed via interview, and 4 psychoanalysts listened to the interviews carefully. By way of consensus, the psychoanalyst researchers derived a conceptualisation of the core conflicts for each patient; then went on to select the patients’ words that they believed captured the patients’ conscious experience of the symptoms and words that represented unconscious conflict. These words along with unrelated words were then presented both subliminally and supraliminally to the patients, who were then asked to classify them as belonging together. Using event-related potentials to detect patients’ ability to classify or respond to words in similar ways, the researchers found that words representing unconscious conflicts were correctly classified only when presented subliminally and that the reverse was true for supraliminally presented words; they were correctly classified only when presented supraliminally. Here, we find some sense to Lacan’s deductions regarding the unconscious being structured like language and the linguistic dexterity that psychoanalyst should be able to handle to decipher and understand the fullness of the patient’s mind [conscious and unconscious].

Shevrin (1996) concluded, “…When [these studies are] taken in combination, [they] show that unconscious psychological causes affect consciousness in a qualitatively different way… and that unconscious conflict has an existence independent of the of the psychoanalyst’s inferences from conscious manifestations, an independence supported by brain correlates” (p. 591, italics in original). Shevrin also published reviews of research showing an association between subliminal perception and dreaming (Shevrin, 1986) and subliminal perception and repression (Shevrin, 1990).

In a more recent meta-analysis from more than 100 studies of subliminal perception, Weinberger and Hardaway (1990) found that psychodynamic material presented subliminally had a noticeable and predictable effect on behaviour, suggesting very clearly that unconscious processes affect overt behaviour. For instance, studies by Silverman and colleagues (Silverman, 1983, 1986; Silverman, Bronstein & Mendelsohn, 1976; Silverman, Kwawer, Wolitzky & Coron, 1973; Silverman, Lachman & Milich, 1982; Silverman, Ross, Adler & Lustig, 1978) found that subliminally presented messages of Oedipal content (e.g., “Beating dad is okay”) to male participants yielded more competitiveness in a subsequent dart-throwing game than non-Oedipal messages. [Note: Freud proposed that at the Oedipal stage, a competition between father/son and daughter/mother takes place, before it is resolved in the child gradually adopting the same-sex parent’s values as his/her own in the development of an early form of Conscience (Super-Ego/Preconscious)]

Bradley and colleagues (Bradley, Mogg & Millar, 1996; Bradley, Mogg and Williams, 1994, 1995) performed a series of studies in which words related to depression (e.g. misery, grief, despair) are subliminally presented to individuals who fall into 3 groups: those meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for major depression, those with subclinical levels of depression and those operating as controls. They consistently found that on implicit memory tests, depressed and subclinically depressed individuals correctly identity words related to depression more often than those who are not depressed. Although their findings have not been consistently replicated for patients suffering with anxiety, studies with depressive patients suggest that a level of processing occurs below conscious awareness that increases individuals’ awareness of and identification of depressive material. Clinically, it would suggest that to effectively treat and manage depression, addressing issues related to unconscious sensitivity to depressive material is very important. Given the relatively high relapse rates for depression and other disorders that are treated with methods focussing more on conscious awareness – via cognitive and behavioural therapies (Westen & Morrison, 2001) – it seems that attention to unconscious processes has the potential to effectively address some depressive disorders.

Eagle (1987) provided support for the notion of unconscious processing in studies of perceptual illusions and dichotic listening, a type of selective attention task. For instance, in the Ames room experiment (Ittleson & Kilpatrick, 1951), the ceiling and floor were not parallel, and the 2 subjects stood either towards the front or back of the room. This led perceivers to believe that the people very different in size , despite the fact that they were not. In the dichotic listening task (Lewis, 1970), individuals heard 2 different messages in each ear but were trained to attend to just one of those messages. When asked to repeat what was heard in the trained ear, individuals had less of a reaction time in producing the words when the words in the other ear were semantically similar [the meaning was synonymous / it meant the same thing]. This means that, there was a facilitative effect on performance when a semantically similar word was processed (unconsciously) in the “unattended” ear.

Further studies of patients who have experienced brain injuries provide interesting clinical observations that support the presence of unconscious processes. Milner, Corkin and Teuber (1968) reported the famous case of a patient known as H.M., who had undergone surgery on his medial temporal lobes to control very severe seizures. We nowadays know that just below the this part of the cortex lies the hippocampus, which is considered as an important anatomical locus for learning new information and storing it in working and long-term memory. Because of the damage done to the medial temporal lobes by the procedure, H.M. failed to remember anything that was new to him past surgery. H.M. however could remember information if he rehearsed it, although it was quickly lost if he was interrupted.

One interesting consequence of this procedure was that H.M. appeared not to have lost all “affective” components of certain experiences. For instance, H.M. had the occasion to visit his mother, who was hospitalised. After leaving the hospital, he had no recollection of visiting her, although he had the idea that something may be wrong with her. H.M. experienced other events like this, demonstrating well that implicit learning was still occurring for “affectively charged” situations and that the unconscious effects of this learning could be identified in everyday life.

Later studies of unconscious affective processing have suggested that there are at least 2 neural pathways that process affective information (LeDoux, 1989, 1995, as cited in Westen, 1999). One of these pathways originates in the thalamus and transmit sensory information to other brain regions, whereby emotional meaning is attached to the information. The other pathway, also originating in the thalamus, sends the sensory information to the cortex, where higher levels of emotional processing and emotional meaning are executed.

Mark Solms has reported some exciting work on the effects of unconscious processes on commonly observed clinical syndromes (e.g., Solms, 2000a, 2000b, 2001, 2002, 2004). Solms has taken a very active role in recent times in integrating the findings of neuroscience and psychoanalysis, which has created a relatively new discipline of study known as neuro-psychoanalysis. An interesting set of case of studies has been provided (Solms, 2000a) on patients who have experienced a strike on the right temporal lobe in the region, where the middle cerebral artery lies. In these case studies, psychoanalytic theory and treatment is integrated into the neurological understanding of the deficits the patients are experiencing.

Right hemisphere syndrome is a neurological disorder consisting of 3 major symptoms: ansognosia, neglect and spatial perception and cognition deficits. Anosognosia is the indifference or outright denial of an illness, which in the present case was the loss of the use of the patient’s left arm and side. Neglect occurs when patients ignore their paralysed limb and side. Patients often feel disgust when they are compelled to attend to the left side of the body, sometimes experiencing a sense of revulsion.

The spatial and cognitive deficits observed consist of defective facial recognition, imperceptions of facial emotion, environmental disorientation, and various kinds of apraxia [the inability to complete an activity involving muscle movement]. There are various theories about the emotional deficit in patients with right hemisphere syndrome. One theory suggests that the stroke affects attentional arousal that is mediated through activity in the right perisylvian region of the temporal lobe, which consequently gives rise to anosognosia and neglect. Another theory has focused on the fact that the left hemisphere is more involved with positive emotional processing and the right with more negative emotional processing. Since, the right hemisphere is damaged in this case, anosognosia and neglect occur because there is little to no processing of negative effect in the right hemisphere. A final theory states that it is the right hemisphere that is dominant for the perceptual representation of bodily states, which include more somatic or visceral perceptions. When this part of the brain is damaged or compromised, the bran can only rely on past somatosensory representations of bodily states, which provide the patient that there is no deficit or problem.

Solms (2000a) described Mr.C., a 59-year-old engineer who experienced right hemisphere syndrome after complications from a mild stroke. Only part of the visual field of the patient was remaining and he would not attempt to compensate for it [i.e. neglect], and he also ignored sensory stimulation that occurred on the left side of his body [anosodiaphoria]. He ignored and minimised his paralysed left arm, referring to it as being “like a dead piece of meat, but not it’s just a little bit lame and lazy” (p.71). Other deficits existed due to right parietal damage.

Mr.C. was “aloof, imperious and egocentric” (Solms, 2000a, p.72). He seemed unconcerned about others and would sit blankly at times staring into space. However, on occasion he would burst into tears or look as if this were the case. These periods however, were brief yet stood in stark contrast to the emotional coldness that he often presented with. During one physical therapy session, Mr. C. was making very little progress in learning how to walk. The physiotherapist reported to the treating psychologist that Mr. C. seemed “indifferent to the errors he was making, and he simply ignored her when she pointed them out to him” (p.74). In a session next day, Mr. C. told the psychologist that the physiotherapist indicated that he had been making mistakes, sounding as if he was confession something. Then, he said that another therapist had asked him to do some activities with blocks but that he could not do it. At this point, the therapist replied to Mr. C.:

 

“…it was difficult for him to acknowledge the problems his stroke had left him with, but it seemed that he was now more able to see them. Mr.C., carried on… [saying] his physiotherapy was “okay” but that his arm had not progressed to the degree that he required. Then, at this point, he suddenly  withdrew from conversing… and began to exercise his left hand and arm with the right one. [The therapist] commented that is seemed as if he could not bear the wait, and wanted his arm to be completely better instantly… [He replied] “I just don’t want my left arm to get weak from non-use.” [The therapist then replied] perhaps it was too painful for him to acknowledge what he was on the verge of recognising a moment earlier – namely that his arm really was completely paralysed – and that the question of whether it would recover or not was largely beyond his control. This comment provoked an instantaneous crumpling of his face and a burst of painful emotion accompanied by pre-tearfulness. [Turning to the therapist] he said in desperation “but look at my arm [pointing to his left arm] – what am I going to do if it doesn’t recover? (pp. 74-75)

 

Solms (2000a) noted that this case demonstrates how unconscious material that was too painful to acknowledge was accessed through careful interpretations. Furthermore, the case example controverts the theory that these patients lack negative emotions or have no awareness of their bodies and their deficits. In Mr. C’s case, it is clear that implicit processes were at work and that the emotional response originated out of the complex, associative networks were formed by this patient’s unconscious processing of the painful loss of his bodily integrity.

Transference phenomena can also be better understood in the light of recent findings in cognitive psychology. To understand transference phenomena, Westen and Gabbard (2002b, pp. 103-104) highlighted important ideas in recent studies of cognitive processing.

  1. More representations consist of memory traces that are multimodal, which include semantic, sensory and emotional components.
  2. Representations of self and other exist as potentials for activation. Because there are potentials, they are subject to modification, which will interact with new knowledge, further developing the self and other representations.
  3. Memory networks consist of semantic, episodic and procedural knowledge, along with differing affects and motives.
  4. Unconscious procedures to manage emotions are defences and may be triggered outside of awareness. Co-occurring motives and affects may also be activated, such that the person may not be aware of either one or the defence being used.
  5. Conscious representation are some of many representations that get activated. Consciousness is a serial processing system, whereas multiple parallel processes get activated that are not available to consciousness.

As may be observed in these principles, Westen and Gabbard (2002b) suggested that transference phenomena represent a dynamic, ongoing process that occurs at the conscious and unconscious level. Because multiple cognitive events occur at one time, transference phenomena can be highly complex phenomena and can represent one of many possible reactions to the therapist, as well as other meaningful individuals in the patient’s life. In fact, multiple transferences can occur. For instance, a patient may feel particularly challenged by his work and may experience some feedback from his female supervisor about his recent difficulties with his job. Suppose the patient’s mother took great strides to help him whenever he felt frustrated in his school activities or work, such that he came to unconsciously expect her to provide assistance during challenging times. At work the patient may have experienced the supervisor’s comments as an invitation for help and assistance. Should no help be forthcoming, the patient would become irritated and disappointed with such a difficult supervisor. Likewise, suppose that this patient’s father was unavailable to help him. He may have to come to view male authorities as uncaring and disinterested in his plight. Thus, in his present treatment, the patient may find himself feeling scared and anxious towards his male therapist when talking about his recent disappointment with the supervisor. An exploration of his interaction with his supervisor may elicit anxiety in the patient towards his therapist whom he experiences as a disinterested and uncaring male. Likewise, he may feel very frustrated towards the therapist  who is not willing to tell him how to manage his interactions with his supervisor, reflecting a maternal transference to the therapist who unconsciously should be offering help and assistance quickly and without much effort on the patient’s part.

 

The Psychoanalytic Account of Motivation

The account of human motivation, resting on sexual and death instincts, has been a big talking point for critics of psychoanalysis from the very beginning. Jung’s departure from the psychoanalytic movement was largely caused over disagreements over the motivational concepts. Jung questioned the centrality of sexuality and argued the importance of spiritual motives. Alfred Adler on the other hand proposed a basic desire for social superiority and a “will to power”. Later writers within the psychoanalytic tradition also sought to expand the theory of motivation to include drives for mastery and competence, and for interpersonal relatedness.

In general, there has always been 2 major issues, the first is whether the sexual and death instinct are plausible sources of human motivation. Second, whether they are sufficient explanations of motivation, or whether additional motives that are not reducible to these drives are needed.

With respect to the first issue, it may be hard to deny [from a universal and organic standpoint] that sexual wishes and drives are powerful sources of motivation, especially if we include “sexual” desires as a part of loving relationships and for bodily pleasure. From a biological and evolutionary perspective it could not be otherwise, since reproductive success is the basic currency of individual genetic fitness, not to mention species survival [in all species including primates and mammals].

From this perspective, the psychoanalytic emphasis on sexual drives – an emphasis shared by no other personality theory – is a very strong point of the psychoanalytic theory, even if we are allowed to disagree and investigate some particular claims that may not apply to some individuals regarding the effects of the Psychosexual stages in childhood as proposed by Freud [which inspired John Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment], or discuss the other drives that are non-sexual [e.g. Romantic love and its expressions].

272 Nat Museum of Women in Art 215_1000_dpurb

From the same evolution standpoint, a death instinct directed inwards towards self-destruction is questionable. However, this negative judgement on the death instinct, which is shared by many contemporary psychoanalysts, does not mean that we need to dispense with the idea of aggressive drives. Aggressiveness could be theorised not as a form of self-destructiveness, but rather as a way to strive for social dominance [among a particular frame, circle or group], i.e. to fend off “attackers” in defence of one’s own “territorial grounds” or to assert one’s personal choice or interest.

The second issue is whether sexual and perhaps aggressive drives are broad enough to capture the full range of human motivations. The answer, is clearly not. Since, we also have drives for achievement, approval, non-sexual relatedness, creativity, self-esteem, and so on? The other question is biologically-based motives that “push” us towards certain kinds of behaviour enough? Do future-oriented motivational concepts, like goals and personal ideals not “pull” us towards desirable endpoints? When these questions are raised, basic Freudian account of motivation may seem limited in their scope, leaving out motives that are socially shaped or personally determined. However, the issue is not so easily resolved, since psychoanalysts may agree that motivations beyond the instinctual drives are required to describe how our behaviour is guided, however it may still be argued that all these motivations are simply multiple layers of the very same instinctual drives. For example, achievement striving could be described psychoanalytically as a socially shaped motive that is underpinned and powered by aggressive urges [that are applied in different forms to achieve our goals, i.e. not in a physically violent manner, but competitively in multiple sophisticated social ways]. On the same note, creativity might be understood as a sublimated expression of our sexual drives [e.g. artistic creations], based on some unconscious desire for unifying and making connections that Freud saw as the hallmark of life instincts.

Victor Hugo La Musique

Traduction(EN): « What we could not say and what we could not silence, music expresses. » -Victor Hugo (1802 – 1885)

However, even if the claim that human motivation is ultimately based on a few instinctual drives that govern all living organism, it would still be more enlightening and accurate to patients to describe their motivation in a more complex way, i.e. expressed to meet the sophisticated and multi-layered human societies we live in. So, in the end there is no objective or empirical way to establish the question of motivation with a clear “true or false” – we will have to use logical reasoning and theories about what drives “life” forward.

 

The 2 Major Disciples of Freudian Theory: Carl Jung and Jacques Lacan

The psychoanalytic movement was largely the invention of Sigmund Freud, and his influence far exceeds that of his early followers who subsequently tried to modify psychoanalysis. The major principles of psychoanalysis were redefined and reinterpreted until by 1930 the movement was fragmented into competing views. Nevertheless, those writers were departed from Freud’s speculation retain the basic model of psychoanalysis that conceived of personality in terms of an energy reduction system with three levels of awareness that is the conscious [that contains the Ego], preconscious [that holds the Super-Ego] and the unconscious [the wild Id]. The psychoanalytic movement has been very active since Freud’s death in 1939, and has led to many new theoretical developments influencing all schools of psychology rather than standing still as we have just seen regarding the reconciliation of some fundamental concepts with Cognitive psychology and Neurosciences.

 

Carl Jung (1875 – 1961)

Carl Jung

One of the most fascinating and complicated scholars of this century, Carl Jung (1875 – 1961) was born to a poor family in a northern Swiss village. He managed to gain entrance to the University of Basel and received a doctorate in medicine in 1900. Jung spent most of the rest of his life in Zürich, teaching, writing and working with patients. After reading The Interpretation of Dreams in 1900, Jung began corresponding with Freud and finally met him in 1907. Eventually he accompanied Freud to America in 1909, where he also lectured and introduced his own work to American audiences. However, Jung began to apply psychoanalytic insights to ancient myths and legends in search for the key to the nature of human psyche. Such independent thinking did not meet with Freud’s approval, and there is also some speculation that the Jung made a critical analysis of Freud’s personal life that may have contributed to tensions between them. Freud secured the post of the first president of the International Psychoanalytic Association for Jung in 1911, but by this time their rift was beyond healing. Finally, in 1914, Jung withdrew from the Association and severed all interactions with Freud due to the over-emphasis of the defining stages of infant sexuality among other aspects of pure Freudian theory.  Jung continued his own interpretations of psychoanalysis and made several expeditions to study primitive societies in Western United States, Africa, Australia and Central America. His prolific writings on subjects ranging from anthropology to religion provided novel insights to age-old problems of human existence from the psychoanalytic perspective.

Jung’s “Analytical psychology” refined many Freudian concepts and emerged as the first major alternative to Freudian theory (1900); however, Jung retained Freud’s terminology [Unconscious, Conscious and Preconscious], and as a result the same terms often carry different meanings. Jung (1912) renamed the Id as the Personal Unconscious, the Ego as the Personal Conscious [although the term Ego also appears in some of Jung’s writings], and the Super-Ego as the Collective Conscious [although the term Persona also appears in some of his writings]. After that Jung (1912) analytical psychology also added the Collective Unconscious to Freud’s (1900) structure of personality which is part of the Id.

Jung, like Freud, believed that the central purpose of personality is to achieve a balance between conscious and unconscious forces within the personality. However, Jung described two sources of unconscious forces. What is the personal unconscious, consisting of repressed or forgotten experiences similar to Freud’s preconscious level. The contents of the Personal Unconscious [Id] are accessible to full consciousness. Jung’s Personal Unconscious held complexes, which were groups of feelings with a defined theme than give rise to distorted behavioural responses. According to Hall and Lindzey (1970), “… a [complex] is an organised group or constellation of feelings, thoughts, perceptions, and memories which exists in the Personal Unconscious” (p.82). Unlike archetypes [which reflect the cumulative experiences of the entire human race, Homo Sapiens], Complexes reflect each individual’s unique experience. For example, a boy who repressed negative emotions about his mother could become an adult with the complex, experiencing intense feelings and anxieties when images or stimuli associated with motherhood are encountered [because they are dominated by their mothers (e.g. some mothers might offer nourishment only after – not before – their babies stop crying, thus communicating the unconscious message that the mothers are all-powerful].

The second source of unconscious forces, you need to Jung’s theory, is the Collective Unconscious, more powerful source of energy that contains inherited contents shared with other members of a particular group, i.e. it consists of aspects of personality, common to all humans, that we have inherited from our ancestors. Jung here was talking about individual similarities and not differences in personality. As the personal unconscious has complexes, the collective unconscious has archetypes, defined as primordial images evolved from human beings primitive ancestry of specific experiences and attitudes passed on over centuries [after all humans did evolve from basic primates to the sophisticated beings were now are]. Hall and Lindzey (1970) define archetype as “…a universal thought form (idea) which contains a large element of emotion” (p.84). Although modern science has shown that direct environmental influences has more power in shaping the individual mind, some aspects may be retained from evolutionary psychology although it is important to consider the fact that human societies are constantly evolving in more ways than one. At the time that Jung devised his theory however, he listed such archetypes as birth, death, unity, power, God, the devil, magic, the old sage and the earth mother. As Weitz (1976) noted, according to Jung’s Analytical Psychology, archetypes equip humans to interact with particular aspects of their physical and social worlds in a particular manner, thus archetypes are adaptive from an evolutionary standpoint. For example, Jung (1912) contended that all humans possess a “mother figure” archetype that not only gives them readily accessible image of a generic mother at birth but also predisposes them to interact with their actual mothers in a particular manner [e.g. crying, sucking]. Solomon (2003) noted that in Jung’s Theory, collectively experienced archetypes provide basic themes around which personally experienced complexes are organised. For example, all individuals are born with a readiness to seek nourishment from their mothers (the mother archetype), some individuals may find that their mothers use this readiness against them (mother complex).

The notion of a collective unconscious in personality that provides the individual with patterns of behaviour fits well with Jung’s preoccupation with myths and symbols. Jung believed that the adequacies of a society’s symbols to express archetypal images are an index of the progress of civilisation. [A good example would be the Ancient Greeks who after sophisticating their society through the evolution of their values, philosophy & educational system, saw peasants turn into conquerors, sculptors, poets and artists who even went on to colonise countries that later changed the history of those who colonised them in timeless ways / See: L’épopée de la Grèce antique (2016)].

Jung focussed on the middle years of life, when the pressures of sexual drives supposedly give way to anxiety about the more profound philosophical and religious issues of the meaning of life and death. By reinstating the notion of the spiritual soul, Jung argued that the healthy personality has realised the fullness of human potential to achieve self-unity and complete integration. According to Jung, this realisation occurs only after the person has mastered obstacles during the development of personality from infancy to middle age. Failure to grow in this sense results in the disintegration of personality. Accordingly, the person must individualise experiences to achieve a “transcendent function” by which differentiated personality structures are unified to form fully aware self.

Both Jung (1921) and Freud (1905) wrote about libido, or psychic energy, that presumably fuels individuals’ behaviour, however Jung viewed libido in a less sexualised form. Jung redefined libidinal energy as the opposition of introversion – extraversion in personality, bypassing Freud’s extreme sexual emphasis. Extraversion forces are directed externally of the people and the environment, and then nurture self-confidence. Introversion leads the person to an inner direction of contemplation, introspection and stability. Jung (1921) believed that all individuals are capable of experiencing introversion as well as extraversion over time, however, individuals at any particular point in time may be characterised as experiencing either introversion or extraversion. The opposing energies must be balanced for the proper psychological functioning sensation, thinking, feeling and intuition. An imbalance between extraversion introversion is partly compensated for in dreams. Indeed, for Jung dreams have important adaptive value in helping the person maintain equilibrium. Jung has been praised for developing a dichotomy of flow of psychic energy [i.e. introversion vs extraversion] that has been recast as one of the major personality traits in various trait theories [for empiricists who believe the main focus should be the “conflict-free” conscious part of the ego, to which many basic concepts of Cognitive Psychology can be applied].

In addition to introversion versus extraversion as a pair of opposing directions of flow of psychic energy [i.e. inwards versus outwards], Jung (1921) postulated that thinking vs feeling and sensing vs intuition represent 2 pairs of opposing modes of adaptation and functioning.

As Jung grew older, his writings increasingly came to emphasise mysticism and religious experiences, domains usually ignored by mainstream empirical psychology. Out of all the early founders of psychoanalysis, Jung held views in sharpest contrast to those of empiricism. However, he offered a unique treatment of critical human issues that had not been systematically studied by psychologists and still remain in the realm of speculative philosophy. Perhaps Jung was more of a philosopher than a psychologist, and he provoked and confronted issues not readily accommodated in other systems of psychology.

 

Jacques Lacan (1901 – 1981)

Jacques Lacan

One of the most famous post-Freudian development, especially popular in Europe and South America, was initiated by the colourful French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. Lacan was the son of a successful oil and soap salesman from Paris. His mother was a firm Catholic and his younger brother entered a monastery in 1929.

During the early 1920s, Lacan actively engaged with the Parisian literary and artistic avant-garde movements. Having met James Joyce, he was present at the bookshop where the first readings of passages from Ulysses in French and English took place, shortly before it was published in 1922. Lacan also had meetings with Charles Maurras, whom he admired as a literary stylist, and he occasionally attended meetings of Action Française (of which Maurras was a leading ideologue), of which he would later be critical on some aspects that he firmly disagreed and considered as outdated, such as the positivist sociology of Maurras which presents the subject as a simple product of his « milieu » [circle], derived from his culture which was even pushed to absurd extremes by Édouard Pichon to theorise about a « national unconscious ». Lacan was more avant-garde and perhaps unknowingly embraced future psychological advances of neuroscience by founding his logic on the thesis of German biologist and philosopher Von Uexküll who convincingly argued about the determining factors of the environment and not simply the basic evolution of species, but on the sophisticated elaboration of language which identifies the development of the individual psyche to a social structure.

Lacan developed psychoanalytic theory in radically new directions that relied heavily on linguistic theory and other intellectual trends in the late 20th-century France, such as the structuralist movement. It was proposed that the Unconscious is structured like a language, so that its operations can be likened to linguistic phenomena [e.g. repression was likened to a metaphor]. Hence, to uncover unconscious material the psychoanalyst must decipher a chain of clues with a great deal of verbal dexterity. Lacan also held that the ego, although conscious and able to orchestrate a wide range of operations, is not a complete organ of self-control as ego psychologists from the US maintained, but largely also an unstable and ultimately illusory sense of personal unity. To Lacan, our sense of wholeness is a fiction and our selves are profoundly “de-centred” around a tissue of identifications with people [and characters] we have known [directly or indirectly exposed to – this extends to the arts, fictional characters, mentors, etc].

According to Lacan’s (1973/1977) version of Psychoanalytic Theory, Ego Psychologists [e.g. Anna Freud, Heinz Hartmann, Erik Erikson] and Object Relations Theorists [e.g. Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott and Ronald Fairbairn] had strayed too far from Freud’s original (1900, 1923) original version of psychoanalytic theory. This is even in direct contrast to Jacques Lacan’s own mentor, Ego Psychologist Rudolph Loewenstein who was also a close associate and collaborator of Ego Psychologist Heinz Hartmann.

Lacan, however, seems to have set the record straight in accentuating the fundamental and widely accepted foundations of psychoanalysis by advocating a “return to Freud” [not Anna Freud’s (1923) version of Ego Psychology], but rather to Sigmund Freud’s Topographic Model of the 1900 that defined the mind into 3 levels of awareness, i.e. the Unconscious, the Preconscious and the Conscious.

Rocha (2012) noted that Lacan (1973/1977) was especially concerned with the Unconscious [l’inconscient] as the “ideal worker” within individuals’ personality structures. In a 1973 television interview, Lacan famously argued that the Unconscious does not “think, nor calculate, nor judge; the unconscious simply works!” Lacan contended that like the ideal worker in a capitalist society, the Unconscious generates a product in compliance with rigid, hierarchical rules and regulations – in particular, the product of unthinking and unquestioning fulfilment of individuals’ desire – which seems like something psychoanalysis should address and change for a humane, intelligent and creative civilisation.

As for dreams, Lacan argued convincingly that dreams are important products of the Unconscious that allow individuals to “feel” [at least during the sleeping state] that they have fulfilled their desire, however, dreams may also contain anxiety-provoking contents that individuals do not desire. As Meyer (2001) interestingly pointed out, in Lacan’s psychoanalytic theory, the problem of the Unconscious (Id) in finding expression is the problem of discourse with the “Other”. Indeed, infants enter the world without knowing how to communicate their desire to caregivers via language, with its own rules and structure. It is also to be noted that in Lacanian Theory of Psychoanalysis, infants’ desire arises from the “loss and longing” that they experience when they are separated from their caregivers [especially their mothers] – precisely the person from whom the infants first learn early forms of communication [language]. Waintrater (2012) also pointed out that in Lacan’s Theory, individuals’ desire are not solely tied to infantile sexuality. If anything, Lacan’s concept of unconscious desire complements John Bowlby’s (1969) concept of infants’ need for attachment.

Malin (2011) pointed out that in Lacanian Theory, a major event in infants’ personality and social development is the mirror stage, when infants enter into language as a uniquely human form of interaction with all caregivers in the child’s environment [although infants are not likely to consciously experience language prior to age 2]. As Luepnitz (2009) noted, Lacan believed that infants often enter into language at a crucial point when they literally recognise themselves in a mirror, with caregivers [i.e. can include others such as teachers rather than direct parents] pointing to the reflection and approvingly saying to the infants, “Look, that’s you!” – even if infants are unlikely to remember the event in itself.

Rene Magritte - Not To Be Reproduced (1937)

« Not to be reproduced » by René Magritte, 1937

And as Hivernel (2013) noted, the 2 major outcomes of the mirror stage are the emergence of the Subject (i.e., individuals’ gradual awareness regarding their uniqueness) and the Other (i.e. individuals’ gradual awareness regarding the rest of humanity, to whom they are connected to varying degrees). A further major outcome of the mirror stage is the birth of the Ego, and infants may experience joy at this moment, which occurs (and, in fact, is necessary) before infants can truly understand the power of symbols in language. However, as already mentioned, one of the unfortunate outcomes of the mirror stage was that infants gradually begin to look outward, and not inward in search for identity; and such external orientation toward individuals’ own identity is doomed to fail. This seems to make perfect sense even from the objective and mechanistic outlook that the Organic Theory considers; i.e., any organism whose reality or sense of it is based on the geographical mental conditioning of a group of organisms [about 4 or 5] will have a limited perspective of reality and lack a wider outlook of the world as it truly is.

Gillett (2001) noted that, in Lacan’s view, language does not perfectly convey individuals’ desire to other persons, partly because individuals do not fully understand their own desire, and partly because language is an inherently social medium that can lead to misunderstanding as well as understanding between individuals and other persons. Language however is a very powerful social medium [as can be seen also from the essay, The Concept of Self]

Le Langage et la Réalité dpurb 1200

Traduction(EN): « There has always been something special about language because language creates reality. Language reveals the truth of the subject and adds to reality what was not there before. Hence, the difference between truth and reality is that truth adds to reality what was not there before. Empiricists who study traits should remember that constructs would not exist if they had not first been created through language. Hence language, creates reality! » -Danny J. D’Purb

Lacan proposed that the unconscious is structured like language. In the unconscious as well as in the acquisition of language, individuals may follow rules regarding the use of symbols without having deliberately learned [and without having overtly been taught] those rules [something “special” and even “mystical” about language]. In addition the unconscious [like language] is regarded as a “network of signifiers” with the term signifier (le significant) referring to any symbol that is used [on its own, or in combination with other symbols] to stand in for, or to represent, something else [the signified – le signifié].

The Symbolic [which is constructed largely via language] is one of the aspects of the Subject that is revealed via individuals’ dreams. Other structural components [or registers] of the Subject that are revealed via dreams are the Imaginary and the Real. Lacan argued that the psychanalyst’s interpretation of dreams can be viewed as analogous to a linguist’s translation of a language, unearthing the meaning that particular symbols hold for an individual [e.g. a client in psychotherapy].

Lacan noted that a specific difficulty that arises when psychoanalysts interpret the content of clients’ dreams is that, by the time the clients have awakened a large portion [if not most or all] of the dream has vanished, and this can be problematic if clients are reflecting on dreams that they experienced several year (decades?) ago. According to Lacanian Theory, Marder (2013) noted that dreams are oriented towards future interpretation, by dreamers themselves or by someone else (e.g. Psychoanalysts). Hence, truly important content are likely to survive clients’ transition from sleeping to waking states.

Lacan argued as Stockholder (1998) noted, that Freud’s (1923) Structural model, i.e. the later version of his Psychoanalytic Theory with its dictinctions among Id, Ego and Super-Ego, had distorded the true meaning of the first Topographic Model. And perhaps rightly observed, since the Ego was found to have an unconscious element in generating defence mechanisms outside the awareness of the patient when before it was just an element of the Conscious, i.e the Ego, le Moi, was a component of the Conscious, as a level of consciousness and not dissected into distinct mental functions. However, they can be synthesised and enhanced, as we are doing with Freud, Jung and Lacan along with other discoveries in the realms of Neuroscience and Cognitive-Psychology to explore the psychology of the singular organism and its powers of definition to a level that no other psychologist has attempted to before our endeavour.

Lacan’s theory indeed, does not place great emphasis on the personality structures of Id, Ego and Super-Ego, but rather relocates the Ego and Super-Ego across the Unconscious, Preconscious and Conscious, referring to the Ego as “Le Moi” in some of his writings. And unlike US Ego psychologists who considered the Ego as the dominant component that should be worked on, Lacan argued against such irrational therapy to declare that the true goal of psychotherapy should be therapists’ unearthing the clients’ unconscious desire via the “talking cure” of psychoanalysis – not strengthening the Ego [mindlessly, as this may leave individuals in a state of delusion without an ego adjusted to their abilities – and may even lead to individuals allowing their Ego to dominate the Super-Ego and favour irrational release of the Id’s psychic energy without any remorse or rational control].  This is in direct contrast to the Ego Psychologists’ perspective. To Lacan, psychoanalyts should adopt the role of the Other as a counterpart to the clients’ Subject, thus making it possible for clients to peer beneath their own conscious (typically not completely true) narratives, into their unconscious (and “true”) desire(s) [and perhaps guide or help the patient to realise their dreams within the realms of reality within civilised society] and this should consequently adjust their Ego accordingly [to their world(s)].

Lacan was also innovative and challenged the established procedures of Psychoanalytic practice [which promoted multiple sessions lasting an hour or more apiece, across several years] to advocate brief, impromptu [i.e. unscheduled] therapy that could be completed in a matter of minutes. This seems logical since the main factors that influence successful therapy are the relationship between the therapist and the client, but also the aptitudes of the client [which varies from one individual to another depending on their reflective abilities, intelligence and will power]. Since Lacan’s theory is mainly based on French society – one with a history of challenging the limits of the individual in the name of excellence – it seems fair to acknowledge his opinions [in a sense that not all patients require multiple sessions depending on their individual characteristics and response to the relationship with the psychoanalyst and their understanding of their own mental condition and desires] as rational, economical, time-saving and flexible to accommodate individual differences.

Nous En France - Sarkozy - d'purb

Traduction(EN): « Us in France, we are different from others. To live, we have to drink, eat, but also to cultivate ourselves. » -Nicolas Sarkozy

However, partly as a reaction to Jacques Lacan’s criticism of Ego Psychoogy [as practiced in the United States], and partly as his advocacy of brief, impromptu therapy, the US-oriented International Psychoanalytic Association barred Lacan from training future psychoanalysts. Despite [or perhaps because of?] the IPA’s decision to bar Lacan from training future psychoanalysts, the proportion of Psychoanalysts adopting a Lacanian perspective has only grown since Lacan’s death in 1981with half or more of the world’s psychoanalysts adopting some Lacanian concepts. Jardim, Costa Pereira and de Souza Palma (2011) applied Lacanian Theory to understanding the personality disorder of Schizophrenia [formerly known as “madness”], interpreting a case study [along with fictional examples from literary works] in terms of failure to achieve an integrated Ego from infancy onwards. Furthermore, McSherry (2013) argued that Lacan’s Theory of Psychoanalysis could benefit mental health nursing practice since various forms of personality disorders [including but not limited to Schizophrenia] can be understood readily in terms of Lacan’s theory.

Malone (2012) noted that Lacan was ambivalent towards the growing tendency for empirical clinical psychologists to align their discipline with the hard sciences [e.g. Biology, Medecine, Physics, Chemistry, etc] and not with the humanities [e.g. Literature, Poetry, Theatre, Drama, Art, etc], and viewed psychoanalysis as ideally informed by both the humanities and by the sciences.

Lacan has been hailed as the “French Freud” who has established a tradition of French psychoanalysis that rivals American and British psychoanalysis in terms of international influence. Although Lacan’s theory has been cast as a uniquely French theory [culturally and linguistically speaking], it has nonetheless struck a chord with many [and, perhaps, most] of the world’s influential modern day psychoanalysts, shattering perceptions across languages and cultures worldwide. Perhaps unsurprisingly, a decade later, much psychoanalytic research in the US itself will seem to confirm Lacan’s perspectives as discussed above.

LesFrancaisNapproventPasLaPolitiquedesUSA

A majority of 80% of French citizens are wary of the US and do not approve its politics / Source: Le Figaro

 

Conclusion: Legacy, Impact & Evolution

Psychoanalysis is a unique movement in psychology that grew out of the same German model of mental activity that produced act psychology and the Gestalt movement. However, psychoanalysis received its immediate expression through the needs of the mentally ill. It was born as a clinical discipline, not an academic development based on empirical methodology to fit a particular field’s reductionist requirements for acknowledgement. For this reason, psychoanalysis, especially as proposed by writers after Freud, gives the impression of an ad hoc movement that develops as particular problems arise – it could be seen as adaptive and constantly evolving. Psychoanalysis did not adhere to the commitment to methodology expressed in those mechanical systems generated by academic research. Hence, there was and still is little interaction between psychoanalysis and those systems grounded on empiricism and reductionist methodologies that are stubborn in trying to capture an entity as the mind when most of the constructs cannot be seen or touched, or accurately measured. Stated quite simply, psychoanalysis and the other schools of psychological models do not speak the same language.

Although different and hardly understood, let alone accepted by common mainstream empirical and academic psychology, psychoanalysis did assume a dominant role in psychiatry. This is completely understandable in light of the origins of psychoanalysis as a response to clinical problems as they manifested themselves. Indeed, psychoanalytic writings enjoyed an almost exclusive position in psychiatry and clinical psychology until the 1960s, when behaviour modification and Pavlovian derivatives based on Behaviourism [such as Cognitive Psychology] began to compete as an alternate model of therapy [Read: the Essay on the Origins of the Cognitive Behavioural Model: Biological Constraints in Learning, which also suggests an unconscious drift in other animals].

Pavlov Dog Labs

Psychoanalysis continues to exert a marked influence on art, literature, and philosophy. This influence reflects major contributions of Freud: his comprehensive analysis of the unconscious. On the same line, literary and artistic expressions are interpreted in light of the unconscious activities of the artist as well as the unconscious impressions of the perceiver. Psychologists today may choose unconscious motivations or simply to refer to subliminal or subthreshold activities. However, any truly comprehensive theory of psychological activity can no longer be limited to conscious aspects of behaviour. Although some psychologists may disagree with some Freudian concepts and interpretations, Freud did identity some dynamic processes that influence the activity of the individual: processes that psychology cannot ignore anymore.

As mentioned earlier, psychoanalysis has a unique position in the history of psychology. Freud did not develop a theory that generated testable hypotheses or other empirical implications. Yet, on another level, Freud accomplished what few other theorists have: He revolutionised attitudes and created a new set for thinking about personality. The findings of other more empiricist theories of personality disturbance have often confirmed many of Freud’s observations. If his views do not meet the criteria of empiricistic study, they nevertheless mark a man of genius and insight, whose influence pervades people’s thinking about themselves in ways that few others have achieved.

The psychoanalytic theory is an enormously complex and ambitious one, and it aims to make sense of a much broader array of psychological and social phenomena than other theories, and does so with a collection of explanatory concepts. Hence, the sheer range and scope of psychoanalytic theory, and its aspiration to be a total account of mental life, should be recognised and applauded. In comparison, all other schools of psychology to study personality look decidedly timid and limited in focus. Even if other approaches tend to have more empirical foundations and hence more credential in academic psychology, they tend to leave out much of what we might want to include in a comprehensive theory of human behaviour. To many intellectuals and lay people alike, any account of personality that does not acknowledge that humans are like psychoanalytic theory portrays us, i.e., driven by deeply rooted motives, inhabiting bodies that bring us pleasure and shame, shaped by our early development, troubled by personal conflicts, and often a mystery to ourselves – is fundamentally limited.

While the empirical limitations are a fact, some of these problems are due in part to the intrinsic difficulty of what psychoanalytic theory tries to explain. Others could be partially overcome if researchers made a more concerted effort to determine which psychodynamic ideas stand up to closer, “scientific enquiry”. However, psychoanalysis cannot be judged only by empirical perspectives, and it would be a mistake to abandon it impatiently, given how much a suitably revised and empirically updated theory of psychodynamics in the future might deepen the studies of personality.

Even for all its failings to the empirical scientist, on some aspects, psychoanalysis is at least partly responsible for several important and scientifically respectable ideas that has always had a kernel of truth and was later developed by other researchers. While Freud’s idea of the dynamic unconscious remains controversial, it can no longer be disputed today that unconscious cognition is now a fact and an uncontroversial idea in cognitive and social psychology, where huge volumes of research now explore non-conscious or “implicit” attitudes.

*****

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Essay // Developmental Psychology: The 3 Major Theories of Childhood Development

TheoriesOfDevelopment

Source: An Introduction to Developmental Psychology by Slater & Bremner (Blackwell:Oxford, 2nd Edn, 2011)

THE 3 MAJOR THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT

In 1984, Nicholas Humphrey described us as “nature’s psychologists’” or homo psychologicus. What he meant was that as intelligent social beings, we tend to use our knowledge of our own thoughts and feelings – “introspection” – as a guide for understanding how others are likely to think, feel and hence, behave. He also argued that we are conscious [i.e. we have self-awareness] precisely because such an attribute is useful in the process of understanding others and having a successful social existence – consciousness is a biological adaptation that enables us to perform introspective psychology. Today, we are confident in the knowledge that the process of understanding others’ thoughts, feelings and behaviour is an ability that develops through childhood and most likely throughout our lives; and according to the greatest child psychologist of all time, Jean Piaget, a crucial phase of this process occurs in middle childhood.

Developmental psychology can be characterised as the field that attempts to understand and explain the changes that happen over time in the thought, behaviour, reasoning and functioning of a person due to biological, individual and environmental influences. Developmental psychologists study children’s development, and the development of human behaviour across the organism’s lifetime from a variety of different perspectives. Hence, if we are studying different areas of development, different theoretical perspectives will be fundamental and may influence the ways psychologists and scholars think about and study development.

Through the systematic collection of knowledge and experiments, we can develop a greater understanding and awareness of ourselves than would otherwise be possible.

 

Focussing on changes with time

The new born infant is a helpless creature, with communications skills that are limited along with few abilities. By 18 – 24 months, the end of the period of infancy – this scenario changes. The child has now formed relationships with others, has gained knowledge about the aspects of the physical world, and is about to undergo a vocabulary explosion as language development leaps ahead. At the time of adolescence, the child has turned into a mature, thinking individual actively striving to come to terms with a fast changing and complex society.

The important contribution to development, is maturation and the changes resulting from experience that intervene between the different ages and stages of childhood: the term maturation refers to those aspects of development that are primarily under genetic control, and which are relatively uninfluenced by the environment. An example would be puberty, and although its onset can be affected by environmental factors such as diet, the changes that occur are genetically determined.

 

Development Observed

The biologist, Charles Darwin, notable for his theory of evolution, made one of the earliest contributions to our understanding of child psychology in his article “A biographical sketch of an infant” (1877), which was based on observations of his own son’s development. By the early 20th century, most of our understanding of psychological development was not based on scientific methodology as much was still based on anecdotes and opinions of qualitative analysis, a method that strict empiricists have never managed to grasp or like. Nevertheless, knowledge was still being organised through both observation and experiment and during the 1920s and 1930s the study of child development started to grow as a movement, particularly in the USA with the founding of Institutes of Child Study or Child Welfare in university centres such as Iowa and Minnesota. Minute observations were made of young children in their developmental phase along with normal and abnormal behaviour and adjustment. In the 1920s Jean Piaget [refer to essay] started his long and passionate career in child psychology, blending observation and experiment in his studies of children’s thinking.

The observations carried out in naturalistic settings was soon criticised by the empiricists of the behavioural movement in the 1940s and 1950s [although it continued to be the method of choice in the study of animal behaviour by zoologists]. This led to many psychologist carrying their experiments under laboratory conditions with statistical methods, and such experiments although come with some advantages from the perspective of empirical statistics, they do have limitations and drawbacks [e.g. on measuring qualitative aspects of personality such as emotions, values, etc]. It should be noted that much of the laboratory work on child development from the 1950s and 1960s has been described by Urie Bronfenbrenner (1979) as “the science of the behaviour of children in strange situations with strange adults”.

Schaffer (1996, pp. xiv – xvii) notes other changes in the methods in which psychologists now approach child development, such as the importance in understanding the processes of how children grow and develop rather than simply outcomes, and to integrate findings from a range of sources at different levels of analysis – for example meaningful others, community [geography, socio-linguistics, arts, etc] and culture [religion, nationality(ies), education, class, etc).

In the course of this essay, we will be integrating perspectives to make the most of the findings in distinguishing differences in personality, by reflecting on the links to be made by psychologists between the concept of the child’s “internal working model of relationships” and discoveries about the “theory of mind”.

It is fundamental to acknowledge that psychology itself is mostly based on accurate approximations due to the statistical methods used and the problematic nature of the qualitative variables measured, and not precision. And with this in mind, we should accept the complementary virtues of various different methods of investigation and gain a sense that the child’s process of development and the socio-behavioural context in which they exist are closely intertwined, each having an influence on the other.

 

Defining development according to world views

Intellectuals and researchers who study development also have different views on the topic, that is, the way in which development is defined, and the areas of development that are of interest to individual researchers generally orients them towards specific methodologies and philosophy when studying development.

We are now going to look at the 2 main views in the study of development given by psychologists who hold different views or sometimes combine elements of both, like ourselves, being firmly on the organic perspective of development and construction.

A world view [also known as paradigm, model, or world hypothesis] can be characterised as “a philosophical system of thinking, perceiving and feeling [ideas and more] that serves to organise a set or family of scientific theories and associated scientific methods” (1986, p. 42).

They are beliefs we adopt because it aligns with our values, and these are qualitative and often not open to common reductive empirical tests – that is precisely why we believe them!

Lerner and others note that many developmental theories appear to fall under one or two world views: organismic and mechanistic.

 

Organismic World View

The organismic world view which is the main view that we adopted to be the foundation of the Organic Theory, is one that sees a human being on earth as a biological organism that is inherently active and continually interacting with the environment [all aspects and dimensions], and therefore helping to shape its own development. The organismic worldview emphasises the interaction between maturation and experience that leads to the development of new internal, psychological structures for processing environmental input (e.g. Getsdottir & Lerner, 2008).

As Lerner states: “The Organismic model stresses the integrated structural features of the organism. If the parts making up the whole become reorganised as a consequence of the organism’s active construction of its own functioning, the structure of the organism may take on a new meaning; thus qualitatively distinct principles may be involved in human functioning at different points in life. These distinct, or new, levels of organisation are termed stages…” (p.57). A good analogy would be qualitative changes that take place when the molecules of two gasses hydrogen and oxygen, combine to form a liquid, water. Many other qualitative changes happen to water when it changes from frozen (ice) to liquid (water) to steam (vapour). Depending on the temperature, these qualitative changes in the state of water are easily reversed, BUT in human development the qualitative changes that take place are very rarely, if ever, reversible – that is, each new stage represents an advance on the previous stage, and the organism [human being] does not regress to former stages.

Irreversible

The main argument is that the new stage is not simply reducible to components of the previous stage; it represents new characteristics that were not present in the previous stage.

For example, the organism appears to pass through structural changes during foetal development [See Picture A].

PA Development of the human foetal brain_A

PICTURE A. Development of the human foetal brain / Source: Adapted from J.H.Martin (2003), Neuroanatomy Text and Atlas (3rd ed., p.51). Stamford, CT:Appleton & Lange.

In the initial stage [Period of the Ovum – first few weeks after conception] cells multiply and form clusters; in the second stage [Period of the Embryo – 2 – 8 weeks] the major body parts are formed by cell multiplication, specialisation and migration as well as cell death; in the last stage [Period of the Foetus} the body parts mature and begin to operate as an integrated system [e.g. head orientation towards and away from stimulation, arm extensions and grasping, thumb sucking, startles to loud noises, and so on (Fifer, 2010; Hepper, 2007)]. It is important to understand that similar stages of psychological development are postulated to happen after birth also, and the individual from one stage to another is different with new abilities that cannot be reversed.

Jean Piaget is perhaps the greatest and best example of a successful organismic theorist. Piaget suggested that cognitive development occurs in stages and that the reasoning of the child at one stage is qualitatively different from that of the earlier or later stages. The main job of the developmental psychologist who believes in the organismic worldview [like ourselves] is to determine when [i.e., at what age?] different psychological stages operate and what variables and processes represent the different between stages and determine the transition between them.

 

Mechanistic World View

From the mechanistic world view, it is assumed that a person can broken down into components and can be represented as being like a machine [such as a computer], which is inherently passive until stimulated by the environment [this view seems to be more in line with the early British thinkers about the brain]. Human behaviour is reducible to the operation of fundamental behavioural units [e.g. habits] that are acquired in a progressive, cumulative manner. The mechanistic view assumes that the frequency of behaviours can increase with age due to various learning processes and they can decrease with age when they no longer have any functional consequence, or lead to negative consequences [such as punishment]. The developmental psychologists job here is to study environmental factors, or principles of learning, which determine the way organisms respond to stimulation, and which results in increases, decreases, and changes in behaviour.

Quite unlike the organismic world view, the mechanistic world view sees development as reflected by a more continuous growth function, rather than occurring in qualitatively different stages, and the child is believed to be passive rather than active in shaping its own development and its environment. This mechanistic view is generally embraced by behaviourists and cognitive-behaviourists who function on a reductionist philosophy based on the limitations of the scientific method when faced with understanding psychology and the mechanism of mind; instead they tend to focus on measurable behaviour and treat the brain as an information processing centre with a highly similar logic to a computer. The mechanistic view while being fairly grotesque due to its reductionist values, has revealed to be very practical in the study of human-machine interaction and along with new cognitive methods, it has helped to enhance the design of technological equipment to improve human experience in a wide range of areas.

As for us, we are mostly on the perspective of the organismic school of thought but refuse to completely dismiss all the mechanistic world view’s elements, because some of it can be embedded as secondary cognitive processes carried out by the conscious or preconscious areas of the mind when appraising stimuli from an organism’s environment. Hence, some elements can be embedded in understanding interaction with basic objects and elements of an organism’s “external” [not internal] environment, but to fully base our thoughts and behaviour on a mechanistic world view would arguably be irrationally reductionist.

 

Theories of Development

 

“Es gibt nichts Praktischeres al seine gute Theorie.”

–Emmanuel Kant (1724 – 1804)

 

“There is nothing so practical as a good theory.”

-Kurt Lewin (1944, p. 195)

 

Human development is complex and it would be irrational to expect a single universal theory of development that could do justice to this complexity, and indeed no theory of development attempts to do so. Each theory attempts to account for only a limited range of development and it is often the case that within each area of development there are competing theoretical views, each attempting to account for the same aspects of development. We shall see below some of this complexity and conflict in our account of different theoretical views.

First of all, it would be helpful to understand what is implied by a “Theory” in the field of developmental psychology. A theory of development is a scheme or system of ideas that is generally based on evidence and attempts to explain, describe and predict behaviour and development. So, from this account, it is quite clear that a theory aims to bring order to what might otherwise be a chaotic mass of information – and hence why there may indeed not be anything more practical than a good theory.

We usually deal with at least 2 kinds of theory in every area of development, we have the minor theories [that are generally concerned with very specific and narrow areas of development such as eye movements, the origins of pointing and so on], and we have the major theories which are the ones we are primarily interested in as they attempt to explain large areas of development.

They have been divided in 3 groups for the purpose of this essay, with cognition, emotion and motivation in focus:

(I) The Theory of Cognitive Development of Jean Piaget


(II) The Theory of Attachment in Emotional Development by John Bowlby


(III) The Genetic/Psychosexual Model of Development by Sigmund Freud

 

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(I) The Theory of Cognitive Development (Jean Piaget)

The theory of cognitive development we are interested in is that of Jean Piaget who saw children as active agents in shaping their own development,  and not simply blank slates who passively and unthinkingly responds to whatever the environment throws at them or treats them to [an assumption that is insulting to human intelligence, hence why we do not subscribe blindly to the passive school of thought but only consider some elements related to very basic cognitive processes].

This suggests that children’s behaviour and development is motivated largely intrinsically (internally) rather than extrinsically (externally).

For Piaget and intellectuals with a firm belief in the mind as an active entity, children learn to adapt to their environment and as a result of their cognitive adaptations they are now better able to understand their world. Adaptation is an act that all living organisms have evolved to do and as children adapt, they also gradually construct more advanced understanding [internal working models] of their worlds.

(1919) Jaroslava & Jiri by Alphonse Mucha (1860 - 1939)

(1919) Jaroslava & Jiri, The Artist’s Children by Alphonse Mucha (1860 – 1939)

These more advanced understanding of the world reflect themselves in the appearance of new stages of development. Piaget’s theory is the best and most accomplished example of the organismic world view, and it portrays children as inherently active, continually interacting with various dimensions of their environments, in such a way as to shape their own development.

With this assumption in mind, Piaget’s theory is also often referred to the Constructivist Theory.

[IMPORTANT NOTE: For a detailed account of Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, please read the essay…]

 

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(II) The Theory of Attachment in Emotional Development (John Bowlby)

If we pick up a new born baby , he/she will respond without any difference to us or to any other person. However, after 9 months, the same baby will have developed one or more selective attachments and will discriminate familiar faces to unfamiliar ones. So, if we were to pick up the baby again, we may face scenarios where he/she displays anxiety or cries, but if the mother or father picks her/him up, the baby will be reassured and pacified.

This section will explore and give an account of the development of attachment relationships between infants, parents, and other close primary caregivers. The significance of such attachments for development in adult life will also be considered, with its implication for the philosophy of education in sculpting the minds of tomorrow, along with some research on parenting styles analysing some of the factors affecting successful and less successful parenting.

 

The Development of Attachment Relationships: Attachment as an innate drive

The infant’s expression of emotions and the caregiver’s response to these emotions is the fundamental foundation of John Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment. Bowlby’s (1958, 1969 / 1982, 1973, 1980) theory was inspired and influenced by an exciting and creative range of disciplines including psychoanalysis, ethology and the biological sciences. Before Bowlby, the main assumption and view of the infant-mother attachment was that it was a “secondary drive” or a side-product of the infant associating the mother with the provision of physiological needs, such as hunger [Picture B – breast feeding image].

Breastfeeding Mother

PICTURE B. Early theories of infant-mother attachment suggested that it was a secondary drive resulting from the mother satisfying the infant’s primary drives, such as hunger. / Photography:  Jo Frances

Bowlby defied this logic, and argued convincingly that attachment was an innate primary drive in all infants, and while his theory went through many revisions over the years, this argument remained fundamental.

In Bowlby’s first version of his theory of attachment (Bowlby, 1958), the emphasis was on the role of behaviours resulting from our instincts [on how behaviours such as crying, clinging and smiling served the purpose of eliciting a reciprocal attachment response from the caregiver]:

There matures in the early months of life of the human infant a complex and nicely balanced equipment of instinctual responses, the function of which is to ensure that he obtains parental care sufficient for his survival. To this end the equipment includes responses which promote his close proximity to a parent and… evoke parental activity.

(Bowlby, 1958, p. 346)

However, in the 1969 version of his theory (1st volume of his trilogy, Attachment and Loss),  Bowlby focussed on highlighting the dynamics of attachment behaviour, and switched to explaining the infant-mother tie in terms of a goal-corrected system which was triggered by environmental cues rather than innate instinctual behaviours. Whether attachment is instinctual or goal-corrected, we know that it eventually leads to the infant maintaining proximity to the primary caregiver.

Bowlby acknowledged that the development of an attachment relationship was not dependent purely upon the social and emotional interplay between infant and caregiver. Since we can only observe attachment behaviour primarily when the infant is separated from the caregiver, it is logically dependent upon the infant’s level cognitive development in the ability for object permanence [i.e. the ability to represent an object (living or non-living) that is not physically present within the child’s proximity].

This seems to synchronise partly with Piaget’s outlook and theory of cognitive development, and indeed Bowlby was inspired by Jean Piaget, and based his argument on Piaget’s (1955) contention that this level of object permanence is not attained until the infant is approximately 8 months old. Furthermore, while children would be able to recognise familiar people before such age, they would still not miss the attachment figure and thus display attachment behaviour until they have reached the level of cognitive sophistication that comes with the ability to represent absent objects [and people, who are in the same class].

 

The Phases of Attachment: Development of Attachment Relationships

Let us imagine a classic example of a mother and child [about 1 – 2 year-old] in a park. What we might observe is that the mother is seated on a bench while the infant runs off to explore the area. Periodically, the child may be seen to stop and look back at the mother, and every once in a while may even return close to her, or make physical contact, staying close for a while before venturing off again. In most cases, the infant rarely goes beyond about 60 metres from the mother or primary caregiver, who may however have to go and retrieve the child if the distance gets too great or if the need to leave is imminent.

The scenario here from a developmental psychologist’s perspective is fairly simple; the infant is exploring the environment it is being exposed to inquisitively, and is using the mother as a “secure base” to which to return periodically for reassurance. This is one of the hallmarks of an “attachment relationship”. These observations of children in parks were made by a student of John Bowlby, Anderson (1972) in London, and the development of attachment has been described in detail by John Bowlby (1969).

Bowlby (1969, p. 79) described 4 phases in the development of attachment and subsequently extended it to a 5th.

The phases are:

I. The pre-attachment phase (0 – 2 months) is characterised by the infant showing hardly any differentiation in their responses to familiar or unfamiliar faces.

II. During the second phase (2 – 7 months), the foundations of attachment are being laid. Here infants start to recognise their caregivers, even if they still do not possess the ability to show attachment behaviours upon separation. The infant is also more likely to smile at the mother or important caregivers and to be comforted by them if distressed.

III. Clear cut attachment behaviours only start to appear after 7 months. At this phase, infants start to protest at being separated from their caregivers and become very wary of strangers [so called stranger anxiety] – this is often taken as a definition of attachment to caregiver and this onset of attachment happens from 7 – 9 months.

IV. When the attachment relationship has evolved into a goal-corrected partnership (from around 24 months / 2 years of age), [i.e. when the child also begins to accommodate to the mother’s needs, e.g. being prepared to wait alone if requested until the mother returns]. This is an important change because before this phase, the infant only saw the mother as a resource that had to be available when needed. Bowlby saw this as characterising the child at 3 years of age, although as mentioned from 2 years old babies can partly accommodate to verbal requests by mothers to await for her return (Weinraub and Lewis, 1977). From this phase onwards, the child relies on representation or internal working models of attachment relationships to guide their future social interactions.

V. The lessening of attachment is noticed as measured by the child maintaining proximity. The characteristics of a school-age child, and older, is the idea of a relationship based more on abstract considerations such as affection, trust, loyalty and approval, exemplified by an internal working model of the relationship.

Bowlby viewed attachment as a canalized developmental process where both the mainly instinctive repertoire of the new born and certain forms of learning are important in early social interactions. Certain aspects of cognitive sensori-motor development [as supported by Jean Piaget] are also fundamental for attachment. Until the developing infant can master the concept of cause-effect relations, and of the continued existence of objects [incl. persons] when out of sight, he or she cannot protest at separation and attempt to maintain proximity [note the importance of object permanence in emotional development and internal working models]. Hence, sensori-motor development is also a canalised process, and it should not be in opposition to an ethological and a cognitive-learning approach to attachment development.

 

Attachments: Between whom?

Many articles and textbooks have characterised the attachment relationship as mainly focussed on the mother (e.g. Sylvia and Lunt, 1981), and this may not be completely true, since many studies have suggested that early attachments are usually multiple, and although the strongest attachment is often to the mother, this need not always be so.

In a study conducted in Scotland, mothers were interviewed and asked to whom their toddlers showed separation protest (Schaffer and Emerson, 1964), the proportion of babies with more than 1 attachment figure increased from 29% when separation protest first appeared [about 7 – 9 months] to 87% at 18 months [1 and half year old]. It was also found that for about one third of babies, the strongest attachment seemed to be to someone other than the mother, such as father, or other trusted primary caregivers. In most cases, attachment were formed to responsive persons who interacted and played a lot with the infant; basic caregiving such as nappy changing was clearly not in itself such an important factor; and similar results were obtained by Cohen and Campos (1974).

UglyLeeches

Peinture: Sandrine Arbon

Studies in other cultures also support this conclusion, for example in the Israeli kibbutzim, young children spend the majority of their waking hours in small communal nurseries, in the charge of a nurse or metapelet. In a study of 1- and 2- year-olds reared in this way, it was found that the infants were very strongly attached to both the mother, and the metapelet; either could serve as a base for exploration, and provide reassurance when the infant felt insecure (Fox, 1977). In many agricultural societies, mothers tend to work in the fields, and often leave infants in the village, in the care of grandparents, or older siblings, returning periodically to breastfeed. In a survey of 186 non-industrial societies, it was found that the mother was rated as the “almost exclusive” caretaker in infancy in only 5 of them; hence other persons had important caregiving roles in 40% of societies during the infancy period, and in 80% of societies during early childhood (Weisner and Gallimore, 1977).

 

The Security of Attachment

Early infant-caregiver attachment relationships and the internal working models are the main aspects of Bowlby’s theory of attachment and have been given the greatest attention, with researchers developing 2 of the most widely used measuring instruments in developmental psychology to investigate Bowlby’s theoretical claims: the strange situation procedure to assess the goal-corrected system that evolved from the early attachment relationship, and the Adult Attachment Interview to assess internal working models.

Bowlby’s theory was focussed and interested with the making and breaking of attachment ties, probably because his experiences of working as a child psychologist exposed him to the negative consequences for emotional development of severe maternal deprivation [such as long term separation or being orphaned].

Nowadays, researchers and intellectuals are generally less concerned with whether a child has formed an attachment [since any child who experiences any degree of continuous care will become attached to the caregiver], but are rather more interested in the quality or security of the attachment relationship. This important shift in emphasis was due to the empirical work of Mary Ainsworth.

Ainsworth interest in the concept of attachment grew after working with Bowlby in London during the 1950s. Later, she moved to Uganda to live with the Ganda people where she made systematic observations of infant-mother interactions in order to investigate Bowlby’s goal-corrected attachment systems in action.

One factor that struck Mary Ainsworth (1963; 1967), was the lack of uniformity in infant’s attachment behaviour, in terms of its frequency, strength, and degree of organisation. Furthermore, these differences were not specific to Gandan infants, since she replicated these findings in a sample of children in the USA when she moved to Baltimore. These variations in attachment type had not been accounted for by John Bowlby’s Theory and hence, this led Ainsworth to investigate the question of individual differences in attachment.

Mary Ainsworth experience of working with Bowlby, along with her rich collection of data harvested over a period of many years, put her in a unique position in the development of attachment as an empirical field of research. Her contribution led to attachment issues becoming part of mainstream developmental psychology, rather than being simply confined to child psychiatry, and behind this achievement was an investigation of the development of attachment under normal family conditions and by developing a quick and effective way of assessing attachment patterns in the developmental laboratory.

Although the strange situation procedure (Ainsworth & Wittig, 1969) circumvented [found a way around] the need for researchers to conduct lengthy observations in the home, it was not developed simply for research convenience, but because there are problems in trying to evaluate attachment type in the child’s own home environment. For example, if a child becomes extremely distressed upon the mother moving to another room in their own home environment, this may be an indication of a less than optimal attachment achieved, because if a child feels secure then such a separation should not trigger any distress. The extensive experience of Ainsworth in observing infant-mother interactions enabled her to identify the situations that we most crucial in attachment terms, and therefore formed the basis of the strange situation procedure.

 

The Strange Situation Procedure

Ainsworth and her colleagues then developed a method for assessing the attachment strength of an individual infant towards her mother or caregiver (Ainsworth et al., 1978). The method is known as the Strange Situation, and has been widely used with 12 – 24 months old infants in many countries worldwide. To sum up, it is a method for checking in a standardised way, how well the infant uses the caregiver as a secure base for exploration, and is comforted by the caregiver after a lightly stressful experience.

The strange situation assesses infants’ responses to separations from and subsequent reunions with, the caregiver [mother here], and their reactions to an unfamiliar woman [the so-called “stranger”]. In the testing room, there are only 2 chairs [one for the mother and one for the stranger] and a range of toys with which the infant can play.

TA - The Strange Situation Procedure

Table A. The Strange Situation Procedure

As Table A shows, the episodes are ordered so that the infant’s attention should shift from the exploration of the environment to attachment behaviour towards the caregiver as the Strange Situation proceeds. The most crucial points are the infant’s responses to the 2 reunion episodes, and form the basis for assessing an infant’s security of attachment. The coding scheme for security attachment was developed by Ainsworth et al. (1978) and describes infant behaviour according to 4 indices:

1) Proximity-seeking
2) Contact-maintenance
3) Resistance
4) Avoidance

Referring to Table A, in a well-functioning attachment relationship, it would generally assumed that the infant would use the mother as a base to explore [Episodes 2, 3 and the end of Episode 5], but be stressed by the mother’s absence (Episodes 4, 6 and 7;  these episodes are cancelled if the infant is overly distressed or the mother wants to return sooner]. Special attention is also given to the infant’s behaviour in the reunion episodes (5 and 8), to see if her or she is effectively comforted by the mother. Based on those measures, Ainsworth and others distinguished a number of different attachment types.

The 4 primary ones are:

Type A – Insecure Avoidant Attachment

Insecure-Avoidant (Type A) infants display high levels of environment-directed behaviour to the detriment of attachment behaviour towards the caregiver [i.e. Avoidant (A) – avoids caregiver and explores environment]. The Insecure Avoidant Types display little if any proximity-seeking behaviour, and even tend to avoid the caregiver, by averting gaze or turning or moving away, if the caregiver attempts to make contact. Throughout the whole process of the Strange Situation, Insecure Avoidant infants appear completely indifferent toward the caregiver, and treat both the latter and the stranger is very similar ways; hence, these infants may show less avoidance of the stranger than of the caregiver.

Note that conversely, the (Type C) Insecure Resistant / Ambivalent Attached infants show high levels of environmental-directed behaviour to the detriment of the caregiver [the complete opposite to Type A].

Type B – Secure Attachment

When the dynamics of the attachment relationship is a balance between environmental exploration and attachment behaviour directed towards the caregiver [See PICTURE C], then the securely attached infants are considered as having the right balance.

PC Attachment as a balance of behaviour TA

PICTURE C. Attachment as a balance of behaviour directed toward mother and the environment. Source: Adapted from Meins (1997).

 

The presence of the caregiver in the pre-separation episodes affords them the security to turn their attention to exploration and play, with the confident knowledge that the caregiver will be available for comfort or support should it be required. However, attachment behaviour is triggered in securely-attached infants during the separation episodes, leading to seek contact, comfort, proximity or interaction with the caregiver when they return. Securely attached infants may or may not become distressed upon separation from caregivers, and this makes the infants’ response to separation a relatively unreliable and poor indicator of attachment security. However, regardless of their response to separation, securely attached children are marked by their positive and quick response to the caregiver’s return, displayed generally by their readiness to approach, greet and interact with the caregiver.

It important to note that Type B [Secure] Attachment is the only “secure” attachment in the group, all the rest are insecure attachment types, and in contrast to Type B, they have their balance of infant attachment tipped to either extreme [i.e. Avoidant (A) – avoids caregiver and explores environment / Resistant (C) – avoids environment and exhausts caregiver]

Type C- Insecure Resistance / Ambivalent

Insecure-resistant infants are over-involved with [to the point of exhausting] the caregiver, showing attachment behaviour even during the pre-separation episodes, with little or no interest in exploring the environment. The Insecure Resistant (Type C) infants tend to become extremely distressed upon separation, however, the over-activation of their attachment system hampers their ability to be comforted by the caregiver upon reunion – this leads to angry or petulant behaviour, with the infant resisting contact with and from the caregiver [in extreme cases this manifests itself as tantrum behaviour where the caregiver may sometimes be hit or kicked by the infant].

Type D – Insecure Disorganised

Besides the original 3 categories mentioned above distinguished by Ainsworth et al. (1978), Main and Solomon (1986, 1990) established a fourth category, Type D [Insecure Disorganised Attachment] for infants whose behaviours appeared not to match any of the A [Avoidant], B [Secure] and C [Resistant/Ambivalent] categories. These insecure-disorganised infants look disoriented during the strange situation procedure, and display no clear strategy for coping with separations from and reunion with their caregivers. Infants classified as insecure-disorganised may simultaneously display contradictory behaviour during the reunion episodes, such as seeking proximity while also displaying obvious avoidance [e.g. backing to which the caregiver or approaching with head sharply averted]. Insecure-disorganised infants (Type D) may also react to reunion with fearful, stereotypical or odd behaviours [e.g. rocking themselves, ear pulling, or freezing]. Main and Hesse (1990) argued that, although the classification criteria for insecure-disorganised attachment are diverse, the characteristic disorganised behaviours all include a lack of coherence in the infant’s response to attachment distress and betray the “contradiction or inhibition of action as it is being undertaken” (p.173).

Main and her colleagues (1985) believe the Type D [Insecure-disorganised ] is a useful extension of the original Ainsworth classification.

There are many subtypes of these main types, however most studies do not refer to them, and in older studies, type D babies [who are often difficult to classify as they do not show a clear pattern] were ‘forced’ into 3-way and 4-way classifications.

In most cases, type B babies (secure – considered as most desired, i.e. “normal” / although debated] are compared with types A and C [inscure-avoidant and insecure-resistant/ambivalent], and the type B [secure-attachment] tends to be seen as developmentally normal, or advantageous. Many criticisms have been made of the attachment typing resulting from the Strange Situation procedure (Lamb et al., 1984), particularly of the earlier work that was based on small samples, and of the normative assumption that “B is best”. They also pointed out the procedure only measures the relationship between mother and infant, and not the characteristics of the infant. Since attachment security is the dyadic measure, infant-mother attachment type is not necessarily the same as infant-father attachment type. In fact, many studies have found that the attachment type to father is not related to that with the mother; meta-analyses (Fox et al., 1991; van Ijzendoorn and De Wolff, 1997) found a very modest association between the two.

However, the strange situation procedure is today a commonly and internationally used technique. One of the most important test of utility of attachment types is that it should allow us to predict other aspects of development, and we now have considerable evidence for this (see Bretherton and Waters, 1985 and Waters et al., 1995, for reviews).

Kochanska (2001) followed infants longitudinally from 9 to 33 months and observe their emotions in standard laboratory episodes designed to elicit fear, anger or joy. Over time, type A (Avoidant – towards caregiver) infants became more fearful, type C (Resistant/Ambivalent – exhausts caregiver) infants became less joyful, type D (Disorganised – does not fit in A, B or C behavioural categories) infants became more angry; whereas type B (Secure) infants showed less fear, anger or distress. Using the strange situation procedure, secure attachment to mother at 12 months has been found to predict curiosity and problem solving at age 2, social confidence at nursery school at age 3, and empathy and independence at age 5 (Oppenheim et al., 1988), and a lack of behaviour problems (in boys) at age 6 (Lewis et al., 1984).

Is the Strange Situation valid across populations worldwide?

Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) provided a cross-cultural comparison of strange situation studies in a variety of different countries. In American studies, some 70% of infants were classified as securely attached to their mothers (type B), some 20% as Type A, and some 10% as Type C. However, German investigators found that some 40-50% of infants were of Type A (Grossman et al., 1981), while a Japanese study found 35% to be of Type C (Miyake et al., 1985). These percentages do raise the question about the nature of “insecure attachment”: is it a less satisfactory mode of development or are these just different styles of interaction?

Takahashi (1990) argued that the Strange Situation must be interpreted carefully when it is applied across cultures. He found that Japanese were excessively distressed by infant alone episode (episode 6 – Table A), because generally in Japanese culture babies are never left alone at 12 months. This is the reason why fewer Japanese babies scored B (Secure). It is also important to note, that there was no chance for them to show avoidance (and score A – insecure avoidant), since the mother seeing the level of distress went straight on without hesitation to pick up the baby. This may also be possible explanation as to why many Japanese babies were C (Insecure Resistant/Ambivalent) at 12 months [still they are not at 24 months, nor are adverse consequences apparent]. This distortion can be avoided by virtually omitting episode 6 (see Table A) for such babies. Rothbaum et al. (2000) do take a more radical stance, in comparing the assessment security in the USA and Japan. They argue that these two cultures put different cultural values on constructs such as independence, autonomy, social competence and sensitivity; such that some fundamental tenets of attachment theory are called into question as cross-cultural universals.

Cole (1998) suggested that we need information of the geographical trends in socio-behavioural patterns [culture, heritage, language, arts, etc] under study if we are to understand the nature of the everyday interactions that shape the development of young children in relation to their caregivers. The strange situation may be a valid indicator but it is just the we at least need to redefine the meaning of the categories “avoidant, secure and resistant / ambivalent” according to the geographical socio-behavioural patterns [culture]. He also argued that although it is a standardised test, strange situation is really a different situation in different environmental circumstances. However for successful use of the strange situation in a non-western culture [one that is not of Western European heritage], we can take a look at the Dogon people of Mali.

Infant-mother attachment among the Dogon of Mali

The study we are about to discuss is a very rare one among its kind which took place among the Dogon people of Eastern Mali, a primarily agrarian people living by subsistence farming of millet and other crops, as well as cash economy in towns [see PICTURE D].

PD - Dogon mother spinning cotton with child on her lap

PICTURE D. Dogon mother spinning cotton with child on her lap

The study was carried out in 2 villages with a total population of about 400, and one town population of 9000, with the researchers attempting to get a complete coverage of infants born between mid-July and mid-September 1989. Not all infants could take part, due to relocation or refusal, and the researchers excluded 2 infants who had birth defects, and 8 suffering from severe malnutrition. In addition, after recruitment two infants die before or during the two-month testing period. Finally, 42 mother-infant pairs took part and provide a good quality data. The infants were 10 to 12 months old at the time of testing.

The Dogon are a polyamorous society, and mothers typically live in a compound with an open courtyard, often shared with co-wives. There was some degree of shared care of infants, about one half were cared for primarily or exclusively by the mother, about one third primarily by the maternal grandmother with a mother however being responsible for breastfeeding (see PICTURE E).

PE - Dogon mother breastfeeding her child

PICTURE E. Dogon mother breastfeeding her child.

Breastfeeding is a normative response by the mother to signs of distress in in the Dogon infants. Three related features of infant care in the Dogon – frequent breastfeeding on demand, quick response to infant distress, and constant proximity to the mother or caregiver – are seen as adaptive and there is high infant mortality [as in some other traditional African cultures].

The researchers have several objectives in mind, they wish to see if the strange situation could be used successfully in Dogon culture; one distribution of attachment types was obtained; whether infant security correlated with maternal sensitivity – a test of the Maternal Sensitivity Hypothesis; whether infant attachment type related to patterns of attachment-related communications in mother-infant interaction – the test of what the authors call the Communication Hypothesis; and to see if frightened or frightening behaviour by the mother predicted disorganised infant attachment.

Three situations were used to obtain relevant data, the behaviour being recorded on videotape in each case. One was rather new – the Weigh-In, part of the regular well-infant examination, in which the mother handed over the infant to be weighed on a scale – and mildly stressful separation for the in, especially in Dogon culture. The other two were more standard – the strange situation, carried out in an area of courtyard separated off by hanging mats; and two 15 minute observations in the infant’s home, and the mother was cooking, bathing/caring for the infant.

The following data were obtained:

  • Infant attachment classification (from the strange situation)
  • A rating of infant security on a 9-point scale (from the strange situation)
  • Mother and infant communication related to attachment, coded by 5-point Communications Violations Rating scales (from the Weigh-in)
  • Maternal sensitivity, rated in terms of promptness, appropriateness and completeness of response to infant signals (from the home observations)
  • Frightened or frightening behaviours by the mother, such as aggressive approach, disorientation, trance state, rough handling as if baby is an object, on a 5-point scale (from the home observations and the Weigh-In).

[REMEMBER!!!! [although we are quite sure you know this already] : “r” is known as the correlation coefficient and tells us 2 things: (i) Direction of Relationship + or – & (ii) Strength of Relationship : +or- .1 is a small effect / +or- .3 is a medium effect / +or- .5 is a large effect | and p-value is the critical decider of whether to reject Null Hypothesis( i.e. the scenario we rightly thought would be opposite to our predictions) if p small enough (if p < .05 we say results were statistically significant, if p < .01 we say it is HIGHLY statistically significant) we reject the Null Hypothesis [both cases].

The strange situation was found to be feasible, following quite standard procedures. The distribution of attachment types was 67% B (Secure), 0% A (Avoidant), 8% C (Resistant/Ambivalent), and 25% D (or on a forced 3-way classification, 87% B, 0% A and 13% C). This is quite unusual in having no avoidant (A) classifications; D is high but not significantly greater than Western norms.

The Maternal Sensitivity Hypothesis only received weak support. The correlation between infant security and maternal sensitivity was r = 0.28, and with p < .10; the difference in means between attachment classifications was not statistically significant (B=5.26, C=5.00, D=4.20).

The Communications Hypothesis did get support. Infant security correlated -.54 with Communications Violations (p < .001), and the attachment classifications differed significantly (B=2.66, C = 3.50, D = 3.89; p < .01).

Finally, frightened or frightening behaviour by the mother correlated r = -.40 (p < .01) with infant security, and was particularly high in children with disorganised attachment (B= 1.23, C = 1.33, D = 2.35; p < .01).

Besides demonstrating the general application of the strange situation procedure in a nonwestern group with socio-behavioural patterns very different to our own, the findings provides support for the Communication Hypothesis. The case here would have been stronger if the different kinds of communication patterns for each attachment classification had been described in more detail. For example, that insecure resistant / ambivalent (C) attachment type infants would be inconsistent and often unable to convey their intent, or to terminate their own or another’s arousal, whereas insecure disorganised (D) attachment type infants would “manifest contextually irrational behaviours and dysfluent communication” (p. 1451). As it is, the main findings show that insecure infants show more communications violations, do not describe the detailed typology. Indeed, since some of the Communications Violations rating scales were of “avoidance, resistance and disorganisation” (p. 1456), there is a possible danger of conceptual overlap between this scale and the attachment classifications.

Although support for the Maternal Sensitivity Hypothesis was we, the correlation of r = .28 is in line with the average of r = .24 found in the meta-analysis by De Wolff and Van Ijzendoorn (1997) on mainly Western samples. The researchers used a multiple regression analysis to examine the contributions of both maternal sensitivity and mothers frightened/frightening behaviour, to attachment security. They found that the contribution of maternal sensitivity remain modest, whereas the contribution of mothers frightened/frightening behaviour was substantial and significant; ratings of maternal sensitivity do not normally take account of mothers frightened/frightening behaviour, and the researchers suggest that this might explain the modest effects found for maternal sensitivity to date.

The absence of avoidant (A – avoids caregiver and favours exploration) type infants is interesting and the researchers argue that, given the close contact mothers maintained with the Dogon infants, and the normal use of breastfeeding as a comforting activity, it would be very difficult for it Dogon infant to develop an avoidant strategy [this may have some similarity with the low proportion of A-type in Japanese infants). If avoidant (A) attachment is a rare or absent when infants nursed on demand (which probably characterises much of human evolution), this might suggest that A type attachment was and is a rare except in Western samples in which infants tend to be fed on schedule, and often by bottle rather than breast, so that the attachment and feeding systems are effectively separated.

Most Dogon infants showed secure (B) attachment, but 25% scored as disorganised (D) [though mostly with secure as the forced 3-way classification]. The researchers comment that the frightened or frightening behaviours were mild to moderate, and did not constitute physical abuse. But why should mothers show these sorts of behaviour at all? An intriguing possibility is that it is related to the high level of infant mortality prevalent in the Dogon. About one third of infants died before five years of age, and most mothers will have experience in early bereavement. Unresolved loss experienced by a mother is hypothesised to disorganised (D) attachment; perhaps, frightened behaviours are more rational or expected, when the risk for infants are so much higher.

This study to great efforts to be sensitive to the geographically specific socio-behavioural patterns (culture) of the venue, when using procedures and instruments derive mainly from Western samples. A Malian researcher assisted in developing the maternal sensitivity coding, and Dogon women acted as strangers in the strange situation procedure. The Weigh-In and home observations were natural settings. The authors comment, however, that future work might make more effort to tap the perceptions of mothering and attachment held by the Dogon people themselves, in addition to the constructs coming from Western psychology.

(True, M. M., et al, 2001)

Back Home in the West: Why do infants develop certain attachment types?

Individual differences in the caregiver’s sensitivity to infant’s cues were the earliest reported predictors of attachment security. Ainsworth and colleagues (Ainsworth, Bell & Stayton, 1971, 1974; Ainsworth et al., 1978) found that mothers who responded most sensitively to their infants’ cues during the first year of life tended subsequently to have securely attached infants. The insecure-avoidant (Type A) pattern of attachment was associated with mothers who tended to reject or ignore their infants’ cues, and inconsistent patterns of mothering were related insecure-resistant/ambivalent (Type C) pattern of attachment. Although further research is largely supported this link between early caregiver sensitivity and later attachment security, the strength of the relation between these factors has not been replicated. For example, De Wolff and van Ijzendoorn (1997) conducted a meta-analysis to explore the parental antecedents of attachment security using data from 21 studies involving over 1000 infant-mother says, and reported a moderate effect size for the relation between sensitivity and attachment security (r = 0.24), compared with the large effect (r = 0.85) in Ainsworth et al.’s (1978) study. This led De Wolff and van Ijzendoorn to come to the conclusion that “sensitivity cannot be considered to be the exclusive and most important factor in the development of attachment” (p. 585).

It seemed that the construct of sensitivity might have been responsible for the result, so we return to Ainsworth et al.’s (1971, 1974) original definitions in order to have a better understanding of predictors of attachment security. In this research, we were particularly influenced by Ainsworth’s focus on the caregiver’s ability not merely to respond to the infant, but to respond in a way that was consistent with the infants cue. For example, Ainsworth et al., (1971) describe how mothers of securely attached infants appeared “capable of perceiving things from the child’s point of view” (p. 43), whereas maternal insensitivity involve the mother attempting to “socialise with the baby when he is hungry, play with him when he is tired, and feed him when he is trying to initiate social interaction” (Ainsworth et al., 1974, p. 129). Meins et al. (2001) verse argued that the critical aspect of sensitivity was the caregiver’s ability to “read” the infant’s signals accurately so that the response could be matched to this passive cue from the child. In order to test this proposal, Meins et al. (2001) obtain measures of mothers’ ability to read their 6-month-olds’ signals appropriately (so called mind-mindedness), and investigated the comparative strength of mind-mindedness versus general maternal sensitivity in predicting subsequent infant-mother attachment security. Meins et al. reported that maternal mind-mindedness was a better predictor of attachment security 6 months later than was maternal sensitivity, with mind-mindedness accounting for almost twice the variance in attachment security than that accounted for by sensitivity.

This seems like a strong conclusion, since the genetic factors have been accounted for and do not contribute to attachment type as van Ijzendoorn et al. (2000) argued that it has a modest if any influence on attachment type. This can be confirmed from a twin study conducted by O’Connor and Croft (2001) when they assessed 110 twin pairs in the strange situation and found concordance of 70% in monozygotic twins and 64% in dizygotic twins – not significantly different. The model suggested estimates of only 14% of variance in attachment type due to genetics, 32% to shared environment, and 53% in non-shared environment.

A study of attachments formed by babies to foster mothers (Dozier et al., 2001) found as good a concordance between mothers’ attachment state of mind (from the Adult Attachment Interview, see below) and infant attachment type from the strange situation, as for biological mother-infant pairs, once again suggesting little genetic influence on attachment type.

So, it is fairly accepted today that mothers’ mind-mindedness is an important construct and it is defined as the mother treating her infant as an individual with a mind, instead of just an organism or small creature with needs to be satisfied. The emphasis should be on responding to the infant’s inferred state of mind, rather than simply their behaviour. In a longitudinal study of 71 mother-infant pairs, they found that maternal sensitivity (responding to infant cues) and some aspects of mind-mindedness, especially appropriate mind-related comments by the mother, measured at six months, both independently predicted security of attachment at 12 months. True et al., (2001) also found evidence that mothers’ frightened or frightening behaviour may also contribute independently to attachment security (Refer to Dogon Study above – Picture D and Picture E).

We should also take note that a huge amount of variance in attachment type appears to be related non-shared environment, and this cannot be explained by generalised maternal sensitivity. It is highly probable that, mothers are more sensitive and behave differently to some infants than others, depending on birth order, gender and infant characteristics, suggesting the need for family systems on these issues (van Ijzendoorn et al., 2000).

 

Attachment Beyond Infancy & The Internal Working Model

The attachment theory proposes that children use their early experiences with their caregivers to form internal working models (Bowlby, 1969 /1982, 1980) which incorporate representations of themselves, their caregivers, and their relationships with others. These internal working models will then be used by the child as templates for interacting with others. Consequently, because of the sensitive, loving support that securely attached children’s caregivers have supplied, these children are self-confident and have a model of themselves as being worthy; they therefore expect others to behave in a sensitive and supportive fashion. Conversely, given the patterns of interaction typically experienced by avoidant and resistant infants, insecurely attached children expect people to be rejecting, or inconsistent and ambivalent when interacting with them.

The strange situation measures security of attachment in terms of behaviours; especially how the infant behaves at a reunion of the separation. The strange situation procedure is generally used with infants between the ages of 12-24 months old. For 3 – 6 year-olds, variants of the strange situation, such as a reunion episodes after separation, have been used with some success (Main and Cassidy, 1988).

Research during the last 10 years has seen attachment become a life-span construct with corresponding attempts to measure it at different developmental stages (see Melhuish, 1993, for a review). It has been revealed that as infants grow older, in Bowlby’s 4th and 5th stages, attachment relationships become less dependent on physical proximity and overt behaviour, and more dependent on abstract qualities of the relationship such as affection, trust, approval, internalised in the child and also in the adult.

Research has revealed that it is useful to think of internal representations of the relationship in the child’s mind; the child is thought of as having an internal working model of his or her relationship with the mother, and with other attachment figures (Bowlby, 1988; Main et al., 1985). These are characterised as cognitive structures embodying the memories of day-to-day interactions with the attachment figure. They may be ‘schemas’ or ‘event scripts’ that guide the child’s action with the attachment figure, based on their previous interactions and the expectations and affective experiences associated with them.

Different attachment type would be expected to have differing working models of the relationship. Secure (Type B) attachment would be based on models of trust and affection [and a Type B infant would be able to communicate openly and directly about attachment-related circumstances, such as how they felt if left alone for a while]. By contrast, a boy or girl with an Insecure (Type A) Avoidant attachment may have an internal model of his/her mother that leaves the child without any expectancy of secure comforting from the latter when he/she is distressed [the mother may in fact reject his/her approaches]. The child’s action rules then become focused on avoiding her, thus inhibiting approaches to her that could be ineffective and instead lead to further distress; and this can be problematic, as there is less open communication between mother and son, and their respective internal working models of each other are not being accurately updated.

Insecure Resistant / Ambivalent (Type C) infants might not know what to expect from their mother, and they in turn would be inconsistent in their communication with the latter and often unable to convey their intent.

PF - Boy by Land Rover - from Separation Anxiety Test

PICTURE F. Boy by Land Rover: A picture from the Separation Anxiety Test

Over the last 15 years, researchers have attempted to measure attachment quality in older children [as much as the empirical methods allowed them to do in terms of construct validity and internal consistency], by trying to tap in to their internal working models (Stevenson-Hinde and Verschueren, 2002). One of the methods used involved narrative tasks, often using doll-play; children use a doll family and some props and complete a set of standardised attachment related story beginnings. Another method used has been the Separation Anxiety Test, in which children or adolescents respond to photographs showing separation experiences [see Picture G for an example]. The child is questioned about how the child in the photograph would “feel and act”, and then how he/she [the participating child] would feel and act if in that situation (Main et al., 1985). This test was found to have a good rater reliability and consistency 8 to 12-year-olds. Large differences in responses between children having clinical treatment for behaviour disturbance and a normal control group was found (See Table B)

TB - Two Protocols from the Separation Anxiety Test

TABLE B. Two protocols from the Separation Anxiety Test

Securely attached children generally acknowledge the anxiety due to the separation but come up with feasible coping responses; insecurely attached children generally deny the anxiety, or give inappropriate or bizarre coping responses.

 

The Adult Attachment Interview

The internal working models of relationships can normally be updated or modified as new interactions develop. It is likely possibility that for younger children, these changes must be based on actual physical encounters. However, the Main et al. (1985) suggested that in adolescents or adults who have achieved formal operational thinking [Jean Piaget’s 4th and final stage at around the age of 12 as explained in our essay], it is possible to change / modify their internal working models without the need for such direct interaction. In order to measure attachment in older adolescents and adults, they developed the Adult Attachment Interview. This is a semi-structured interview that proves memories of one’s own early childhood experiences. The transcripts are coded, not on the basis of experiences themselves, so much as on how the person reflects on and evaluate them, and how coherent total account is [Adults’ attachment classifications are not based on the nature of their actual childhood experiences, but on the way they represent these experiences, be they good or bad]. They are also generally asked to describe their childhood relationships with mother and father, and to recall times when they were separated from their parents or felt upset or rejected. There are specific questions that also deal with experiences of loss and abuse. According to their responses during the AAI, Allsopp placed into one of the 4 attachment categories: (i) Autononous, (ii) Dismissing, (iii) Preoccupied [Or Enmeshed] and (iv) Unresolved

 

(i) Autonomous Attachment

Autonomous adults are able to give coherent, well-balanced accounts of their attachment experiences, showing clear valuing of close personal and meaningful relationships [note meaningful subjectively to the individual]. These adults classified as autonomous may have experience problems in childhood, or even had a very difficult or abusive upbringings, but they can generally have an open conversation and talk openly about the negative experiences and most seem to have managed to resolve any early difficulties and conflicts. In contrast to the open and balanced way in which autonomous adults talk about childhood experiences, adults in the remaining three categories have incredible difficulties in talking about attachment relationships.

 

 (ii) Dismissing Attachment

Dismissing adults deny the importance of attachment experiences and insist they cannot recall childhood events and emotions, or provide idealised representations of the attachment relationship that they are unable to corroborate the real-life events. [i.e. dismiss attachment relationship as of little importance, concern or influence

 

(iii) Preoccupied [or Enmeshed] Attachment

Preoccupied adults lack the ability to move on from the childhood experiences, and are still overinvolved with issues relating to the early attachment relationship [generally preoccupied with dependency on their own parents and still struggle to please them].

 

(iv) Unresolved Attachment

The final category is reserved for adults who are unable to resolve feelings relating to the death of a loved one or to abuse they may have suffered [people who have not come to terms with a traumatic experience, or work through the mourning process]

It is to be noted that, people from lower socio-economic groups are slightly more likely to score as Dismissing. However the large difference is in people receiving clinical treat, the great majority of whom do not score as Autonomous on the AAI.

 

Are attachments stable over time? From Infancy to Adult Attachment Type

The main question should be asking ourselves is does the security of attachment change the life, or does infant-parent attachment set the pattern not only for later attachment in childhood, but even for one’s own future parenting? As attachment has become lifespan construct, these questions have generated considerable research and debate.

Many studies have now spanned a period of some 20 years to examine whether strange situation classification in infancy predicts Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classification as young adults (Lewis et al., 2000; Waters et al., 2000). The outcome is varied, but some of these studies have found significant continuity of the 3 main attachment types; that is, from Secure to Autonomous; Avoidant to Dismissive, and Resistant (Ambivalent) to Enmeshed. Several studies have also found relationships between discontinuities in attachment classification, and negative life events such as the experience of parent divorce.

 

Relationship between Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Infant-Parent Attachments

Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and classifications have been found to relate systematically to the security of the infant-parent attachment relationship. Autonomous parents are more likely to have securely attached infants, and parents in the 3 non-autonomous group. Dismissing, Preoccupied and Unresolved are much more likely to form insecure attachment relationships with their infants. This relationship has been identified for both patterns of infant-mother (e.g. Fonagy et al., 1991; Levine et al., 1991) and infant-father (Steele et al., 1996) attachment. Furthermore, unresolved maternal AAI classification has been identified as a predictor of insecure-disorganised attachment (Main & Hesse, 1990; van Ijzendoorn, 1995). Thus, the way in which a parent represents their own childhood attachment experiences is related to the types of relationship formed with their children.

 

Are attachment stable over generations?

On top of the degree of continuity over time for an individual’s attachment typing, there is also evidence for the transmission of attachment type across generations; specially from the parent’s AAI (Adult Attachment Interview) Coding and their infant’s strange situation coding. Main et al. (1985) had reported some evidence for such a link, and indeed the AAI coding system is based on it; it was argued that Autonomous adults would end up with Secure infants; Dismissing adults with Avoidant infants, Enmeshed adults with Resistant (Ambivalent) infants; and Unresolved adults would have Disorganised infants. [See Table C].

TC - Hypothesized relationships between maternal stage of mind (AAI), maternal behaviour, and child attachment type

TABLE C. Hypothesised relationships between maternal stage of mind (from the AAI – Adult Attachment Interview), maternal behaviour, and child attachment type

Van Ijzendoorn (1995) looked at a large number of available studies in the decade since Main’s work and found considerable linkage between adult AAI (Adult Attachment Interview) and infant Strange Situation coding; Van Ijzendoorn argued that this “intergenerational transmission” of attachment may be via parent responsiveness and sensitivity. We discussed above how this is only a partial explanation, and other aspects of maternal behaviour and of the home environment may also be involved.

We have considerable evidence for some degree of continuity of attachment security through life, and onto the next generation; but considerable evidence that this can be affected by life events. An adult’s attachment security can also be influenced by counselling, clinical treatment, or simply by reflection [self mind-mindedness].

Some insight into this matter comes from a study by Fonagy et al. (1994). In a longitudinal study with 100 mothers and 100 fathers in London, who are given the AAI and other measures shortly before their child was born. The strange situation was used subsequently to measure security of attachment, to mother at 12 months and the father at 18 months. As many other studies have discovered, the parent’s AAI scores predicted the Strange Situation scores of the infants. The researchers also calculated the estimates of the amount of disrupted parenting and deprivation which the parents had experienced themselves, and use the measures to find out if these influenced infant attachment, which they did. However, the amount of disrupted parenting and deprivation the parents had experienced interacted strongly with the way in which the parents had dealt with their own representations of their experiences of being parented. Coding the AAI (Adult Attachment Interview), the researchers developed a Reflective Self-function scale to assess the ability parents had to reflect on conscious and unconscious psychological states, and conflicting beliefs and desires. Of 17 mothers with deprived parenting and low reflecting self-function scores, 16 had insecurely attached infants, as might have been expected. Completely opposite to this scenario 10 mothers who had experienced deprived but had high reflective self-function scores, all had securely infants. It was argued that reflective self-function could have the saliency to change the internal working models of people, and also demonstrate resilience to adversity and a way of breaking the inter-generational transmission of insecure attachment.

Adults who experienced difficult childhoods but have overcome early adversity and insecure attachment by a process of reflection, counselling or clinical help, are known as “earned secures”, and could be distinguished from “continuous secures”, who had a positive upbringing and what most might quality as “normal” childhood. Phelps et al. (1998) made home observations of mothers and their 27-month-old children, and found that earned-secures, like continuous secures, showed positive parenting; under conditions of stress, both these groups showed more positive parenting than insecure mothers.

Another fascinating perspective on this issue of inter-generational transmission of insecure attachments would be the Holocaust study (Bar-On et al., 1998; van Ijzendoorn et al., 1999). The Holocaust refers to the experiences of Jews and other persecuted unwanted & unassimilated minorities [who did not want to be Germans] in the concentration camps of World War II to be securely offloaded/deported when Adolf Hitler’s Germany became the Third Reich and when the policies changed to focus on National Socialism and Imperial Intentions of Expansion and Conquest (1939-45).

LittleJewsToBeSentBack

Jew Children: Here we see Jew school children in 1942. They look like younger children who are just beginning school. Notice that at least 2 teachers are with them. By this time the Jewish children had been forced out of public schools. For a short time however, they we allowed to attend schools set up by the Jewish community. At the time this photograph was taken, the transports to the deportation camps had already begun. Often children under 10-years of age were not required to wear the badges, but some of these children look much younger.

Although many revisionist such as the English historian, David Irving, of this dark part of human history are finding out lies regarding the true people responsible for those massacres [if they did really happen under Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich] along with other atrocities as evil if not worse [than some deaths in a concentration camp for a section of a population that was causing instability to the proper functioning of a nation during a huge global conflict involving economic treaties, Jewish propaganda and alien-invasion agendas fused with unethical policies based on business & banking motives] committed by many of the “supposed good guys” from the Allies that involved the rape and murder of innocent children and women, fuelled by pure hate, Bolshevism and Jewish Communism against the native aryans of Germany [i.e. the German Volk/People].


Documentaire: L’Allemagne selon Joseph Goebbels (2004) / A documentary from the diary of Dr. Joseph Goebbels who decided to take a firm stance against the national destruction of Germany (and Western Europe), Christianity, and whom many consider to be among the bravest and most courageous of the last great Christian Aryan men to have walked the earth. [See Aryan Race et aussi Race Aryenne / Also to be noted perhaps quite surprisingly that there were strong ancient Aryan religious & mythological warrior values embedded in the mind of Heinrich Himmler (the Reichsführer of the SS), the person believed to have implemented the « Final Solution », or the Holocaust (remember the term itself originated from human sacrifices by Jews to their god, Baal), as he told his personal masseur & physician Felix Kersten that he always carried with him a copy of the ancient Aryan scripture, the Bhagavad Gita because it relieved him of guilt about what he was doing – he felt that like the sacred warrior Arjuna, who was simply doing his duty for his people and their future without attachment to his actions]


The National Anthem of the Third Reich (1933-1945) « Deutschlandlied » & « Horst Wessel Lied » (Instrumentals) / To note a silent, yet growing movement of conscious Aryans are beginning to re-evaluate the ideologies of the Fuhrer with a recent exposition at Montpellier showcasing 200 photographs from his photographer Heinrich Hoffman

But, since the majority on this planet have been made to believe one version where all the Jews and the alien army of the allies are the good guys, and all the Germans [including Adolf Hitler] were the blood-sucking vampires who also turned into cannibals on the week ends, we are going to base our comments on the politically correct [or should we say atavistic and savage?] version that the history books and mainstream publishers prefer. Politics too nowadays is in serious need of revision; are people really divided into 3 main categories? Left, Centre and Right? I tend to believe that we are above all this and have elements of all 3 embedded in us as modern human beings of the 21st century.

But getting back to the Bedouin cultured civilisation’s distinguished members, i.e. Jews as an example of victims in those concentration camps [that many people created myths of gas chambers when most were only found on the territory occupied by Stalin, while Hitler’s camps were found to have swimming pools, orchestras and kitchens], it is believed by most people of the 21st century who have no other options but to take in their news from mainstream Jewish-owned media, that besides being treated like a despicable rat, degraded and tortured, many of those to be deported kept in those camps were killed [some shot like parasitic animals as they tried to escape], leaving behind them orphaned children in traumatic circumstances.

Our question here however in regards to the focal point of this section, i.e. “attachment”, is whether such traumatic experiences could have an impact on attachment, and could this also have been transmitted inter-generationally to the Jewish children scattered around the globe today like modern gypsies?

The study we are looking at encompasses 3 generations of Jews, now grandparents, who went through the Holocaust [note that the name Holocaust itself comes from an event involving human sacrifices to the Jewish god, Baal], typically as children themselves who had lost their parents; their children, now parents; and their grandchildren. These generations are compared here with comparable 3-generation families who had not experienced the Holocaust.

It was found that the effects of the Holocaust were evident in the grandparent generations, who showed distinctive patterns on the AAI (Adult Attachment Interview), scoring high on Unresolved, as would have been predicted, and high on unusual beliefs – another predicted effect of trauma and unresolved attachment issues. They also displayed avoidance of the Holocaust topic; a very common finding was that the experiences had been so horrific and disgusting that they were unable to talk about their experiences with their own offspring.

However, inter-generational transmission of attachment type was quite low for this group of Jews. The Holocaust parents (‘children of the Holocaust’) showed rather small differences from controls, scoring just slightly higher on Unresolved on the AAI. This normalization process continued to the next generation (‘grandchildren of the Holocaust’), for whom no significant differences in attachment were found from controls. This seems to suggest a trend of  “Unresolved” as a normal trend of attachment among these Jews [note that this is linked to Disorganised attachment in infants and today some question whether Type-B Securely attached infants are really the “Best” way to be, and whether other personality characteristics also help shape the individual’s uniqueness throughout life, such as their reflective abilities and internal working models (reshaped by other meaningful events/relationships) – however it is also important to note that attachment types are known to remain and be transmitted over generations for the majority of people with low self-reflective skills and intelligence].

 

Disorganised Attachment and Unresolved Attachment Representation

The pattern of infant attachment classed as “Disorganised” from the Strange Situation procedure, was only acknowledged much later than the other well known attachment types [Secure, Inscure Avoidant & Insecure Resistant/Ambivalent], and appears to have rather distinctive correlates.

It has been noted that Disorganised infants may show stereotypic behaviours such as freezing, or hair-pulling; contradictory behaviour such as avoiding the caregiver [e.g. mother] despite experiencing severe distress on separation; and also misdirected behaviour such as seeking proximity to the stranger instead of the caregiver. These characteristic behaviours are known as signs of Unresolved stress and anxiety, and for these types of infants the caregiver is a source of fright rather than a symbol of safety (See Table C) – (see Vondra and Barnett, 1999, for a collection of recent research).

Van Ijzendoorn, Schuengel and Bakermans-Kranenburg (1999) reviewed a series of studies on Disorganized attachment, and argued that it was mainly caused by environmental factors [i.e. exposure]; although there is also some evidence for genetic factors in Disorganised infant attachment, and it is known to be higher in infants with severe neurological abnormalities [e.g. cerebral palsy, autism, Down’s syndrome] – around 35%, compared with around 15% in normal samples. However, Type-D (Disorganised Attachment) is also especially for mothers with alcohol or drug abuse problems (43%) or who have maltreated or abused their infants (48%). Type-D attachment is not higher in infants with physical disabilities; and it is not strongly related to maternal sensitivity as such, however there is evidence relating it to maternal unresolved loss or trauma [like the Jews of the Holocaust generation as mentioned above].

While the Maternal Sensitivity Hypothesis suggests that maternal (in)sensitivity predicts secure (B) or insecure (A,C) attachment, a different hypothesis has been proposed to explain Disorganised Type-D attachment (See Table C), which is that it is would be the result from frightened or frightening behaviour by the caregiver (generally the mother) to the infant, resulting from the mother’s own unresolved mental state related to attachment issues [e.g. abuse by her own parent; violent death of a parent/or close one; sudden loss of a child].

A study in London by Hughes et al. (2001) compared the Unresolved scores on the AAI (Adult Attachment Interview) for 53 mothers who had infants born next after still birth, with 53 controls [normal mothers], and found out that among the mothers who had previously stillborn infants, 58% scored as Unresolved, compared to 8% of Controls; furthermore, 36% had Disorganised (Type D) infants, compared with 13% of controls. A statistical path analysis [looking at the relationships among all the variables showed that the stillbirth experience predicted Unresolved maternal state of mind, and that it was this variable [i.e. Unresolved state of mind] then predicted infant disorganisation.

The hypothesised behavioural aspects of maternal unresolved state of mind [and Disorganisation in infants] were supported by the study in Mali reported above. A study in Germany by Jacobsen et al. (2000) provided further support in which 33 children were examined along with their mothers at 6 years of age. Disorganised attachment (assessed from a reunion episode) was significantly related to high levels of maternal expressed emotion, defined as speech to the child that was severely critical of them or over-involved with them.

Van Ijzendoorn et al., (1999), in a review, also found that insecure Disorganised (Type D) attachment in infants predicted later aggressive behaviour, and child psychopathology. Carlson (1998) found significant prediction from attachment disorganisation at 24 and 42 months, to child behaviour problems in preschool, elementary school and high school. Taking into consideration the prior links to parental maltreatment and abuse, it is highly likely that the Disorganised (Type D) attachment type will be found to be the most relevant aspect of attachment in understanding severely maladaptative or antisocial behaviour in later life.

 

Origins of the Insecure Disorganised State of Mind

The origins of insecure-disorganised (Type D) attachment is becoming an increasingly researched topic, and this may be due to the fact that early disorganisation (Type D) has been identified as a risk factor for later psychopathology (Fearon et al., 2010; van Ijzendoorn et al., 1999), with studies identifying a link between insecure-disorganised attachment in infancy and behavioural problems in later childhood (Lyons-Ruth et al., 1993; Munson et al., 2001; Shaw et al., 1996).

In Main and Hesse’s (1990; Hesse & Main, 2000) their seminal work led to the argument that these insecure-disorganised (Type D) infants have not been able to establish an organised pattern of attachment because they have been frightened by the caregivers or have experienced their caregivers themselves showing fearful behaviour. This is supported by findings that have linked insecure-disorganised attachment to infant maltreatment or hostile caregiving (Carlson, Cicchetti, Brnett & Braunwald, 1989; Lyons-Ruth et al., 1991), maternal depression (Radke-Yarrow et al., 1995), and maternal histories of loss through separation, divorce and death (Lyons-Ruth et al., 1991).

In a meta-analytic review however, van Ijzendoorn et al. (1999) reported that 15% of infants in non-clinical middle class American samples are classified as insecure-disorganised (Type D), suggesting that pathological parenting practices cannot fully account for disorganised attachment in infants. As highlighted by Bernier and Mains (2008), the origins of attachment disorganisation are very complex, involving factors ranging from infants’ genetic make up to parents’ experiences of loss or abuse, and much remains to be learned about why some infants are unable to form and organised attachment relationship with the caregiver.

 

Links between Attachment & Emotional Development

It is fundamental to understand and grasp the importance of the early stages of life, as the brain’s cognitive patterns are shaped by these early experiences that tend to have a lasting effect on personality. The infant’s earliest mode of exploring and engaging with the world revolves around conveying emotions: fear, discomfort, pain, contentment, happiness.

As we have already explained above in the section exploring the reasons why infants develop particular attachment types, the caregiver’s responses [not sensitivity, but mind-mindedness, i.e. the ability to respond “appropriately” to the cues] to such emotional cues and their representations of their own childhood emotional experiences [generally measured with the AAI for Autonomous, Dismissing, Preoccupied or Unresolved] are accepted as strong predictors of attachment security [i.e. Autonomous – Secure, Dismissing –Avoidant, Preoccupied- Resistant and Unresolved – Disorganised].

With this in mind, it is quite surprising that so little research has been conducted on the relation between security and children’s emotional development.

There are 2 main ways in which links between attachment and emotional development have been addressed:

(i) The research has investigated whether infants’ early emotional experiences predict attachment security

(ii) The researchers have explored whether the security of the infant-caregiver attachment relationship predicts children’s subsequent emotional development.

 

Emotional Regulation and Attachment Security

This section is focussed mainly on how caregivers’ ways of responding to the infants’ emotional cues predict later attachment security.

Mothers of insecure-avoidant infants have been found to withdraw when their infants express negative emotions (Escher-Graeub & Grossmann, 1983). Conversely, mothers of insecure-resistant infants typically find it difficult to comfort their infants effectively, meaning that their responses result in prolonging their infants’ feelings of distress (Ainsworth et al., 1978).

Cassidy (1994) argued that caregivers may enable their children to develop good emotional coping and regulation strategies through their willingness to acknowledge and respond to their children’s emotions. She also argued that secure attachment is characterised by the openness with which the caregiver [mother, father, etc] recognises and discusses the full spectrum of emotions [which leads to the child’s understanding that emotions should not be supressed and can be dealt with effectively]. Insecure-avoidant attachment is generally associated with caregivers failing to respond to their infants’ negative emotions because of their tendency to bias interactions in favour of positive emotional expressions. On the opposite, insecure-resistant attachment is associated with the caregiver amplifying the infant’s negative affect. Cassidy maintained that mothers of insecure-resistant children fail to emphasise the importance of attachment relationships, and therefore adopt strategies that fail to help the child regulate negative emotion, hence, prolonging the need for contact with the mother [or caregiver].

 

Affect Attunement

Cassidy’s views are in synchronisation with other theoretical positions, such as Stern’s (1985) characterisation of sensitive parenting in terms of effect attunement, with the sensitive mother being the type of human being who is attuned to all of her infant’s emotions, is also accepting and sharing in their affective content.

Insensitive mothers on the other hand, undermatch or overmatch their infants’ emotional signals because of their own perceptual biases.

In support of these approaches, Pauli-Pott and Mertesacker’s (2009) investigation revealed that mismatches between maternal and infant affect at 4 months [e.g. mother shows positive affect while her infant demonstrates neutral or negative affect] predicted insecure mother-infant attachment at 18 months. Mind-mindedness is also operationalised in terms of the caregiver’s tendency to accurately interpret the infant’s cognitions and emotions, and has been found to predict later attachment security (Meins er al., 2001). Thus, observations by a mother of her infant displaying surprise in response to a jack-in-the-box, followed by enigmatic comments such as “my infant is surprised” are associated with subsequent secure attachment. In contrast, insecure attachment is related to mothers misreading their infants’ internal stress by, for example, commenting that the infant is scared when no cue to suggest such an emotion is present in the infant’s overt behaviour. In more recent work it has been found that these inappropriate mind-related comments are particularly common in mothers of insecure-resistant infants, with mothers in this group being more likely to comment inappropriately on their infants’ thoughts and feelings than their counterparts in the secure, insecure-avoidant and insecure-disorganised groups.

Evidence suggests that mothers in the insecure-avoidant and insecure-resistant groups are aware of over-controlling and under controlling strategies respectively in coping with their children’s negative emotions. Berlin and Cassidy (2003) followed up a sample of infants who had been assessed in the strange situation in infancy, and questioned the mothers when the children were aged 3 about how they dealt with their child’s emotional expressive, and found that insecure-Avoidant (Type A) group mothers reported the greatest control of their 3-year-olds’ negative emotional expressiveness [e.g. expression anger or fear], whereas mothers in the insecure-Resistant(Ambivalent – Type C) reported the least control of children of their children’s expressing negative emotions.

These findings suggest that maternal behaviours associated with avoidant and resistant attachment that have been observed in infancy are stable and persist into the preschool years.

Security-related differences in the way in which children regulate their emotions are also in line with Cassidy’s (1994) approach. Spangler and Grossman (1993) took physiological measures of infant distress during the strange situation procedure and compared these measures with infants’ outward shows of upset and negative affect. The physiological measures showed that insecure-Avoidant (Type A) group infants were as distressed or more distressed than their secured group conterparts (Type B), despite the absence of overt behavioural distress observed in the insecure-avoidant (Type A) groups infants. It was therefore concluded by Spangler and Grossman that insecure-Avoidant infants mask or dampen their expression of negative emotions as a way of coping with the facts that caregivers are likely to ignore or reject their bids for contact and comfort when they are distressed.

Belsky, Spritz, and Crnic (1996) reported that 3-year-olds who had been securely attached in infancy were more likely to recall and memorise the positive emotional events that had witnessed on a puppet show, whereas insecurely attached children tended to attend and remember only the negative events. On the same note, Kirsch and Cassidy (1997) found that both secure and insecure-resistant attachment in infancy were associated at 3 years of age with better remembering and recall for a story in which a mother responded sensitively to her child than to a story where the child was rejected.

In contrast to the scenario above, insecure-Avoidant infants showed no difference in their recall of the responsive versus rejecting stories. Kirsch and Cassidy also found that 3-year-olds classified as insecure in infancy were more likely than those in secure groups to look away from drawings depicting “mother” – child engagement.

These findings suggest that the positive experiences of secure infants with their caregivers may result in these children attending more to positive emotional events because they are consistent with their attachment security.

 

__________

 

(III) The Genetic/Psychosexual Model of Development (Sigmund Freud)

“For generations almost every branch of human knowledge will be enriched and illuminated by the imagination of Freud” (Jane Harrison, 1850- 1928)

The Genetic Model of Psychosexual Stages

The genetic model that we are now going to explore may not have much to do with genes, and relates more to the “development” of the child. Sigmund Freud proposed that childhood development proceeds through a series of distinct stages to adulthood, each of them with their own themes and preoccupations.

The stages are based on the life-drive present in all organisms, as Freud proposed, and it seems logical from a physician who carried empirical work on the sexual organs of eels, to assume that all organisms have the embedded urge for “life” [i.e the life drive to keep itself and its species alive, which involves sexual selection and the fertilisation achieved through sex] that is primarily sexual but some also argued that it can be interpreted (unconsciously or consciously) in other forms [as flamboyant French psychoanalyst, Jacques Lacan proposed in his Theory with the Symbolic, the Imaginary and the Real] to suit a sophisticated society [e.g. France] with all its dimensions. Freud proposed that the psychosexual stages are understood to be organised around the child’s emerging sexuality.

It is important however to not exaggerate or misinterpret Freud’s assumption and also to remember the logic and vital purpose behind the sexual (life) drive in organisms in its own existence and continuity [breeding]. This is also a very good discussion point for the 21st century as it seems to imply that all healthy organisms should have healthy sexual drives, but whether these should « always » find expression through genital sexual acts with another organism is debatable and questionable from an ethical and moral perspective [especially for those not in a healthy and stable relationship]; hence many psychologists recommend « masturbation » as a healthy and safe alternative in managing excessive sexual desires in both young people and adults.

In the process of the child’s emerging “sexuality”, the term « sexual drive » itself meant more than simply adult genital sexuality, and from a psychological perspective, was broadly referring to a physiological/biological sense of “pleasure in the body” and more to “sensuality”. As many psychologists who based their foundations on some aspects of Freudian perspectives, it is assumed that adult sexuality is nothing more than the simple culmination of an orderly set of steps in which the child’s “psychosexual” focus shifted from one part of the body to another, with these body parts or “erotogenic zones” all having something in common with the generation of pleasure; which are orifices lined with sensitive mucous membranes.

Hence, Sigmund Freud may have adequately proposed in a statement regarding mental health that, “the only unnatural sexual behaviour is none at all.”, taking note once again that the term “sexual” from a psychologist exploring the developmental stages of a child generally tends to refer more to “sensuality”. The erotogenic body parts with orifices and sensitive mucous membranes leads to the infant sensuality being initially centred on the mouth (oral cavity), followed by the anus and then the genitals in early childhood. After some characteristic drama at about the age of 5, the child’s sexuality goes nearly completely dormant for a few years, before re-emerging with a vengeance [a rush of hardly managed sexual feelings] when puberty hits.

As the tradition on the debate of the development of the mind itself as an entity [that reflects in linguistic form the desires, both conscious and unconscious of the human organism] goes on among psychologists in the quest for these answers, we are also familiar with critics [mostly from the reductionist schools of thoughts (e.g. Pavlovian) such as the cognitive-behavioural enthusiasts and the medical department with its accolade, the pharmaceutical industry] who have not been entirely positive about Freud’s contribution to knowledge and are still unconvinced [perhaps due to their philosophy on a kind of methodological epistemology that is lacking to cope with matters of the mind] about the unconscious part of the mind that plays a huge role in our conscious behaviour. This may not be completely negative to intellectuals who subscribe to a version of reality that is embedded in language since critics in many cases have led to systematic investigations [scientific methodology] and until now there is an increasing body of evidence that points to the existence of an unconscious drift/urge/motive that exists in all organisms [e.g. as we noted in the essay about Biological Constraints in Learning by Operant Conditioning and also other studies carried out on priming along with observations of the symptomatic manifestations of certain mental disorders such as OCD and Panic Attacks].

The psychoanalytic theory has been modified by some of the best minds of the psychoanalytic tradition [e.g. Jung, Lacan, and some components adopted by ourselves in the conception of the model of mental life within the Organic Theory] since Freud left the questions open with the freedom of dialogue over the concepts and their expansions and applications throughout various dimensions [e.g. analysing qualitative subjective experiences of the expression of love and passion, or the obsoleteness of politics in modern society, or the impact of animal studies in designing a human world]. However, between all the versions of Freud’s theories, there are 3 components that have never been denied by any great psychoanalyst, which are the 3 structures first mentioned in the early Topographic Model, that is, the Unconscious, the Subconscious and the Conscious. These were later replaced with the Structural Model, which is the popular version that remapped and renamed the concepts, and which includes the (unconscious) id [present in all new born infants which consists of impulses, emotions & desires – id demands instant gratification of all wishes and needs], the (conscious, me) ego [which acts a mediator between reality and the desires of the id] and the (subconscious) superego [the conscience: the sense of duty & responsibility], that adepts such as Jacques Lacan and Carl Jung rejected over the earlier Topographic model [being one that is more flexible for the development of further refined models that also have the option to define the life force in other ways than the questionable specificity of the Structural Model’s id, ego & superego.

 

The 5 Psychosexual Stages

Stage I: The Oral Stage (from birth to 1 year old approximately)

From Freudian assumptions, it is believed that the voracious sucking of infants is not pure nutritional, although the infant clearly has a basic need to feed, it also takes a “pleasure” in the act of feeding, a feeling that Freud did not hesitate to quality as sexual and perhaps more “sensual” at this stage as babies appear to enjoy the stimulation of the lips [in play] and the oral cavity, and will often happily engage in “non-nutritive sucking” when they are no longer hungry and the milk supply is withdrawn. Beyond being an intense source of bodily pleasure – an early expression of later sexuality – sucking also represents the infant’s way of expressing love for and dependency on its feeder [normally it is the mother, but it can also be a primary caregiver that the child is attached to, hence Lacan proposed that the Oedipal & Electra complexes may not only not be true for ALL cases, but the child’s early sexual feelings may be projected on other primary caregivers and not necessarily the direct parents]. The sucking behaviour also serves to a general stance that the infant takes towards the world, one of “incorporation” or the taking in of new experiences.

 

Stage II: The Anal Stage (1 to 3 years old approximately)

At the second stage, the Anal stage, the focus shifts from one end of the digestive tract to the other at it happens at around the age of 2, when the child is developing an increasing degree of autonomous control over its muscles, including the sphincters that control excretion. After the incorporative passivity and dependency of the oral stage, the child begins to take a more active approach to life [note the term active also in line with Jean Piaget’s views on the development of the human child]. Sigmund Freud proposed that these themes of activity, autonomy and control, play out most crucially around the anus as the child learns to control defecation, and learns that it can control its direct external environment, in particular its caregivers attention, by expelling or withholding faeces. Moreover, the child takes a sort of sadistic pleasure in this control, a form of pleasure described as “Anal erotism”. An important conflict for the child during this stage involves toilet training, with struggles/disapproval taking place over the parents/caregivers demand that the child control its defecation according to particular rules. However, the anal stage represents a set of themes, struggles, pleasures, and preoccupations that cannot be reduced in any simple way to toilet-training, as many common psychology students from the wrong linguistic vein are in caricatures of Freud maybe in a defensive act for their lack of linguistic subtlety to understand the mental life and the models that govern it.

 

Stage III: The Phallic Stage (3 to 6 years old approximately)

Gradually, although still in the early childhood years, the primary location of sexual pleasure and interest shifts from the anus to the genitals, where the little boy starts to become fascinated with his penis and his counterpart on other side of the gender register, the little girl with her clitoris. However, this stage is known as “phallic” and not “genital” because Freud maintained that both sexes were focused on the male organ; “phallus” referring not to the actual physical organ, the anatomical penis, but to its “symbolic value”. Briefly explained, the phallic stage is set as the little boy understanding that he has the penis [which has a symbolic value] which the little girl lacks, and develops the belief that he could possibly lose it. In contrast, the little girl does not have a penis and wishes to have one.

This is the very first time that the difference between the sexes comes into play in childhood development, and the contrast between masculinity and feminity, really becomes an issue for the child. It is also the 1st stage at which Freud’s psychosexual theory recognises sexual differences, and marks the crucial point at which, children become gendered beings [between the ages of 3 – 6].

The little boy’s and the girl’s differing relation to the phallus [remember: the “symbolic value” of it not the actual organ] plays a vital role in unfolding drama that takes place within the family during this stage, somewhere around the age of 3 to 5. It has been dubbed the “Oedipus complex”, after the Greek legend in which Oedipus unwittingly murders his father and marries his mother, his original love-object [remember the attachment period in Bowlby’s along with breastfeeding] after all, as is consequently envious of his father, who seems to have his mother to himself. The boy’s fearful recognition that he could lose his penis [symbolically: “masculinity”] – “castration anxiety” – becomes focussed on the idea that the competing male for the love of the mother[the father], could inflict this punishment on him if the boy’s sexual feelings and desire for the female figure of the caregiving mother is recognised. So, faced with fear, he renounces and represses the sexual feelings and desire, to instead identity with the father, becoming his imitator rather than his rival. In this process, the boy learns about masculinity and internalises the societal rules and norms [e.g. about relationships] that the father represents [the development of the Super-Ego, a sense of duty and responsibility, i.e. “conscience” takes place as the Structural Model suggests].

In the case of the little girl, matters are slightly different, and the developing child soon feels her lack of a penis keenly (“penis envy”) and blames the mother for leaving her so grievously unequipped, and then the father soon turns into her primary love-object [the “Electra Complex” appears as the opposite of the “Oedipus” Complex], and the mother her rival.

A similar process to the little boy now takes place in the little girl’s realm, resulting in the repression of her sexual feeling, desires and love, to shift to an identification with her mother, and hence with feminity. However, given that the girl is not under any “castration” threat, this process occurs under much less emotional pressure than in the little boy’s case. Consequently, perhaps due to this difference in emotional pressure, Freud proposed that the Electra complex was resolved less conclusively and with much less complete repression in girls than in boys, but also that girls tend to internalise a conscience [preconscious, or superego] that is in some ways weaker and less prohibitive and punitive than boys. It is not surprising that such a controversial claim about girls has been highly criticised specially with no scientific evidence to back it up; and is perhaps also one reason why Freud’s account of Oedipal [Electra complex] conflict in women has been the subject of much revision [e.g. by Jacques Lacan].

 

Stage IV: Latency (6 years old to puberty)

After the upheavals of the Oedipus and Electra complexes, the sexual drives go into a prolonged “semi-hibernation”. During the pre-pubertal school years, children engage in much less sexual activity and their relationships with others are also desexualised. Instead of desiring the primary caregivers and original love-objects, their parents, children now begin to identify with them – having structured their understanding of the world. However, this sudden interruption of childhood sexuality is largely a result of the massive repression of sexual feelings that concluded the phallic stage. One of the main consequence of this repression is that children come to completely forget their earlier sexual feelings, a major source [Freud claimed] of our general amnesia for early childhood experiences. Other institutional settings with their own social models such as formal schooling, reinforce the repression of sexuality during latency, leading children to focus their energies instead on mastering “culturally valued” knowledge and skills. Freud observed that the desexualisation of latency-age children was less complete among so-called “primitive” peoples.

 

Stage V: The Genital Stage (from the onset of puberty to death)

The latency period of forced or socially imposed sexual repression ends with the biologically-driven surge of sexual energy that accompanies puberty. This marks the final stage of psychosexual development where it all the previous stages were successfully completed, leaves the person with the ability for mature love with sexual feelings. It is important to note that the focus on sexual pleasure is once more shifted to the genitals as it was before the stage of latency [during the phallic stage (3 – 6 years old)] however, now it is fused with the ability for sensible and true affection for the object of desire [and not simply immature sexual feelings trying to find expression from an inadequately developed brain being projected at the easiest accessible caregiver].

In addition, both sexes are now invested in their own genitals rather than sharing a focus on the “symbolic value” of the penis as it occurred during the “Phallic stage”. The Genital Stage therefore marks the end of the “polymorphous perversity” of childhood sexuality. However, these erotic moments have not completely vanished but are instead subordinated to genital sexuality, often finding expression in other subtle ways [e.g. sexual foreplay].

According to the genetic model of psychosexual stages, we pass through each of the psychosexual stages on the way to maturity. However, we do not pass through them unscathed, and there are many ways in which people have problematic difficulties in particular stages [unable to progress successfully] and when such incidents happen a “fixation” develops. A fixation is simply an unresolved difficulty involving the characteristic issues of the particular stage, and leads to a fault-line in our personality, according to Freudian developmental perspectives.

If the individual failed to receive proper and reliable nurturance and gratification during the oral stage – or alternatively if they were over-indulged – a fixation on that stage may develop. It is believed that when a person is confronted with some forms of stresses, they may revert to the typical immature ways of dealing with the world of that period [at the particular point in time of that stage], this process was referred to as “regression” by Freud.

In some cases, fixations may lead to full-fledged mental disorders: Oral fixations are linked to depression and addictions, anal fixations to obsessive-compulsive disorder, and phallic fixations to hysteria [in severe cases]. Fixations [generally later countered by Reaction Formation] do not simply represent forms of behaviour and thinking that people regress to when faced with difficulties but the whole personality [thought structure] or “character” – the term Freud preferred – may be organised around the themes of the stage at which the person is most strongly fixated. As a result, Freud proposed a set of distinct stage-based character types:

(i) Oral Characters

This category of characters tend to be marked by passivity and dependency [think of the sheep metaphor], and are liable to use relatively immature ego defences such as denial.

(ii) Anal Characters

Anal people tend to be inflexible, stingy, obstinate and orderly, with a preference for defence mechanisms such as the isolation of affect [hide their feelings] and reaction formation.

(iii) Phallic Characters

Phallic characters are generally impulsive, vain and headstrong [think alpha-male prototype] with a preference for a defensive style that favours repression.

It is important to note that this 3-part typology is the closest that the psychoanalytic theory of personality comes to bringing forward an explanation for individual differences in personality from early childhood experiences. A phase of development pivotal to the other 2 mentioned theories which also attribute the foundations of fundamental structures to the period of infancy and childhood, although they all also acknowledge the individual’s ability to shape their own minds and correct their own problematic traits through reflection, and indeed as mentioned in the section on John Bowlby’s theory of attachment mothers with high reflective abilities were able to reshape the internal working models of their children’s attachment style and subsequent emotional development. It is to also be noted how all these 3 theorists although different in their perspectives, have been inspired by each other’s works, the idea of attachment itself was inspired by Freud’s pre-oedipal claims, and Jean Piaget like Sigmund Freud came from the school of thought that viewed the mind as an “active” entity in its development and creation, and not a “passive” entity generated by a ball of soft matter acting like a junction box with scripts for stimuli.

 

Psychoanalysis, then and now

One of the main claims of Freudian theory is that much of what motivates us to move forward in life is determined by the unconscious, and since by the reductionist mind state of the common researcher who sadly only had empiricism to dream of a better life for himself, these unconscious processes cannot be measured [such as moles, weight, fingers, teeth, sheep, cattle, etc], and hence it is often claimed [without much understanding or linguistic abilities or skills in discourse and philosophy] that belief in Freudian ideas is precisely that – beliefs rather than mechanical models based on empirical evidence [e.g. medicine, physics, surgery, chemistry, biology, etc – all the disciplines of the hard sciences].

However, while Freud’s views are almost impossible to test with reductionist quantitative methods, his theories and claims have influenced many psychologists who work with different methodologies and the unconscious processes of the brain are also being backed up by emerging fields that focus on the physiology of the brain [e.g. cognitive-neuroscience].

To illustrate one of those views that are hard to test empirically, consider the Freudian notion of “Reaction Formation”. It is assumed for example that if an individual is harshly [by strict parents] toilet trained as a child then the Freudian prediction would be that the person becomes “anally retentive” [i.e. excessively neat and tidy]. However, if in some ways we do recognise such tendencies in ourselves [once again prompting to the existence of a well developed with reflective and perspective taking abilities fully developed by Piaget’s standards], maybe even unconsciously, then we may react against it [Reaction Formation occurs] and we actively become very untidy.

This suggests that we are in control of ourselves and we have the ability to reverse the effects of our upbringing and early childhood experiences, which means in turn that it is impossible to predict a child’s development despite the fact that the first 6 years from birth are supposedly critical in determining later personality formation [self-reflective people save themselves from the mediocrity of the masses].

Freudian Theory has been of immense importance in pointing out 2 possibilities. One is that early childhood can be immensely important in affecting and determining later development [a position also adopted by other major theorists as we have seen such as Bowlby], and the other is that we can be driven by unconscious needs and desires which we are not aware of [until exposed to the right environmental stimuli that release them from their hidden depths]. Thus, it is assumed that if we not complete one of the childhood psychosexual stages very well, it could reflect itself later in adult disorders such as neurotic symptoms, but we would not be aware of the source or cause of the problem. The only way to come to terms with these deeply embedded problems in the depth of the individual’s psyche that has more saliency than the minor cognitive schemas for basic environmental interactions [e.g. making a cup of tea or a sandwich], is through close intensive sessions of psychoanalysis (see Picture G) in which the analyst peers into the unconscious to try and unravel [discover] the problems that occurred during the patient’s childhood development that is causing the current problems.

PG Psychoanalyst tries to discover what went wrong in your childhood that is causing your current problems

PICTURE G. The psychoanalyst tries to uncover the childhood unresolved issues to find the causes of the current problems.

Whatever its weaknesses are, the psychoanalytic theory remains the most complete theory in terms of depth and detail in capturing the essence of the human mind [soul as metaphor, or psyche], and today there are still many who believe that psychoanalytic theories are fundamental in understanding human development with many theoreticians who have brought forward variations and alternatives to Freud’s proposals on some controversial issues [e.g. Jacques Lacan, John Bowlby and Carl Jung] while many of his proposals have also lead to the scientific discovery of unconscious mental processes.

_____________________________________

 

*****

 

Bibliography

  1. Ainsworth, M.D.S. & Wittig, B.A. (1969). Attachment and exploratory behaviour of one year olds in a strange situation. In B.M. Foss (Ed.) Determinants of infant behaviour, vol. 4. New York: Barnes and Noble.
  2. Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1963). The development of infant-mother interaction among the Ganda. In B.M. Foss (Ed.) Determinants of infant behaviour (Vol. 2). London:Methuen; New York: Wiley.
  3. Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1967). Infancy in Uganda: Infant care and the growth of love. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  4. Ainsworth, M.D.S., Bell, S.M. & Stayton, D.J. (1971). Individual differences in Strange Situation behaviour of one year olds. In H.R. Schaffer (Ed.) The origins of human social relations. New York: Academic Press.
  5. Ainsworth, M.D.S., Bell, S.M. & Stayton, D.J. (1974). Infant-mother attachment and social development: Socialisation as a product of reciprocal responsiveness to signals. In M.P.M. Richards (Ed.) The introduction of the child into a social world. London: Cambridge University Press.
  6. Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E. & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: Assessed in the strange situation and at home. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  7. Anderson, J. W. (1972). Attachment behaviour out of doors. In N. Blurton Jones (ed.), Ethological Studies of Child Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  8. Bar-On, D., Eland, J., Kleber, R.J., Krell, R., Moore, Y., Sagi, A., Soriano, E., Suedfeld, P., van der Velden, P.G. & Van Ijzendoorn, M.H. (1998). Multigenerational perspectives on coping with the Holocaust experience: an attachment perspective for understanding the developmental sequelae of trauma across generations. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 22, 315-38.
  9. Belsky, J., Spritz, B. & Crnic, K. (1996). Infant attachment security and affective-cognitive information processing at age 3. Psychological Science, 7, 111-114.
  10. Berlin, L.J. & Cassidy, J. (2003). Mothers’ self-reported control of their preschool children’s emotional expressiveness: A longitudinal study of associations with infant-mother attachment and children’s emotion regulation. Social Development, 12, 477-495.
  11. Bernier, A. & Meins, E. (2008). A threshold approach to understanding the origins of attachment disorganisation. Developmental Psychology44, 969-982.
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  13. Bowlby, J. (1969 / 1982). Attachment and loss, vol. 1: Attachment(2nd) New York: Basic Books.
  14. Bowlby, J. (1988). A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory. London: Routledge.
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  30. Hepper, P. (2007). Prenatal Development. In A. Slater & M. Lewis (Eds), Introduction to Infant Development (2nded; pp. 41-62). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  32. Jacobsen, T., Hibbs, E. and Ziegenhain, U. (2000). Maternal expressed emotion related to attachment disorganisation in early childhood: a preliminary report. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 899-906.
  33. Kirsch, S.J. & Cassidy, J. (1997). Preschoolers’ attention to and memory for attachment-relevant information. Child Development, 68, 1143-1153.
  34. Kochanska, G. (2001). Emotional development in children with different attachment histories: the first three years. Child Development, 72, 474-90.
  35. Levine, L.V., Tuber, S.B., Slade, H. & Ward, M.J. (1991). Mothers’ mental representations and their relationship to mother-infant attachment. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 55, 454-469.
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  37. Lewis, M., Feiring, C., McGuffoy, C. and Jaskir, J. (1984). Predicting psychopathology in six-year-olds from early social relations. Child Development, 55, 123-36.
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  39. Lyons-Ruth, K., Repacholi, B., McLeod, S. & Silva, E. (1991). Disorganised attachment behaviour in infancy: Short-term stability, maternal and infant correlates and risk-related subtypes. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 377-396.
  40. Main, M & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganised / disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E.M. Cummings (Eds.) Atttachment in the preschool years (pp. 121-160). Chicago; University of Chicago Press.
  41. Main, M. & Hesse, E. (1990). Parents’ unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganised attachment status: Is frightened and/or frightening parental behaviour the linking mechanism? In M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E.M. Cummings (Eds.) Attachment in the preschool years (pp.161-182). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  42. Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of a disorganised/disoriented attachment pattern. In T.B. Brazelton & M.W. Yogman (Eds.) Affective Development in Infancy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
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  44. Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Fradley, E. & Tuckey, M. (2001). Rethinking maternal sensitivity: Mothers’ comments on infants’ mental processes predict security of attachment at 12 months. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 637-648.
  45. Melhuish, E. (1993). A measure of love? An overview of the assessment of attachment. ACPP Review & Newsletter, 15, 269-75.
  46. Miyake, K., Chen, S.J. and Campos, J.J. (1985). Infant temperament, mother’s mode of interaction and attachment in Japan: an interim report. In I. Bretherton and E. Waters (eds), Growing Points of Attachment Theory and Research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, 276-97.
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Essay // Clinical Psychology: Learning Disabilities, Anxiety, Depression & Schizophrenia and the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

Part 1 of 5 | Children and Adolescents’ Mental Health Services (CAMHS) & Learning and Intellectual Disabilities

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CAMHS deal with the psychological issues of people under the age of 18. They are a non-specialist service and often refer to other more specialised departments following the initial assessment of patients. The most common cases tend to be adolescents with depression and anxiety whose manifestations are not different to those of adults and so are treated fairly similarly.

Inclusivism in Learning Disabilities

In 1969, Bengt Nirje adopted and developed the concept of normalisation in Sweden and beautifully described it as…

“making available to all mentally retarded people patterns of life and conditions of everyday living which are as close as possible to the regular circumstances and ways of life of society.”

– Nirje, 1980

Learning Disability is not just an impairment in Cognition

The social impairment of Learning Disabilities – US Statute 111 – 256: Rosa’s Law defines the factual impairment, the imposed or acquired disability and the awareness of being different.

The Normalisation Theory

This theory focuses on the mainstream trends of social devaluation or deviancy making. Some categories of people tend to be valued negatively due to their behaviours, appearances and characteristics, and this places them at the risk of being devalued [according to the Normalisation Theory of Nirje on the societal processes he assumed] – people fulfil various social roles and stereotypes.

learning disabilities co ltd ii

As part of the deviancy making or social devaluation, the unsophisticated minds of the masses generally do not mean to stereotype, however they seem to do it unconsciously [the unconscious is a concept Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan acknowledged in their psychoanalytic theories of mental/psychological activity and mental health problems linked to psychopathic tendencies in people towards others], i.e. deviant groups with social symbols or images that are at a higher risk of being devalued are the focus of the normalisation theory, which is believed to be done with the aim of providing them with the skills they need and eventually change the status of these deviant groups to functional members of society.

Society tends to distance itself from deviant groups without any purpose or belonging, however psychologists provide support for the social integration and valued social participation of people with learning disabilities through exercises that involve learning through imitation. This challenges stereotypes within wider society through direct experiences of spending time with people who are affected by learning disabilities.

While psychology evolves and sophisticated and modern theories about intelligence and communication such as our « Organic Theory » take shape, we hope that observations such as this one may be digested and understood by the masses, that is:

« While the communicative patterns [language] in human primates vary with socio-behavioural and geographical patterns; creativity and IQ remain constant and do not change. Intelligence and creativity cannot be stopped because of linguistic differences, since talented and gifted humans do not choose the location of their birth nor their linguistic heritage but still contribute to the enhancement of our civilisation. »

 

Which concludes that that the intelligence of an invidual when assessed on a range of variables [e.g. perception, fluid intelligence, artistic creativity, reasoning, emotional intelligence, courage, values, etc] cannot be deduced by simply assessing their academic abilities, since human life has various sides to itself. Hence, the true worth and value of an individual may always remain a problem and a mystery to fully assess [since most only assess people on the variables they are interested in, for e.g. a company looking for a secretary will assess the applicant on her ability to handle office politics, and not other abilities essential to exist as a human within civilisation], and this seems to go in line with Jean Piaget’s deduction about the uniqueness of the human organism and mind.

Michel-Ange-Toujours-A-Apprendre-Always-Learning

« I am still learning » – Michael-Angelo at the age of 87 / Image: La Création d’Adam (1508 – 1512)

Neurodevelopmental Disorders & Intellectual Disabilities

Neurodevelopmental disorders are disorders occurring due to the biological dysfunction of the brain that in turn lead to developmental deficits that come in a range that can be very specific to global impairment. These groups however often co-occur together, i.e. one could be affected with Intellectual Disability (ID) and also Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Psychologists are expected to show great care when assessing this group of disorder as they vary in severity. Severity has 4 Specifiers and 3 Domains [Intellectual].

Specifiers: [1] Mild – [2] Moderate – [3] Severe – [4] Profound

Domains [Intellectual]: [1] Conceptual – [2] Social – [3] Practical


Intellectual Domains

The first domain, which is the Conceptual Domain refers to all things learnt at school and required for employment and adequate independent functioning within the community. Secondly, the Social Domain refers to social, developmental and emotional factors associated to age. This manifests in them as being victims of manipulation and abuse by others. Finally, the Practical Domain refers to all skills required to live healthily [also this is subject to interpretation depending on contexts, socio-linguistic and cultural settings].

Intellectual Disability

For one to be qualified as intellectually disabled, we would have to meet all the 3 criteria below:

  • Deficits in intellectual functions, such as reasoning, problem-solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgement, learning [also from experience].
  • Deficits in adaptive functioning that means failure to meet developmental milestones within the socio-cultural standards. Limited function in daily life, participation, communication, independence in multiple environments (i.e. Global).
  • Onset is during developmental period [childhood – another link to the Psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud & Jacques Lacan]


Assessment and Judgement

Careful distinction must be made when assessing patients suspected of suffering from Intellectual Disabilities (ID) between the low end of normal function and ID itself. The most widely used method clinically are IQ assessments and typically suggest any score that is 2 Standard Deviations below the mean [IQ scores of 75 +/-5] and whether the patient has had any clinical experience. Assessment based on the patient’s reasoning in real-life situations are also made. Global Developmental Delay is a term reserved for children under 5 who cannot adequately be assessed, but have missed all their developmental milestones.


Associated Features with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) to look for when diagnosing patients are:

  • Social judgment
  • Assessment of risk
  • Self-management of behaviour – interpersonal relationships and emotions
  • Motivation in school, university or work
  • Lack of communication skills and functional problem behaviours
  • Gullibility [Diagnosis is based on how people and society mistreat them – quite shocking or controversial?]
  • People with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) are also at high risk of suicide


Prevalence of Intellectual Disabilities

In the UK, 1% of people suffer from intellectual disabilities and 0.006% of the population have severe disabilities requiring supported living [that is about 360, 000 people in the UK] – a slight bias with a ratio of 1.6:1 towards males; this is due to the vulnerability of the male brain.


Autism Spectrum Disorders

As psychology evolves more consideration are being given to a dimensional aspect of abnormal behaviour rather than the usual dimensional [i.e. inflexible and sometimes exaggerated in terms of descriptive precisions disregarding individual fluctuations in symptomatic manifestations] constructs of mental disorders. Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) was the first mental disorder to initiate such a shift from categories to dimensions.

  • Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with Intellectual Disability (ID) = Autism
  • Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) without Intellectual Disability (ID) = Asperger’s Syndrome


Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorders

ASD is characterised mainly by deficits in social communication and restricted patterns of behaviour. For a diagnosis of ASD the deficits must appear early in the developmental period [however they cannot be diagnosed until the demands of a particular task exceeds the child’s capabilities] – so more severe it is the earlier it is diagnosed [e.g. Rett syndrome].


[A] Communication in ASD

In ASD, it is common to find persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts illustrated by:

  • Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, ranging from abnormal social approach. Failure to initiate or respond to social communications. Reduction in sharing interests, affect and emotions.
  • Deficits in non-verbal communicative behaviours used in normal social interactions. Abnormal or no eye contact, body language or deficits in reading [understanding] gestures. A total lack of facial expression and non-verbal communication.
  • Deficits in developing, maintaining and understanding relationships [e.g. from difficulties in adjusting behaviour to suit context]. Difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making positive social acquaintances or friends. Hardly any interest in any form or peers.


[B] Behaviour in ASD

It is also fairly normal to notice restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities manifested by at least two of the following:

  • Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech
  • Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualised patterns of behaviour. Shows extreme distress at small changes, difficulty in transition, rigidity, insistence on same route taken or foods
  • Hyper or hypo-reactive to sensory inputs or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment (indifference or hyper-responsive to pain, temperature, sound, textures, excessive smelling to touching of objects, visual fascination with movements or lights.

ASD may also manifest itself with or without intellectual disability, with a similar scenario for language impairment, and can be associated with medical or genetic conditions or environmental factors [exposure]. ASD can also be associated with another neurodevelopmental, mental or behavioural disorder and can also comprise catatonia.
Features to look out for

  • People with ASD often have uneven profiles or abilities – even the high functioning variants, and this can lead to substantive stress for them
  • They also often have odd motor idiosyncrasies – such as an odd gait, clumsiness and abnormal ambulatory movements.
  • Disruptive, challenging behaviour and injuries are also very common
  • As sufferers of ASD age, they are also more prone to developing anxiety and depression and are likely to end up in a catatonic state


Prevalence

Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) seem to be a genetic disorder, however it involves a variety of genes. 15% of ASD is due to a known mutation in over 90% of concordance studies with twins. Most researchers nowadays suggest that it is inherited and polygenic [lots of genes from genetic ancestry with each adding their weight to the likelihood of the disorder manifesting]. Males are 4 times more likely to suffer from ASD than females, and even high functioning adults with ASD have poor functioning, such as low rates of independent living and employment – older adults tend to become isolated and do not engage in help-seeking behaviours [note that this is different to individuals who may have a solitary personality by conscious choice or a highly selective social circle in personal relationships based on values, in ASD the patients are generally not conscious of the causes of their debilitating condition]

Specific Learning Disorders

Specific Learning Disorders are characterised by the following:

[A] Difficulties learning and using academic skills, as indicated by the presence of at least one of the following symptoms that has persisted for longer than 6 months:

(1) Inaccurate or slow reading
(2) Difficulty understanding meaning in what was read
(3) Difficulties with spelling
(4) Difficulties with written expression
(5) Difficulties mastering number sense, number facts and calculation
(6) Difficulties in mathematical reasoning

[B] The affected academic skills are substantially and quantifiably below the expected level for the chronological age causing interference with academic, occupational or daily living

[C] Learning difficulties begin during school-age years, but will only manifest itself and be diagnosed when the affected person’s capabilities are stretched by demands

[D] It is also independent and not caused by another health or psychological disorder


Specifications of Specific Learning Disorder

SLD generally involves impairment in reading, writing and mathematics. If it is mild in intensity, the person can generally compensate. Moderately affected people however cannot compensate, but will respond to specialist teaching. Finally, severe conditions require specialist teaching in a specialist school as learning will not occur without such arrangements.


Features to look out for in confirming SLD

  • SLD can occur in any individual, even those classed as gifted (IQ 130+)
  • It is usually diagnosed in the early years, but in higher ability individuals it may manifest in odd ways especially when their compensatory methods are undermined
  • Patient generally have difficulties with motor co-ordination
  • It is a life-long condition and does not improve with therapy, but has to be compensated for
  • Patients also tend to have working memory deficits and keep messy environments
  • Early signs include mispronouncing words, struggling to break down words into syllables


Prevalence of Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

SLD tend to occur in premature children or among societies with a very low birth rate. It is also more common in children with parents that smoke cigarettes [nicotine?] and is 8 to 10 times higher in families with a heritability index of 0.6 and 3 times higher in males [the vulnerability of the male brain once again]. The problems it causes with attention are likely to predict problems with the mathematical and reading components of the brain. SLD usually ends with unemployment, under-employment depression, poorer mental health and suicidal behaviour – support of any kind alters all of these outcomes.

 

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Part 2 of 5 | Anxiety Disorders

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Anxiety disorders are linked to the development of irrational fears of situations that are not life-threatening (Antony & Stein, 2009a). The avoidance of feared situations or experiences also lead to non-adaptive behavioural patterns. People suffering from anxiety disorders generally have fears accompanied by intense physiological arousal displayed by some or all of the following features: accelerated heartbeat, sweating, trembling, sensations of shortness of breath or smothering feelings of choking, chest pain, nausea, numbness or tingling, and chills or hot flushes. Other experiences of dizziness, derealisation (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization (feelings of being detached from the self) are also present in some cases.

In contemporary psychology there are a number of distinctions made between a variety of anxiety disorders based on the developmental timing of their emergence, the classes of stimuli that elicit the anxiety, the pervasiveness and topography of the anxiety response, and the role of clearly identifiable factors in the aetiology [the cause, set of causes, or manner of causation] of the anxiety.

The six main anxiety disorders are described below.


[1] Separation Anxiety

This condition most occurs in children and is generally manifested by a recurrent and persistent fear that is aroused when separation from the parents or caregivers is anticipated or imminent (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Furr et al., 2009; Pine & Klein, 2008; World Health Organization, 1992). The persistent, excessive worry about losing, or about possible harm befalling a parent is the main characteristic of Separation Anxiety Disorder with nightmares on the similar themes also present in some cases along with recurrent head-aches, stomach-aches, nausea and vomiting. Separation anxiety is also one of the most common causes of school refusal, and sufferers may also display a refusal to sleep without being in close proximity with the parents.


[2] Phobias

Phobic anxiety is the irrational and intense fear aroused when one is faced with an object, event or situation from a clearly defined class of stimuli which is exaggerated in terms of danger posed (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Blackmore et al., 2009; Hofmann et al., 2009; World Health Organization, 1992). When the person affected is exposed to the phobic stimulus, or anticipates its exposure, panic attacks may arise in adults whereas is children this may lead to excessive crying, tantrums, freezing or clinging. The persistent avoidance of phobic stimuli in phobias is endured with intense distress and this affects an individual’s personal functioning.

In the DSM, specific phobias are subdivided into those associated with animals, injury (including injections), features of the natural environment (such as heights or thunder), in particular situations (such as elevators or flying). These specific phobias are different from social phobias and agoraphobia.

In those affected with social phobias, anxiety is generally mainly aroused by social situations [e.g. public speaking, eating in public where there is the possibility of scrutiny by others and humiliation or embarrassment as a result of acting inappropriately]. In those with agoraphobia, the condition is known to manifest itself with panic attacks in public places, such as being in a queue, or on public transport – hence, these situations tend to be compulsively avoided to prevent the reoccurrence of the panic attacks.


[3] Generalized Anxiety Disorder

One of the main characteristics in general anxiety disorder is the constant feeling that misfortunes of various sorts will occur (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Bitran et al., 2009; Hazlett-Stevens et al., 2009; World Health Organization, 1992) and the anxiety is not focused on one particular object or situation along with difficulties controlling the worrying process and a belief that worrying is uncontrollable.

General anxiety disorder is mainly composed of nervousness, restlessness, difficulty relaxing, feeling on edge, being easily fatigued, difficulties in concentration, irritability, tearfulness, sleep disturbance and signs of autonomic over-reactivity such as trembling, sweating, dehydrated mouth, light-headedness, palpitations, dizziness and stomach discomfort. [DSM requires some or more of those symptoms to be present]

Case Example of Generalised Anxiety Disorder

Margie, a 10 year old girl was referred to the psychologist after displaying excessive tearfulness in school, the condition which had been gradually amplifying over a number of months and the bouts were unpredictable. Margie would often end up in tears while playing with her friends during break time or when spoken to by the teacher. In the family doctor’s referral letter she was described as a worrier like her mother.

Presentation

in the assessment interview Margie explained that her worries were mainly about a routine daily activities and responsibilities, she would also worry about doing poorly at school and that she had made mistakes which would later be discovered, that her school friend would not like her, that she would disappoint her parents with the way she did her household chores, that she would either be too late or too early for the school bus, that there would not be any space for on the bus and that she would forget her school books. Her worries also extended to health with frequent stomach aches.

The safety of a family also troubled her, she would worry that her house would be struck by lightning, that the river would break its banks and flood the low-lying fens where she lived, washing away her whole house. The future was also a major concern of hers as she worried about failing her exams and being unable to find a satisfactory job, and being unable to find a marital partner or marrying an inadequate person. A continuous feeling of restlessness with the inability to relax was also reported by her.

Family History

The family was very close and Margie was the eldest of four children and the only girl. It was observed during the intake interview that the mother and the father displayed symptoms of anxiety, while the former had been treated with benzodiazepines for anxiety over a number of years. The family also admitted to regularly discuss their problems about their own health and safety and their own worries about the uncertainty of the future.

The father, Oliver was employed by the insurance company and regularly have conversations at the dinner table about the accidents and the burglaries that had befallen his client, and Margie regularly participated in these conversation, being the eldest among her siblings. However the main concern of the parents was about Margie’s tearfulness which they believed was unusual along with her worries and fears which they thought as legitimate. Margie spent a lot of time with her parents’ company but also had a couple of close friends with whom she played at the weekends.

Formulation

Margie was diagnosed with generalised anxiety disorder. The precipitating factor for the condition was not apparent as it had gradually evolved over the course of Margie’s development. The referral however, was precipitated by episodes of tearfulness at school. The predisposing factors in her case comprised of a highly likely possibility of genetic vulnerability to anxiety and exposure to family culture characterised by an excessive concern with safety and oversensitivity to dangerous situations. The ongoing parental conversations about potential threats to the family’s well-being likely maintained the condition along with inadvertent reinforcement of Margie’s tearfulness at school, where her tears were responded to with considerable concern.

The protective factors in the case included good premorbid adjustment, the parents’ and the school’s commitment to solving the problem and the availability of peer group support. [This formulation is diagrammed below]

General Anxiety Disorder Formulation

Treatment

In this particular case, treatment involved family work focused on helping Margie parents reduce the amount of time they spent discussing themes related to danger and threats to their health and safety, and increase the amount engaged in activities and discussions focused on Margie’s strengths and capabilities. The parents were also assisted in coaching Margie into learning relaxation skills and mastery oriented coping self- statements. Eventually Margie showed improvement in her adjustment in school with some reduction in anxiety and tearfulness.

[4] Panic Disorder

In panic disorders, there are recurrent unexpected panic attacks; an ongoing primary fear of further attacks; secondary fear of losing control, going insane, having a heart attack or dying (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Ballenger, 2009; Hofmann et al., 2009; World Health Organization, 1992). Acute episodes of intense anxiety our experienced in panic attacks, and these reach a peak within 10 minutes. They are characterised by autonomy hyper arousal shown by some of the following symptoms:

– Palpitations

– Sweating

– Trembling or shaking

– Shortness of breath

– Feelings of choking or smothering

– Chest pain or discomfort

– Nausea or abdominal distress

– Dizziness

– Chills or hot flushes

– Parasthesias (Numbness or tingling sensations)

– Derealisation (Feelings of unreality)

– Depersonalisation (Feelings of being detached from oneself)

In panic disorder, patients tend perceive normal fluctuations in autonomic arousal as a stimulus that provokes anxiety, with the belief that these may signal the onset of a panic attack. During a panic attack, patients typically tend to report an irresistible urge to escape the location where the attack occurred and to avoid such situations in the future. Public settings are usually the most common location where panic attacks take place [e.g. queues, public transport, shopping mall, etc] and acute autonomic arousal is only alleviated upon escape from these places or situations – hence secondary agoraphobia often develops when the patient fears leaving the safety of their homes in case of panic attacks occurring in public settings.

[5] Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tends to occur after a catastrophic trauma such as a terrorist attack, an armed combat/robbery, a natural or man-made disaster, a serious accident that was perceived to be potentially life-threatening for oneself or others, torture, child abuse or rape.

PTSD is mainly composed of:

– Recurrent intrusive traumatic memories

– Intense anxiety in response to these memories and ongoing hyper arousal in anticipation of their recurrence

– attempts to regulate anxiety and hyper arousal by avoiding cues that trigger traumatic memories and attempts to suppress these memories when they intrude into consciousness (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Ehlers, 2009; Friedman, 2009; World Health Organization, 1992).

Recurrent, traumatic memories include flashbacks, nightmares, or repetitive trauma themed play in the case of children, and these occur in response to internal (psychological) or external (environmental) cues that symbolise the traumatic event or aspects of it. Since patients with PTSD tend to anticipate the recurrence of traumatic memories, they experience chronic hyper-arousal which may in turn lead to difficulties in concentration, sleep difficulties, hyper-vigilance and irritability. In PTSD, the attempts to suppress traumatic memories and the avoidance of trauma-related situations may turn out to be unsuccessful, when such a scenario occurs, the PTSD person generally experiences an increase in the frequency and intensity of past traumatic memories. Emotional numbing is also quite common in chronic cases due to the frequent attempts to keep the trauma-related memory out of consciousness – this eventually leads to the inability to recall the traumatic memories. To some this may seem like a solution but the cost is excessive since emotional numbing does not only result in the exclusion of trauma-related emotions such as anxiety and anger out of consciousness, but also tender feelings such as love and joy – which cease to be experienced by the patient.

PTSD may also lead to a subjective sense of foreshortened future to the patient and this may also be accompanied by limited involvement in his/her usual activities.

[6] Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is generally characterised by distressing obsessions and compulsive rituals that reduce the anxiety associated with those obsessions [like 2 opposing forces] (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Matthews, 2009; World Health Organization, 1992; Zohar et al., 2009). Obsessions are stereotyped thoughts, impulses or images that are recurrent and persistent. These cause serious anxiety to the patient since they are experience as senseless, uncontrollable and involuntary, and are linked to issues such as obscenity [this does not mean that healthy people with normal sexual feelings in healthy relationships have OCD], violence and danger [for e.g. some people suffer from irrational fears of the possibility of a catastrophe occurring unless symmetry or order is maintained, or there may be fears of losing control and violently raping or assaulting others, or fears of contamination [hygienic].

These compulsions are ritualistic and repetitive accompanied by stereotyped behaviours such as hand washing, ordering and checking or mental acts such as repeating words silently [which some patients feel compelled to do to regulate the anxiety caused by the obsessions], counting or praying [this should not lead to the belief that all people with faith in God suffer from OCD]. Compulsions are generally excessive attempts or unrealistic ways to avert imagined dangers entailed by these recurrent obsessions that are debilitating and are usually recognized as pointless while repeated attempts are made to resist them [once again this seems to be linked to the unconscious yet active component of mental activity and yet again leads us to Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan].


Clinical Features of Anxiety Disorders

The 6 anxiety disorders listed above are classified into the domains of Perception, Cognition, Affect, Arousal, Behaviour and Interpersonal Adjustment. In regards to perception, the disorders vary in the classes of stimuli that elicit the anxiety in the patient.

i)Perception

In cases of Separation Anxiety, the separation itself is the stimulus. Where phobias are the condition present, it is specific creatures [e.g. animals], events [e.g. injury], or situations [e.g. meeting new people] that trigger the anxiety. With Generalized Anxiety Disorder [GAD], the interpretation of multiple aspects of the environment end up being interpreted as potentially threatening. Panic disorder is characterised by somatic sensations of arousal such as tachycardia being perceived as threatening since they are treated as the signals that lead to full-blown panic attacks. In people with PTSD external and internal cues that bring back memories of the trauma that led to the condition elicit anxiety. In Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (OCD) stimuli that evoke obsessional thoughts elicit anxiety [e.g. potentially dirty environments or situations may give rise to obsessional ideas about hygiene and cleanliness, and anxiety about contamination.

ii)Cognition

It is important to note that in all 6 of those listed anxiety disorders, that the central organizing theme around cognition is “detection and/or avoidance of danger”. In children with Separation Anxiety there is the irrational belief that the caregivers or parents will be harmed if the separation occurs. In people affected by Phobias there is a constant fear of being harmed by either the feared object or creature, or being in the feared situation [e.g. being bitten by a god – in the case of Dog Phobia OR being negatively judged by meaningless strangers that have no connection or impact on the life of the patient in the case of Social Phobia]. As for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), patients tend to catastrophize about any features of their environment [e.g. fears of their house being burnt down, or that they will be the victim of a car crash, or punishment for some wrongdoing, they will be forsaken by those they consider as friends, and so forth – they also believe that their worries are uncontrollable. In Panic Disorder, there is the belief that more panic attacks are imminent and that they might be fatal to the patient. In many cases secondary agoraphobia also develops as they individual develops the belief that remaining in the safety of their homes might lower the probabilities of suffering from a panic attack. As for PTSD, there is the belief that as long as the intrusive memories of the trauma are forced out of consciousness, the danger of re-experiencing the intense fear, distress and horror associated with the traumatic event that led to the condition of PTSD can be avoided. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) generally leads to obsessions mainly concerned with dirt and contamination; catastrophes such as fires, illness or death; symmetry, exactness and order; religious scrupulosity; disgust with secretions and bodily wastes [e.g. urine, saliva or stools]; lucky or unlucky numbers and extreme, wild, violent and even dangerous sexual thoughts [risk-taking] – the neutralisation of the threat posed by specific obsession-related stimuli is believed to be achieved through being engaged in specific rituals.

iii)Affect

In all 6 of the mentioned anxiety disorders affective states generally follow the beliefs about threat and danger, and these are characterized by feelings of uneasiness, restlessness and tension. In the case of OCD, outbursts of anger may occur if the patient is restricted from executing his/her compulsive rituals or if compelled to approach the feared stimuli; and in children with Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may display aggressive tantrums if compelled to stay in school without their caregivers or parents. In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), on top of the affective experiences of tension and uneasiness, emotional numbing arises from repeated attempts to exclude all affective material from consciousness.

iv)Arousal

The pattern of physiological arousal varies depending on the frequency of contact with the feared stimuli. In Separation Anxiety Disorders (SAD), hyper-arousal only occurs when separation is anticipated or imminent. In the case of Specific Phobias hyper-arousal only manifests in the present of the feared object or animal. In General Anxiety Disorder (GAD), a pattern of ongoing hyper-arousal can be observed, while in Panic Disorder and PTSD it is moderate followed by brief episodes of extreme hyper-arousal – these occur during attacks in Panic Disorder and when memories of the traumatic event intrude into consciousness in PTSD. In the case of OCD, specific cues related to the obsessions evoke acute and intense episodes of arousal.

In somatic symptoms the extent to which physiological arousal finds expression varies, for e.g. recurrent abdominal pain and headaches are quite common in Separation Anxiety. Sleep problems also occur in most Anxiety Disorders. In Panic Attacks it is also common to notice full blown attacks with sweating, feelings of choking or smothering, shortness of breath, trembling, nausea, dizziness, chest pains, hot flushes or chills, parasthesias, depersonalization or derealisation.

v)Behaviour

All Anxiety Disorders are characterized by avoidance behaviours, and in Specific Phobia, avoidance may even lead to a constriction in lifestyle [using an Injury Phobia as example, the patient may refuse to take part in any form of physical activity [e.g. sports] or ride a bicycle]. In other cases, the patient sometimes become house bound due to his compulsive avoidance, and this generally occurs in Separation Anxiety Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder and PTSD. In those with PTSD, the use of alcohol or drugs to alleviate negative affect and suppress traumatic memories is quite common; and in OCD the patients generally engage in compulsive rituals in a desperate effort to regulate their anxiety associated with obsessional thoughts [it may be fair to note the relation between the Anxiety [as the Signifier] and the Obsessional Thoughts [as the Signified] in a Lacanian perspective here to point out the logic behind the flamboyant Frenchman’s model of Mental Activity based on Freud’s initial Topological Model – the Unconscious, the Preconscious and the Conscious]. These compulsions in OCD genereally include washing, repeating a particular action, checking, removing contaminants, touching, ordering and collecting.

vi)Interpersonal Adjustment

All 6 Anxiety Disorders affect interpersonal adjustment in a precise manner. In cases of Simple Phobia, interpersonal difficulties arise only in those situations where the individual does not conform or co-operate with normal activities [deemed social] so as to avoid the feared stimuli [e.g. a brief episode of marital conflict may occur if a husband refuses to enter an elevator at a shopping mall because of his claustrophobia]. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), Panic Disorder (PD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) sometimes prevent young people from attending school or adults from attending work, and in all those situations friends or family relationships may be seriously compromised. In the case of OCD peers or relatives may sometimes attempt to reduce the sufferer’s anxiety in participative actions in the compulsive rituals or in other cases, they may also exacerbate the anxiety by punishing the patient for his or her compulsive behaviour. In extreme cases, these compulsions can become so extreme that the affected person becomes constricted.


Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Course of Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety Disorders are the most common types of psychological disorders, and the lifetime prevalence rate in adults in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication was 28.8% (Kessler et al., 2005). There is a consensus that Phobias are the most prevalent anxiety disorders and OCD is the least prevalent across a wide range of epidemiological studies (Kessler et al., 2009; Furr et al., 2009). For Phobias, lifetime prevalence estimates range from 6% to 12%, whereas those with OCD fall below 3%. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) has a lifetime prevalence of 1% to 6 %, whereas Panic Disorder in adults and Separation Anxiety in children range from 2% to 5%. In National representative samples, the prevalence of PTSD ranges from less than 1% or 2% in Western Europe to almost 8% in the US. The great variability is believed to be due to the fact that PTSD rates depend on the prevalence and traumatic exposure within specific locations geographically and the vulnerability of the populations within these countries to developing PTSD – in populations exposed to terrorism the prevalence is 12% – 16% (DiMaggio & Galea, 2006).

In people suffering from Anxiety Disorders, there is also a high risk of comorbidity [i.e. other anxiety disorders may also be present], and up to 1/3 of those suffering from Anxiety Disorders also suffer from another (Kessler et al., 2009) – they may also occur comorbidly with mood disorders in adults as well as children, substance use disorder in adults and adolescents and disruptive behaviour in young people/children (Furr et al., 2009; Huppert, 2009; Zahradnik & Stewart, 2009).  In cases where substance misuse is also present, the use of drugs or alcohol is quite common in managing anxiety.

OCD is also present in a significant proportion of people with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa. (Halmi, 2010).

We can observe a clear age and gender difference in the prevalence of Anxiety Disorders (Antony & Stein, 2009a; Furr et al., 2009; Kessler et al., 2009) and across most studies that are available, the modal age of the onset in Separation Anxiety Disorder and Specific Phobias is during the developmental phase in childhood [a stage pointed out by both great Western psychotherapists, Freud and Lacan, and also John Bowlby in his observational research on the development of attachment types in children at this critical stage of development], whereas that of anxiety disorders generally happens during adolescence or adulthood. In both adults and children, there is a tendency for more females to suffer from Anxiety Disorders than males, with the exception to this balance being for OCD which has a similar number men and women suffering from the condition although it is the rarest of anxiety disorders.

Anxiety Disorders tend to show a recurring episodic course with a gradual reduction in prevalence over the course of the life cycle (Kessler et al., 2009). It is also worthy to note that most children with anxiety disorders do not grow up to be adults with anxiety disorders or depression, however most anxious adults do have a history of childhood anxiety disorders. There are a number of risk factors associated with Anxiety Disorders and these include anxiety disorders or psychological disorders in the direct genetic network, an inhibited temperament of behaviour, neuroticism as a trait of personality, a personal experience of psychological problems, a history of over-controlling or critical parents, a history of conflict and violence and a history of stressful life events (Antony & Stein, 2009b; Pine & Klein, 2008). In the scenario of Anxiety Disorders, a behaviourally inhibited temperament is generally the tendency from birth – to become nervous and withdrawn from unfamiliar situations and stimuli. Neuroticism is a trait of personality that gradually develops over the life-span, and it is characterized by the tendency to escape negative affect and includes hostility, anxiety and depression in its manifestations.

In those suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) the additional factors that increases the risk for development include the severity of the trauma, high-life stress following the trauma, low socio-economic status, low support [from friends or those considered as friends], low intelligence and low educational level (Ehlers, 2009; Ozer et al., 2003). In PTSD, dissociative experiences tends to refer to abnormalities of perception, memory or identity such as derealisation [seeing the world as dream-like], depersonalization [seeing oneself from an external perspective or inability to recall important information]. In the case of parents with PTSD, their children are also at a higher risk of developing the disorder (Pine & Klein, 2008).

 

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Part 3 of 5 | Depression

ClinP_Descr_Header_03

The states of being happy or sad are adaptive feelings, and many behaviours that lead to happiness among human beings, such as socializing [with the people that matter to the subject], becoming completely absorbed in productive work and developing longstanding friendships that are meaningful around values and loyalty, are important not only for the emancipation of the individual but also for a harmonious and functional society that embraces the qualities of mankind in all its creative aspects.

Sadness on the other hand is a psychological state commonly preceded by loss [of various kinds, which may range from material objects to valued relationships or abilities/skills and status related to them through accident or disease or other situations], and it is a negative feeling which may also be adaptive, in a sense that it is a reminder to most people [at least for those who are NOT philosophically oriented / cultured or have an understanding of values and loyalty in interpersonal relationships], that valued things or people need to be taken care of if they do not want to lose them in the future, especially the common volatile brain [i.e. the basic Darwinian instinct-guided average brain that lacks reflective abilities, reasoning skills, intuition and insight, while also failing to realises or understand the motivation behind its behaviour until matters have taken a disastrous course]. Sadness is also a way of signalling to others that we as human beings also need care and elicits [to most psychologically healthy human beings with a theory of mind] support that soothes our emotional pain – this is what makes us a superior breed of primates, i.e. our ability to reason and evolve with emotions as a propulsive form of energy for both individual and group, like Alexandre Dumas put it, “Un pour tous et tous pour un!” [French for “One for all and all for one!”].

Some extreme states of mood such as depression and mania are less adaptive than happiness and sadness; and it is now commonly known that during periods of hypomania or mania some patients suffering from Bipolar Disorder [which is characterized by episodes of mania and depression] produce highly creative artistic work (Silvia & Kaufman, 2010). This should not lead us to the conclusion that ALL creative people with extreme ways of exploring and expression their emotions through art suffer from Bipolar Disorder. But for those who do suffer from Bipolar Disorder and produce creative work, this highly valued asset comes at a price, since these individuals generally involve themselves in high-risk behaviours that come with the possibility of severe dehydration and exhaustion during manic episodes.

Seasonal Affective Disorder [or Winter Depression, its colloquial name] is a condition that is believed to be linked genetically to our cave-dwelling ancestors from the prehistoric era, who may have hibernated – an adaptive behaviour for the ancestors. However, in the world of today, depression does not seem to serve any adaptive function, and despite this it remains a highly prevalent condition that affects up to 25% of the population (Kessler & Wang, 2009); because of this prevalence the main focus of this section will be on Major Depressive Disorder. It is quite fundamental to grasp that depression is not simply “feeling sad”, as Major Depressive Disorder is an ongoing condition characterized by episodes of low mood and loss of interest in pleasurable activities along with other symptoms such as poor concentration, fatigue, pessimism, suicidal thoughts, and sleep and appetite disturbance. Depression is a serious public health concern because it radically decreases the quality of life of those affected, is a huge economic burden in terms of reduced productivity [and lack of creativity] among the national work force, and it also has adverse effects on the mental health and adjustment of the children of the depressed people (Garber, 2010; Kessler & Wang, 2009). This section will focus on the clinical features, epidemiology, risk factors and course of depression [suicidal risks will also be discussed].


Clinical Features of Depression

Severity

Depression can be classified as mild, moderate to severe, depending on the degree of impairment

Melancholia

In regards to somatic or melancholic features, in severe depression where there is a loss of pleasure in all activities [known as anhedonia] and a lack of reactivity to pleasant stimuli along with diurnal variation in mood and sleep and appetite disturbance, we tend to qualify such episodes as having melancholic features. Historically [please take note that this is not the case anymore], there was an ongoing view that these symptoms reflected “endogenous”, a genetically determined and biologically based form of depression, as different to a “reactive” depression arising from exposure to stressful life events and environmental adversity (Monroe et al., 2009).

However, the difference between these 2 forms of depression was not supported by empirical research, which instead shows that ALL episodes of depression are preceded by stressful life events, and that in any given scenario, we tend to have a combination of genetic vulnerability and environmental adversity that contribute to the development of depression (Parker, 2009).

Psychotic Depression

When mood disrupting delusions and hallucinations are present, depressive episodes are described as having psychotic features. Mood-congruent delusions are generally firmly held beliefs that are extremely pessimistic in nature and that have no basis in reality [illogical and cannot be explained and justified; for e.g. that a completely innocent individual is guilty of many wrongdoings and deserve to die. Mood-disrupting hallucinations in depression are generally auditory and sometimes involve the hearing of voices in a complete absence of any form of external stimuli [uncontrolled and unimagined and ongoing for months], which has negative advices to the sufferer [e.g. You are a failure, you are guilty of wrongdoing, or evil].

Among children, adolescents and adults, there has been a range of clinical features identified through both clinical observation and empirical research (e.g. Bech, 2009; Brent & Weersing, 2008; Gotlib & Hammen, 2009; Nolen-Hoeksema & Hilt, 2009a). Common clinical features of depression tend to affect the domains of cognition, perception, mood, somatic state, behaviour and relationships. Loss is once again a main thematic feature in depression as pointed out by Psychoanalytic Theories [loss of any kind, e.g. material, emotional, relationship, valued attribute due to sickness/accident, health, etc], and clinical features may be linked to those different domains of mental life.

Perception

In regards to perception, depressed individuals who have suffered some form of loss [internal or external] tend to perceive reality and the world as one where further losses are possible, and individuals who suffer from depression also selectively attend to negative stimuli and features in the environment. This leads them to engage in further depressive cognitive patterns in their thoughts processes and unrewarding behavioural patterns which amplify their depression’s severity – in cases of severe depression, mood-congruent auditory hallucinations are often reported. Psychologists tend to go with the assumption that such severe perceptual abnormality is present only when patients report hearing harsh critical voices or containing depressive contents [as mentioned above]. These auditory hallucinations are also present in schizophrenia, however they are not always mood-congruent like in depression.

Cognition

Depressed patients tend to describe the world and the fabric of reality of their subjective experience in negative terms, this also include descriptions of themselves and their abilities [e.g. occupational and social accomplishments] – this negative evaluation is often portrayed as guilt for not living up to the standards [they set themselves based on their ‘perceived’ abilities] or for letting others down. They perceive their direct environments [peers, network, family, work colleagues or school/university] as hostile, apathetic, critical and unrewarding. The future is also described in very bleak terms by those suffering from depression, and they also report little if any hope that matters will improve. When extreme hopelessness is reported is it usually accompanied with excessive guilt for which the patients believe they should be punished – suicidal ideas and intentions may also be declared. In depressive delusional systems, extremely negative thoughts about the self are generally reported with the world and their future entangled in them.

Besides the content and thoughts being incredibly negative and bleak, depressed patients also tend to display concentration problems and logical errors in their thinking. These mistakes in reasoning are also characterized by a tendency to maximise the significance of negative events and minimize the significance of positive ones. Depressed patients also suffer from memory problems and struggle to remember happy events but instead have global over-general autobiographical memories about both positive and negative events. In addition to these, this category of patients also suffer from concentration, attention and decision-making problems that in turn give rise to difficulties managing leisure activities requiring sustained attention and academic or occupational responsibilities.

Affect

The impact on the patient’s affect tends to lead to low mood, and diurnal variations in mood and anhedonia. The depressed mood is usually reported as a feeling of sadness, loneliness, emptiness and despair. Diurnal variations in mood is usually quite common in severe cases of depression, with the patient’s mood generally being worse in the morning or after waking up. In cases of major depression, as a person moves from mild to moderate to severe depression, the increasing number of symptoms along with the intensity can also lead to intense anxiety. Generally, fears are experienced in the form of “Will this get worse? Am I stuck in this living hell forever? Will I ever be myself again? Will I be able to prevent myself from committing suicide to escape? Irritability is also a characteristics of depression, with the patient sometimes expressing their anger at the source of their loss [e.g. anger at a deceased one for abandoning the grieving person or sometimes at the health professional for not being able to alleviate their depressive symptoms].

Somatic State

The changes in the patient’s somatic state associated with depression include the disturbances of sleep and appetite, the loss of energy, failure to make age-appropriate physiological growth, weight loss, pain symptoms and a loss of interest in sexual activities. Commonly, depressed people struggle to find sleep and eat insufficiently due to their poor appetite; these symptoms are known as vegetative features. The sleep disturbances in depressed people generally involve problems trying to sleep, wakefulness at night or early-morning sleep disruption. Other symptoms such as racing thoughts and engaging in depressive rumination while unable to sleep is also quite common. In atypical cases of depression, patients may sometimes oversleep due to a constant feeling of exhaustion and consume excessive food due to an increased appetite or due to the feeling that eating may temporarily reduce their distress.

Medically unexplained chest, abdominal and back pain along with headaches are some of the additional features of depression. In some cases the pain symptoms are some of the first signs that would be reported to the doctor and it is only when the medical investigations of these symptoms turn out to be negative that depression is suspected to be the cause. All the somatic symptoms mentioned are consistent with research: dysregulation of neurobiological, endocrine and immune functions is associated with depression and the sleep is also affected.

Behaviour

Depressed patients are characterized behaviourally by the reduced and slow activity levels [psychomotor retardation] that they display, and are often helpless [without any control over their abilities] about their inability in getting involved in activities that could have helped their condition by bringing a sense of achievement or connectedness to meaningful [those chosen by the individual as a person with significance to him/her – note that it is a choice] people in their life. In rare cases some individual become house bound and immobile; such a condition is known as depressive stupor.

One of the major risks of depression is self-harm [a clear distinction is made between non-suicidal deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour]. In non-suicidal tendencies, patients may cut or burn themselves to distract themselves from the depressive feelings. In some cases, some have taken non-lethal overdoses to elicit attention and care from their close ones or to simply gain admission to hospital and remove them from the stressful situations that may have been amplifying their depressive symptoms.

Relationships

Depressed patients generally report a deterioration in their relationships with a range of significant figures in their lives from a wide range of environments [from professional to personal], and describe themselves as lonely, et unable or unworthy to take steps to try and engage in some form of contact with others. Surprisingly, when the depressed attempt to overcome their loneliness by talking to others, they tend to come across as repulsive, unpleasant and draining through their depressive behaviour, pessimistic belief and sometimes arrogant narcissistic talks, this drives away those they interact with.


Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Course of Depression

The most common mood disorder is Major Depression, and it has a lifetime prevalence rate of 6 – 25% in international community studies (Kessler & Wang, 2009). In the US National Co-morbidity Survey Replication the lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV Major Depression was 16.6% (Kessler et al., 2005). It is good to note that Depression is less common among pre-pubertal children than adolescents and adults (Brent & Weersing, 2008). Among children the number of boys to girl with depression is equal, however this changes in adolescence and by adulthood; compared with men, about twice as many women have depression (Nolen-Hoeksema & Hilt, 2009b).

In most cases of depression, there are many comorbid disorders also present. In the US, National Comorbidity Replication Survey, 59% of depressed patients suffered from comorbid anxiety disorders and 24% had comorbid substance use disorders (Kessler & Wang, 2009). Depression also tends to follow a chronic relapsing course, with up to 80% of people suffering from recurrent episodes, and it has been found that the median duration of episodes in community samples typically lasts for about 5-6 weeks. In clinical samples depressive episodes tend to last for about 5 to 6 months; the majority of cases however recover within 1 year and about half of patients continue to suffer from fluctuating residual symptoms between those depressive episodes; and for less than 10% of patients, recovery does not occur and chronic depressive symptoms persist and most cases relapse within 5 years (Angst, 2009; Boland & Keller, 2009).

During treatment, as more depressive episodes occur, we tend to notice a decrease in inter-episode intervals and a reduction in the amount of stress required to trigger the onset of further depressive episodes, an issue related to Stress Theories (Boland & Keller, 2009).

NOTE: Stress theories propose that individuals develop depression following exposure to stress. The diathesis- stress theories propose that depression only follows after exposure to stress in people who have specific biological or psychological attributes that render them more vulnerable to stressful life events, and the most vulnerable require the least stress to trigger depression (e,g., Joiner & Timmons, 2009: Joormann, 2009; Levinson, 2009). On the other hand, Stress-generation theory proposes that people with certain personal attributes inadvertently generate excessive stress, which in turn leads to depression (Liu & Alloy, 2010)

The risk factors for depression include a family history of mood disorders, female gender, low socio-economic status involving educational and economic disadvantage, and adverse early family or institutional environment, the depressive temperament, a negative cognitive style, deficits and self-regulation, high levels of life stress, and low levels of support from meaningful others (Garber, 2010; Hammen et al., 2010).

Risk factors for recurrent major depressive episodes identified in the US collaborative depression study of 500 patients, include a history of three or more prior episodes, comorbid dysthymia (often known as Double Depression), comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders, long duration of individual episodes, poor control of symptoms by antidepressant medication, onset after 60 years of age, the family history of mood disorder, and being a single female (Boland & Keller, 2009).

Four small category of people who suffer from depression, deficits the visual processing of light and the season of the year are risk factors for depression (Rosenthal, 2009). These people, who experience regularly recurring depressive episodes in the autumn and winter, with remission in the spring and summer, are generally considered as suffering from Seasonal Affective Disorder. These patients develop symptoms in the absence of adequate light and respond positively to enhanced environmental lighting, often referred to as “Light Therapy or Treatment” (Golden et al., 2005).

In community samples about 3.4% of people with major depressive disorder commit suicide; the rate in clinical samples about 15%; about 60% of completed suicides (studied by psychological autopsy) had suffered from depression (Berman, 2009).

 

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Part 4 of 5 | Schizophrenia

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Before covering the topic of schizophrenia, it is important to take note that the condition is commonly confused to refer to another condition that involves split-personalities, and this is mostly a trend that lives in the world of pop culture and Hollywood. About 40% in the UK equated split or multiple-personality with schizophrenia in a National Survey (Luty et al., 2006). However, after covering this section, we hope that the confusion will be cleared since schizophrenia does not refer to conditions that involve split-personalities [the closest scientific equivalent to this state of being, is a condition known as Multiple Personality Disorder or Dissociative Identity Disorder and are both not as debilitating as schizophrenia with treatment being much more effective].

Schizophrenia refers to a collection of seriously debilitating conditions characterised by positive and negative symptoms in this organisation (Mueser & Jeste, 2008).

Delusions and hallucinations are the principal positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Delusions are strongly held, unfounded, culturally alien beliefs. For example with persecutory delusions, individuals may believe that a group of people conspiring to harm them [this should not lead us to believe that a healthy person with a suspicion caused by the critical analysis of a person or group of people is deluded and is schizophrenic – remember that human beings have individual personalities too]. Hallucinations on the other hand involve experiencing sensations in the absence of external stimuli [e.g. with auditory hallucinations – which are the most common type in schizophrenia – people reported hearing voices that others cannot hear].

The negative symptoms of schizophrenia include flattened affect, alogia and avolition. In the case of flattened affect, the emotional expression of the patient is limited, and with alogia there is an impoverished thought that is inferred from the patient’s speech. Short brief and concrete replies are given to question [this is referred to as poverty of speech], or in some cases speech production is normal but it conveys little meaning and information due to repetition, or being overly abstract [referred to as poverty of content], or being too concrete. When patients suffer from avolition, a lack of goal directed behaviour can be observed. The negative symptoms generally give rise to a restricted lifestyle involving little activity, little social interaction with others and little emotional expression – disorganisation may also affect both speech and behaviour [disorganised, illogical, incoherent, speak are the signs of an underlying formal thought disorder]. Disorganised catatonic behaviour is usually characterised by the complete absence of spontaneous activity or excessive purposeless activity.

Schizophrenia is a debilitating and re-occurring condition that comprises the capacity to carry out normal activities, and also consists of incomplete remission between episodes.  (Hafner & der Heiden, 2008). Symptoms of schizophrenia typically appear in late adolescence or early adulthood, wax and wane over the life course, and have a profound long-term effect on patients and sometimes their families.

Schizophrenia is considered to be the most debilitating of all psychological disorders, since it affects the patient’s capacity to live independently, make and maintain satisfying and enduring relationships, engage in family life, parent children effectively, work productively and enjoy leisure activities. Rates of unemployment, homelessness and imprisonment are very high among people with schizophrenia, although just under 1% of people suffer from schizophrenia, the World Health Organization has rented as second only to cardiovascular disease in terms of overall disease burden internationally (Murray & Lopez, 1996).

Despite these unattractive facts, the scientific advances in our understanding of schizophrenia, along with advances in both psychological and pharmacological approaches to treatment, making it increasingly realistic for people who suffer from schizophrenia to live far more productive lives than were previously possible (Mueser & Jeste, 2008).


Case Example of Schizophrenia

A young man, named Julian was referred for assessment and advice by his doctor. Since returning to his rural home after studying in London for one year, his parents started to worry about his state because of his strange behaviour. After failing as exams, the patient said that he had to ”sort his head out”. Since his return, the parents had noticed a lack of concentration along with incoherent speech during his conversations which happen most of the time – his behaviour was also erratic and unpredictable.

The parents concern grew when Julian suddenly went missing a few weeks prior to the referral. After hours of searching, he was found about 55 Km from their home, dehydrated, exhausted and dressed only in sport shorts, singlet and running shoe. After enquiry, the latter developed the belief that a secret mission in the East had to be undertaken by him; and as he started jogging in the morning, he headed eastwards towards the rising Sun. He even planned to jump onto the car ferry when he reached the coast, across the sea over to Holland, and continue east towards India in his secret mission [reminiscent of a James Bond episode].

Since the episode, Julian has spent much of the time in his room muttering to himself, often becoming quite distressed, and when his parents spoke to him they found it hard to make any sense out of his words.


Family History

Julian was the 19-year-old son of a prominent farmer in a rural English village where the whole family lived in a large amount on an extensive estate. The farm was managed by the patient’s father; who had a traditional authoritarian manner and a positive, if distant, relationship with Julian. While he was incredibly worried about Julian and to the search for him, once the latter was found, the father returned to work unless the care of his son to his wife.

The mother was an artist who dressed flamboyantly, behaved in a theatrical manner and held century, unconventional beliefs [e.g. Conspiracy theories about many issues, was interested in eastern mysticism and believe that faith healing and alternative medicine were preferable to traditional Western medicine]. These characteristics of a personality along with her beliefs affected her treatment of Julian after the ”Running East” episode, where she engaged the latter in intense conversations about mystical meaning of the psychotic experiences that led to him trying to make his way to India on foot. Rather than taking Julian to the accident and emergency department of the local hospital for assessment, she brought him to a feeler and then than homeopathist. It was only of these interventions failed to our view the distress that she took Julian to the doctor, who made the referral to the community mental health team. In the preliminary assessment that was conducted with Julian and both of his parents, the mother responded to the son with intense emotional over involvement (an index of high expressed emotion associated with a relapse in schizophrenia; Hooley, 2007).

With regard to the extended family, according to parents there has never been a family history of psychological disorder. However some members of the mother’s well-to-do family were fairly eccentric and odd, especially her brother, Sedric, and her uncle, William Jr. Williams eccentricities led him into serious conflict with his father, and Sedrick’s odd behaviour underpin his highly conflictual, childless marriage.


Developmental history

Julian on a family farm and went to the local school, his development was what most people would call normal. His Academy former school was above average and he had many friends in his local village, and was a popular child and adolescent who also excelled at cricket. At 18 years old before going to university London, he had no psychological problems.

His first term at college was successful academically and socially, however, the occasional experimental cannabis use that had begun the summer before going to college turn to a regular use once Julian moved to London. During his time at university, the patient also experimented with LSD on a few occasions. In the final term of his first year at college, Julian developed intense fear of exam failure. Other symptoms quickly followed such as difficulty studying effectively and sleeping problems. Julian stopped attending classes regularly and spend more time alone, and was relieved to return home after sitting as exams. Once home he was described as quiet and thought during most of the time prior to the “running East” episode.


Presentation

Julian presented with symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech and anxiety. At the very start the patient was very reluctant to be interviewed because he believed he had urgent business to attend to in Holland and further afield in India. He also showed signs of being anxiously distressed throughout the interview, explaining that his path was to the east and believed he was being called there by an unknown source. He firmly believes this because of a sign he had seen while out jogging on the morning of the enigmatic “running East” episode. The way in our God will record the sunlight and cast a shadow on the red barn against which it was leaned made a distinctive pattern, which to him meant a special sign indicating that he should go East, first to Holland and then all the way to India. Upon questioning this idea, a clear authoritative voice said that he should leave at once.

At this point in his narrative, stopped mid-sentence and displayed thought blocking, and will strive the topic he was talking about. Upon being asked to continue his story, he began to giggle, and when questioned about the reason behind his amusement, Julian declared to have heard someone say something funny. Julian then spoke about a number of unrelated topics in an incoherent way before experiencing thought blocking again.

Later he expressed the desire to leave soon because people will try to prevent him, as he had heard them plotting about this the day before, and also declare that they had tried to put bad ideas into his head [which he described as frightening]. He was also frightened by periodic sensations that everything was too loud or too bright and coming at him, declaring “it was like doing acid [LSD] all the time… a really bad trip.”


Formulation

In Julian’s case he presented with auditory hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, anxiety and a significant deterioration in social and occupational functioning which had been present for more than 1 month [symptoms consistent at the time of this essay with a diagnosis of Schizophrenia]. The patient also showed a complete lack of insight and was unable to understand that the voices being heard were hallucinations and that the delusional beliefs were unfounded. Among the major precipitating factors were the experience of recent exam pressure and his transition from living at home to living in London at attending college. The principal predisposing factors were possible genetic vulnerability to psychosis and a history of hallucinogenic drug use.

His psychological condition was maintained by what was likely to be an excessive level of maternal expressed emotion characterised mainly by emotional over-involvement. His delusions were also reinforced by the mother since the latter engaged Julian in long and draining conversations about them. The protective factors in this case were godo premorbid adjustment and a strong family support for the boy.


Treatment

The treatment plan included antipsychotic medication and family will to reduce parental expressed emotion, with an initial brief period of hospitalisation. Julian did recover from his first psychotic episode, and his hallucinations and delusions decrease considerably with medication. Through family Psycho-education, parents develop understanding of this condition and of the requirement of a “low-key” approach to interacting with the boy as he recovered.

However some obstacles were encountered in Julian’s recovery, since he disliked the side effects of the medication, especially the weight gain and reduced sexual drive/function, and so had poor medication adherence – depression also manifested during the remission, when Julian came to realise about the many losses that followed his condition. He was unable to pursue his university studies and thus, could not continue the law career he had dreamed of. He also experienced difficulties in maintaining friendships or to commit to engaging on a regular basis in physical exercises or sports. When his mood was low, Julian would smoke some cannabis to lift his spirits.

The mother found it very difficult to accept the diagnosis of Schizophrenia and continued to hold the belief that his psychotic symptoms were linked to some spiritual or mystical explanation. She even sometimes declared that she thought of her son not as an ill young man, but a gifted seer or a “chosen one” [based on no rational explanation or series of events], and often engaged Julian in intense, distressing conversations about these issues. In the years that followed his initial assessment, poor medication adherence, ongoing cannabis use [which the patient could not tolerate unlike some other users] and exposure to high levels of intrusive parental emotions led Julian to relapse more often than might otherwise have been the case.


Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

A range of clinical features have been identified and associated with Schizophrenia though research and clinical observations (Mueser & Jeste, 2008). The generally concern the domains of perception, cognition, emotion, behaviour, social adjustment and somatic state.


Perception

At the perceptual level, patients suffering with schizophrenia generally describe a breakdown in perceptual selectivity, with difficulties focusing on essential information or stimuli to the exclusion of accidental details or background noise. Most aspects of the environment seem to be salient, however, the inability to distinguish between figure and ground is a serious problem to the sufferer. During an acute psychotic state, internal stimuli such as verbal thoughts are experienced as auditory hallucinations that have the same sensory quality of the spoken word.

Auditory hallucinations can sometimes be experience as extremely loud thoughts, or as thoughts being repeated by another person aloud (thought echo), as voices speaking inside the head or as voices coming from somewhere in the outer environment. The auditory hallucination may occur as third person making comments on the patient’s action, as a voice speaking in the second person directly to the person, or as two or more people talking or arguing – the effect did may also perceive voices to vary along the number of dementia [may be construed as benign or malevolent, controlling or impotent, or knowing or knowing little about the patient, who may sometimes feel compelled to the demands of the voice or not.

When hallucinations are perceived to be malevolent, controlling, all-knowing, where the individual affected feels compelled to obey the demands of the voice, the situation is deemed to be far more distressing than those who do not have these attributes. While auditory hallucinations are the most common features in schizophrenia, hallucinations may okay other sensory modalities too. Somatic hallucinations also often occur in schizophrenia, with many cases including reports of electricity in the body or the feeling of something crawling underneath the skin [these may be qualified as delusional interpretations. For example, a patient reported that the television was activating a transmitter in her pelvis and she could feel the electricity from this closing insects to grow and move around under the skin. Visual hallucinations [seeing visions] are relatively rare in schizophrenia very common in temporal lobe epilepsy.


Cognition

At the cognitive level, delusions are the most common cognitive clinical feature of schizophrenia, and are false, idiosyncratic, illogical and stubbornly maintained erroneous inferences drawn to explain unusual experiences, such as hallucination. [e.g. patient with auditory hallucinations where an authoritative voice commanding the latter to gather the children, was interpreted by the patient that she had been chosen by God to prepare all the children for the second coming of Christ]

Delusions may also arise from unusual feelings associated with psychosis. Persecutory delusions may develop from feelings of being watched. Delusions of thought insertion or thought withdrawal may develop as explanations for feelings that thoughts are not one’s own, or that one’s thoughts have suddenly disappeared. Factor analyses show that delusions fall into 3 broad categories:

Delusions of influence [including thought withdrawal or insertion, and beliefs about being controlled]; delusions of self-significance [including delusions of grandeur or guilt]; and delusions of persecution (Vahia & Cohen, 2008). Delusions may vary in the degree of conviction with which they are held [great certainty to little servant, the degree to which the person is preoccupied with them [the amount of time spent thinking about the belief], the amount of distress they cause.

Particular sets of the may comprise of a confused sense of self, particularly paranoid delusions with the patient holds the belief that they are being persecuted or punished for misdeeds, or delusions of control where there is a belief that their actions controlled by others [e.g. an unknown source or entity].

A lack of insight along with an impaired judgement is quite common during a psychotic episode. This happens when the patient believes that the contents of their hallucinations and delusions are real, and are incapable of coming to terms with the fact that their experiences and beliefs arise from a clinical condition. However in between psychotic episodes, the patient’s insight may improve and in some cases they may acknowledge that their hallucinations and delusions are symptoms of schizophrenia.

Speech in schizophrenic patients is also fairly hard to understand due to the abnormalities in the underlying thought pattern. This formal thought disorder is characterised by

  1. Tangentiality [answers given to questions are off the point]
  2. Derailment [sentences makes sense but hardly any meaning is conveyed by the sequences of sentences because there is a constant jumping from one topic to another, with very loose association between topics and little logic to what is said]
  3. Incoherence [sentences are incorrectly formed so little sense can be made out of them]
  4. Thought blocking [the patient abruptly stop’s in mid-sentence and is unable to complete the train of thought]
  5. Loss of goal [the difficulty in following a logical train of thought from A to B]
  6. Neologisms [inexistent new words are made up that only have idiosyncratic meaning for the patient]

Cognitive impairment or deterioration occurs in schizophrenia and this may either be general or specific. In cases with general cognitive deterioration, we can observe a reduction in overall IQ with many cognitive function also negatively affected. With specific cognitive impairment one or more of the following functions may be impaired: attention, memory, cognitive flexibility, social cognition and executive function, and most commonly the ability and dedication to follow through on a planned course of action. Cognitive impairment remains a better predictor of disability and vocational functioning than positive symptoms.


Emotions

At the emotional level, especially during the prodromal phase, before an acute psychotic episode, anxiety or depression may occur in response to changes in perceptual selectivity and cognitive inefficiency. One of the main functions of relapse prevention is for patients to learn [and eventually master] the ability to identify and manage prodromal changes in affect.

During psychotic episodes that are intense, anxiety or depression may occur in response to hallucinations, delusions, formal thought disorder and other debilitating symptoms. Inappropriate affect may also be present in hebephrenic schizophrenia, where the patient responds to the internal stimuli such as auditory hallucinations [e.g. laughing wildly] and not the external social context. In chronic cases, blunted or flattened affect can also be observed, and in remission [following an episode of psychosis], the sense of loss [e.g. of valued personal relationships, material, career, etc] that comes with increased insight into the reality of the condition may give rise to post-psychotic depression in some cases.

Behaviour

In terms of behaviour, prodromal excitation may occur prior to an acute psychotic episode, characterised by sleep disturbance, impulsive behaviour, and over-reactivity [may include compulsive behaviour]. Avolition also occurs during psychotic episodes with an observable impairment in goal-directed behaviour.

In some chronic cases, it is common to also find catatonic behaviour along with an impairment in the ability to initiate and organise voluntary movement and posture. Catatonia may be either retarded or excited. Excessive purposeless motor activity is the hallmark of excited catatonia and may include stereotypies [repetitive actions], echolalia [repeating the words said by others] or echopraxia [imitating the actions of others] – these tend to occur without the patient being consciously aware of it [not a conscious choice]. In cases where retarded catatonic behaviour is present there is an observable reduction in purposeful activity; patients may display signs of immobility, mutism, adopt odd postures for extended amounts of time, and display waxy flexibility or negativism.

Social Adjustment

A marked deterioration in social adjustment is also common in schizophrenia, and the ability for self-care, appropriate dressing, grooming and personal hygiene deteriorates – patients with schizophrenia often look dishevelled and unkempt. A decline in also commonly present in the domains of education and work with a withdrawal from regular patterns of socialisation and difficulty making and maintaining significant relationships. A deterioration with others also occurs and schizophrenia tends to have a negative impact on parent-child, marital and sibling relationships.

Somatic State

Approximately 50% of people with Schizophrenia also have comorbid substance use disorders and almost 75% have significant health problems, with the most common one being Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) [usually due to heavy smoking]; heart disease and diabetes due to obesity; HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C caused by unsafe sex and intravenous drug use [e.g. heroin]. These drug and medical problems in schizophrenia are lifestyle problems. However, one the positive side, schizophrenia is associated with reduced rates of cancer and rheumatoid arthritis (Tandon et al., 2008a).

 

Epidemiology, Course, Outcome and Risk Factors of Schizophrenia

International epidemiological studies that have been reviewed have allowed for a number of conclusions to be deduced regarding schizophrenia. We know that [luckily] under 1% of the population suffer from schizophrenia, and the lifetime risk of the condition is about 0.7% (Saha et al., 2005). More men than women suffer from schizophrenia: the male-female ratio is about 1.4:1 (McGrath et al., 2004). Schizophrenia has an earlier onset in males (20-28 years) than in females (28-32 years) (Murray & Van Os, 1998). The rates for schizophrenia have also been found to be similar across countries and cultures when diagnostic criteria are used (Mueser & Duva, 2011).

Schizophrenia tends to follow a distinctive course although a considerable variability exists across cases (Jablensky, 2009; Jobe & Harrow, 2010; Mueser & Duva, 2011, Tandon et al., 2009). The onset of schizophrenia generally occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood and may be acute or insidious [onset generally takes place over 5 years, starting with negative and depressive symptoms, followed by cognitive and social impairment and finally positive symptoms]. Longitudinal studies suggest that there is an early deterioration phase that extends over 5-10 years, a stabilisation phase and a final gradual improvement phase. In over 50 – 70% of cases, the condition follows a chronic relapsing course, typically with incomplete remission between episodes. However, up to 40% of patients show one or more periods of complete recovery with good adjustment for at least 1 year, and  4 – 20% of cases show complete remission.

Psychotic episodes may last from 1 – 6 months, although some cases extend up to 1 year. They are usually preceded by a prodromal period of a number of weeks. Psychotic episodes may be lessened and the severity of the symptoms ameliorated through early detection and the use of pharmacological and psychological treatment. Inter-episode functioning may differ greatly and better inter-episode functioning is associated with a better prognosis. The duration of remission between episodes may be lengthened through the use of maintenance medication and psychosocial interventions to reduce stress and improve coping and illness management.

With treatment, usually positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) abate between episodes but negative symptoms (blunted affect, alogia and avolition) can be enduring and are more likely to persist during remission. In the stabilisation phase of schizophrenia, positive symptoms become less prominent, while negative symptoms and cognitive deficits become more prominent. The lifespan of people with schizophrenia is also 9 years less than that of the general population, and this is partly accounted for by the high rate of suicide during the first 10 years of the disorder and the high rate of comorbid medical disorders that also tend to occur along with schizophrenia. About 50% of schizophrenics attempt suicide or self-harm, and about 10% commit suicide (Heisel, 2008; Schennach-Wolff et al., 2011).

One of the greatest risk factors for schizophrenia is a family history of psychosis. Other risk factors make a small contribution to the overall risk within the context of associated with genetic vulnerability. However until now, it is important to note that we still do not have any clear consensus or evidence on how these risk factors operate and whether environmental factors remain a stronger prediction of the onset of schizophrenia than genetic factors that only set a predisposition [risk] of possibly developing the condition. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors, such as maternal flu infection and obstetric complications, are likely to have a negative effect or indirect effect on the development of the nervous system in line with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis that states how those affected by such issues while also being genetically predisposed to schizophrenia are even more neurologically vulnerable to psychosis (Murray & Lewis, 1987). Trauma exposure and most demographic risk factors (being unmarried, low-SES urban migrant) are associated with higher levels of stress and lower levels of social support [which increases the risk of psychosis in the genetically vulnerable] according to the Diathesis-Stress Conceptualisation of Schizophrenia (Zubin & Spring, 1977).

In the short term, relapse is more likely in cases where these is heavy cannabis use [along with poor personal/subjective tolerance of the effects on consciousness], poor treatment adherence, frequent contact with insignificant extended family members who may display excessive negative emotional expressions towards the patient [e.g. criticism, hostility and emotional over-involvement] and exposure to acute stress life events (Jablensky, 2009).

A poor outcome is associated with substance use and a longer period of untreated psychosis in people who have poor premorbid adjustment and an early insidious onset with no clear stressful life event preceding their first treated episode. One of the main traits associated with a poor outcome is “Anxiety”, and people with this stress profile are generally more sensitive to and reactive to life’s stressful events, along with populations living in a developing economy, and family-based stress associated with excessive negative expressions of emotion. The symptom profile predictive of a poor outcome is also marked by severe negative symptoms, cognitive impairment and lack of depressive symptoms.

A favourable outcome in schizophrenia is associated with a range of factors (Bota et al., 2011). These include good premorbid adjustment, and a brief duration of untreated psychosis characterised by an acute onset in response to precipitating stressful life events. A family history of affective problems/disorders [rather than schizophrenia] or little psychopathology and a personal symptom profile in which there are affective as well as psychotic features are also predictive of a good prognosis. A better outcome tends to follow those who have a favourable life situation to return to following discharge from hospital.

 

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Part 5 of 5 | The Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

 

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The main help that a psychotherapist provides is psychotherapy, a contractual process where professionals with expert knowledge interact with clients to guide and help them in the resolution of their psychological conflicts, emotional imbalance, psychological problems and address mental health and behavioural difficulties [if any]. Psychotherapy can be offered to both adults and children on an individual, couple, family or group basis.

Often psychotherapists offer therapy as one element of a multimodal programme provided by a multidisciplinary team [e.g. a multidisciplinary adult mental health team may routinely offer a multimodal programme of psychotherapy combined with some mild anti-depressant for depression]. This final section will focus on the evidence base for the overall effectiveness of psychotherapy.


Evidence-based Practice

In today’s trend of mainstream clinical psychology where the mechanical model of early behaviourists has been combined with cognitive psychology to become Cognitive-Behavioural Psychology, there has been a gradual shift from practice guided by descriptions of clinical cases [qualitative, detailed and individual] to “evidence-based” practice guided by the results of empirical studies using the statistical methods of science to make inferences about behaviour [that can be measured at least] on the effectiveness of psychological interventions. This movement has started in part due to the influence of policies derived from the medical field which bases itself on evidence-based medicine [i.e. tested with laboratory-rigour and statistical methodology] (Sackett et al., 1996, 2000).

Evidence practice in medicine as it has been applied to psychology [or should we say behavioural science] involves the judicious and compassionate use of the best available evidence to make decisions about patient or client care. In clinical psychology, this involves considering available scientific evidence about “what works” on one side, and the client’s unique problems, needs, rights and preferences on the other; while also making balanced, compassionate judgements (APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence Based Practice, 2006; Norcross et al., 2006).


Meta-analyses

The most persuasive form of evidence as far as the effectiveness of psychotherapy and other psychological interventions are concerned in regards to empirical measurements and statistical methodology, comes from meta-analyses on controlled trials.

Meta-analysis is a systematic, quantitative approach to reviewing evidence from multiple trials while also reducing the impact of reviewer bias since the data from many trials are synthesised using statistical methods.

In a meta-analysis, effect sizes are calculated for each trial and then averaged across all trials to provide a quantitative index of the effectiveness of a particular form of treatment with a specified population. The effect sizes calculated in meta-analyses express quantitatively the degree to which treated groups improve over untreated control groups [A graphic explanation of the calculation of an effect size in given in FIGURE A.

FIGURE A - EFFECT SIZES

FIGURE A. A Graphic Representation of an Effect Size of 1

 

Table A shows a system for interpreting effect sizes, and using it, it may be seen that .9 is a large effect size, and if such an effect size was obtained in a meta-analysis it would mean that the average treated case fared better than 82% of the cases in the control group. It would also indicate that 71% of cases in the treatment group had a successful outcome compared with 29% of control group cases. Finally, a large effect of .9 would indicate that 17% of the variance in outcome would validly be attributed to the effects of the treatment rather than other factors.

Table A - Interpretation of Effect Size

TABLE A / Note: Adapted from Wampold (2001, p. 53). 1. From Cohen (1988), 2. From Glass (1976). 3. From Rosenthal and Rubin (1982). Binomial effect size display, assuming overall success rate of .5, success rate for treated cases is .5+ correlation with outcome/2, and success rate for untreated cases is .5-correlation with outcome/2. 4. From Rosenthal (1994, p. 239), percentage of variance = d²/(d² +4).

Is Psychotherapy effective? If so, how effective?

Mary Smith and Gene Glass published the first major meta-analysis of psychotherapy result studies in American Psychologist in 1977. They included 375 controlled trials of psychotherapy in their analysis and found an average effect size of .68. They concluded that a typical therapy client was better off that 75% of untreated individuals.

Since that seminal study many meta-analyses have been conducted, and in a synthesis of 68 separate meta-analyses of psychotherapy with children, adolescents and adults with a wide range of different psychological problems, Grissom (1996) found an aggregate effect of .75, indicating that the average treated case fared better than 77% of untreated controls.


Effects of Psychotherapy with Adults

The mentioned meta-analysis conducted by Smith and Glass (1977) also included many studies of therapy with children and young people. In the quest to determining the effects of psychotherapy for adults with psychological problems, Shapiro and Shapiro (1982) conducted a meta-analysis of 143 studies of psychotherapy exclusively involving adult populations. This revealed an effect size of 1.03, meaning that after treatment the average adult who participated in psychotherapy fared better than 84% of untreated control group cases.


Effectiveness of Psychotherapy with Children and Adolescents

The results of 4 broad meta-analyses of studies involving children and adolescents under 18 years with a diverse range of psychological problems receiving a variety of forms of psychotherapy provide evidence for the overall effectiveness of psychotherapy with children (Casey & Berman, 1985; Kazdin et al., 1990; Weisz et al., 1987, 1995). These meta-analyses included more than 350 treatment outcome studies. Effect sizes ranged from .71 to .88, with a mean effect size of .77. This indicates that the average treated case fared better than 78% of control group cases.


Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

Within the psychodynamic tradition, a distinction is made between short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and intensive long-term psychoanalysis. Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy involve weekly sessions for periods of 6 – 12 months, while Long-term psychoanalysis involves two or more sessions per week, usually lasting for periods longer than 1 year [Jacques Lacan, one of the main psychoanalytic figures in France, broke from other associations to create his own school where he advocated short psychoanalytic sessions that varied ranging from 10 minutes to more, as he argued that the point of therapy is to shape the patient’s consciousness and depending on the person, this can be achieved by a range of ways, e.g. metaphors or word plays that allows the patient to peer into his own psyche and understand himself]

Two important broad meta-analyses have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy with adult mental health problems (Leichsenring et al., 2004; Leichsenring & Rabung, 2011). In a meta-analysis of 17 studies, Leichsenring et al. (2004) found that short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy yielded an effect size of .7 for psychiatric symptoms in patients mainly diagnosed with anxiety and mood disorders when therapy was compared with waiting list or minimal intervention control groups. This indicates that after treatment the average treated case fared better than 76% of controls. In this meta-analysis, the outcome for psychodynamic psychotherapy did not differ from that of other forms of psychotherapy in the 14 studies where such comparisons were made.

In a further meta-analysis of 10 studies, Leichsenring and Rabung (2011) found that Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy involving more than 50 sessions over periods longer than a year yielded an effect size of .54 for overall effectiveness for complex cases with severe symptomatology, comorbid diagnoses, or personality disorders, when long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy was compared with a range of other therapies including Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT), dialectical behaviour therapy, family therapy and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. This indicates that after treatment the average case fared better than 70% of cases treated with other therapies. The gains made during treatment were sustained at 1 to 8 years after follow up.

The results of these two meta-analyses show that short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy is an effective as other widely used forms of psychotherapy, including Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT), for common psychological problems such as anxiety and depression in adults; and that long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy is more effective that some other forms of therapy for adults with complex mental health difficulties.


Client-centred Humanistic Psychotherapy

Elliot et al., (2004) conducted a meta-analysis of trials of psychotherapy that fall broadly within the client-centred humanistic psychotherapy tradition [over 90 trials of client-centred, experiential, gestalt and emotionally-focussed therapy were included in the analysis]. Clients in these studies had a wide variety of psychological problems including anxiety, mood, eating and relationship distress. The average duration of treatment was 22 sessions, reflecting about 6 months of therapy. An effect size of .78 was obtained, indicating that the average treated case fared better than 78% of cases in control groups. These results indicate that client-centred humanistic psychotherapy is an effective form of treatment for a range of common psychological problems in adulthood.


Overall Effects of Psychotherapy

FIGURE B summarises the results of meta-analyses, described above, of the effectiveness of psychotherapy from a range of different traditions with adults and children. In this figure, where appropriate, effect sizes from multiple meta-analyses have been averaged, and graphed as success rates based on the system given in TABLE A.

From FIGURE B it can be deduced that meta-analyses of psychotherapy trials yield moderate to large effect sizes that range from .65 to 1.02. When expressed as success rates, the results of meta-analyses indicate that 65 – 72% of people with psychological problems benefit from psychotherapy. Thus approximately two-thirds to three-quarters of people who engage in psychotherapy find that it leads to improvements in their mental health.

figure b - sucess rates w adults &amp; children

FIGURE B. Success Rates of Psychotherapy with adults and children, and Therapy from other schools of thought [traditions] based on Effect Sizes from Meta-analyses

Comparison of the effects of Psychotherapy and Medical Procedures

In order to make sense of the overall effectiveness of psychotherapy, it may be useful to ask ourselves: Are the moderate to large effect sizes associated with psychotherapy very different from those associated with the medical and surgical treatment of physical illnesses, diseases and medical symptoms?

In a synthesis of 91 meta-analyses of various medical and surgical treatments for a range of medical conditions, Caspi (2004) found an average effect size of .5. This falls in the moderate range of effect sizes (.5 – .8) and not very dissimilar to the effect size of .75 from Grissom’s (1996) synthesis of 68 meta-analyses of psychotherapy trials mentioned at the beginning of this section. Hence, it may be concluded with some certainty that the moderate effect sizes associated with psychotherapy are similar to those associated with the treatment of medical conditions.


Deterioration and Drop-Out

A consistent finding within psychotherapy research literature is that up to 10% of clients deteriorate following treatment (Lambert and Ogles, 2004; Lilienfeld, 2007). In a review of 46 studies on negative outcome in adult psychotherapy, Mohr (1995) found that deterioration was associated with particular client and therapist characteristics and particular features of psychotherapy. Deterioration was much more common among clients with obsessive compulsive disorder or severe interpersonal difficulties. Lack of motivation and the expectation of benefiting from psychotherapy without personal effort were also associated with deterioration. Deterioration was more common when unskilled therapists lacked the empathy and did not collaborate with clients in pursuing their agreed goals. Failure to manage counter transference appropriately and frequent transference interpretations were also associated with deterioration.

Dropping out of psychotherapy is a relatively common event. In a meta-analysis of 125 studies, Wierzbicki and Pekarik (1993) found a mean dropout rate of 47%. Dropout rates were higher for minority ethnic groups, less educated clients, and those with lower incomes. Thus, we can conclude that about 1 in 10 clients deteriorate following therapy and that marginalised clients with particularly troublesome disorders and negative attitudes to psychotherapy are vulnerable to dropping out of psychotherapy and deterioration.


Medical Cost Offset

So, all the evidence that has been reviewed shows that psychotherapy is effective for a range of problems and populations. However, an important factor regarding the delivery of psychological treatment is the financial implication of it [i.e. the cost to the economy and health services]: How much does it cost to provide such a psychotherapy service? From this financial perspective, two questions would be of interest:

First: Do clients who received psychotherapy use fewer medical services and so incur reduced medical costs? This saving would be referred to as the Medical Cost Offset.

Second: Is the Medical Cost Offset associated with psychotherapy greater than the cost of providing psychotherapy? If so, we would be able to conclude that psychotherapy has a total cost offset.

Findings from meta-analyses and narrative reviews of the cost-offset literature provide explanations on these questions. In a meta-analysis of 91 studies conducted between 1967 and 1997, Chiles et al. (1999) found that psychotherapy and psychological interventions led to significant medical cost offsets. Participants in reviewed studies included surgery inpatients, high health-service users, and people with psychological and substance use disorders who received psychotherapy or psychological interventions alone or as part of a multimodal programme. Chiles and his team found that medical cost offsets occurred in 90% of studies and ranged from 20% to 30%. In 93% of studies where data were provided, cost offsets exceeded the cost of providing psychotherapy. Greater costs offsets occurred for older inpatient who required surgery, oncology, and cardiac rehabilitation than for outpatients who required care for minor injuries and illnesses. Structured psychological interventions, tailored to patient needs associated with their medical conditions, led to greater medical cost offsets than traditional psychotherapy.

In a set of meta-analyses from earlier studies involving Blue Cross and Blue Shield US Federal Employees Plan claim files and 58 controlled studies, Mumford et al. (1984) found that 85% of studies medical cost offset for psychotherapy occurred, and this was due to shorter periods of hospitalisation for surgery, cancer, heart disease and diabetes – particularly in patients over the age of 55. In a review of psychological interventions for people with a variety of health-related difficulties, Groth-Marnat and Edkins (1996) found that medical cost offsets occurred when such interventions targeted patients preparing for surgery and patients with difficulty adhering to medical regimens. Medical offset also occurred for smoking cessation programmes, rehabilitation programmes, and programmes for patients with chronic pain disorders, cardiovascular disorders and psychosomatic complaints.

Three other important reviews of medical cost-offset literature, which focussed largely on mental health problems in adults rather than adjustment to physical illness, deserve mention. In a review of 30 studies of psychotherapy for psychological disorders and drug and alcohol abuse, Jones and Vischi (1979) found that medical cost offsets occurred in most cases. In a review of eight cost-effective studies for substance abuse, Morgan and Crane (2010) concluded that family-based treatments can be cost-effective. In a review of 18 studies of psychotherapy for psychological disorders, Gabbard et al. (1997) found that in more than in 80% of studies, medical cost offsets exceeded the cost of providing psychological therapies. Significant cost-offsets occurred for complex problems and in studies of psychoeducational family therapy for schizophrenia and dialectical behaviour therapy for personality disorders this was achieved by reducing the need for inpatient care and improving occupational adjustment.

Therefore, to conclude with all the evidence reviewed here, it is widely accepted today that psychotherapeutic interventions have a significant medical cost offset. Those who participate in psychotherapy use fewer extra medical services at primary, secondary and tertiary levels and are hospitalised less than those who do not receive psychotherapy.

 

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Essay // Clinical Psychology: Controversies that surround modern day mental health practice

mentalhealth

Modern day mental health practice could be defined as the application of the four main schools of thoughts that dominate the field of psychology in the clinical setting, by abiding to strict criteria set out by packaged behavioural sets, diagnostically defined by names and categorised depending on the core nature of their specific characteristics in terms of behaviour, aetiology and epidemiology. While these four [biological, psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioural & systemic] main schools of thought have contributed to the development and ongoing evolution of the field of psychology, they also have downsides when applied to different types of psychological cases, with some being more efficient in treating particular disorders while others being hardly efficient and questionable. Applying and integrating these four schools of thoughts with new intuitive fact-based theories to explain psychological constructs and disorders are leading to major innovations in psychology; however with each field’s limitations controversies over the validity of their interpretations and the efficiency of their applied doctrines remain a constant topic of debate among scholars and clinicians.

One of the main controversies that surround modern day mental health practice is the medicalisation of psychological disorders, a tradition influenced by the field of medicine which contradicts an important founding philosophy of psychology, which was originally initiated to study the “mind”, not the physical characteristics of the brain as an organ. Furthermore, evidence suggests that psychological problems are not caused exclusively by organic factors. In anxiety, depression and/or schizophrenia, people with genetic vulnerability to the development of those psychological disorders only do so when exposed to particular stresses in their environment (Hankin & Abele, 2005). However, on the other side of the argument, evidence has also shown that deficiencies in genetics and neurobiological anatomy are linked to psychological difficulties and disorders, and hence nowadays, integrated approaches are used in a variety of assessments when treating patients affected by psychological disorders.

On the theme of medicalization, the debate over eating disorders has led to one of the major controversies within the field between advocates of the biomedical conceptualisation of eating disorders and the feminist position (Maine & Bunnell, 2010). The former sees an individual woman as a patient with a debilitating disease, in need of a cure to her illness; while the feminist position views eating disorders as a condition that is gender specific with the woman as a victim of socio-cultural pressures generated by a male-dominated society governed by a hedonistic economic reality focused on the pursuit of the thin ideal. There is an important distinction that should be made here for the benefit of patients since the feminist view may not fully comprehend that in the case of obesity and emaciation related to eating-disorders, the patients are at severe risk of medical complications such as growth retardation, osteoporosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities and cardiac arrest [in chronic cases]. The social feminist constructivist perspective may be interpreting eating disorder as an image debate of “Fat” versus “Thin”. This may lead to the normalisation of obesity and destructive eating habits which in turn may result in further medical complications that involve surgical interventions. As for the feminists, it may be ethical to acknowledge that obesity & emaciation associated with eating disorders are major health issues that precede further complications such as diabetes, cancer and high blood pressure; and should not be confused with social stigma regarding image, but seen as a sign of poor-health and lifestyle that require attention and effort in providing patients with the medical and psychological help they need to adjust their patterns of life to a healthy one by adopting a culture synchronised with dietary & nutritional education.

Secondly, the medicalization of anxiety disorders as distinct medical & psychological conditions may seem less favourable to the biological model previously mentioned. A mass market of pharmacological products used in treatment has been favoured for being more convenient and less time consuming. This may lead to patients feeling disempowered and hopeless when being treated as victims of an uncontrollable illnesses requiring pharmacological treatment, while already being in a state of distress, shock, disbelief and/or confusion. Diazepam (Valium) or other benzodiazepines that are highly addictive have also been prescribed for years to treat anxiety disorders. The long term side effects have been trivialised along with the arrogant act of medicalizing fear and courage (Breggin, 1991). Critics of the medicalization of experiences argue that if patients are helped in understanding that panic attacks develop from the misrepresentation of bodily sensations and hyperventilation, this knowledge along with their own courage may strengthen them to take control of their fear. Research has also shown how patients who are educated in cognitive-behaviour techniques learn to use problem-solving and develop other skills (e.g. social – help them build meaningful lasting relationships while letting go of psychosocial burdens) that they lack to reappraise situations that may formerly have brought distress.
TheDownfallOfTheWildAnimals.jpgThe tragic death of one of the most talented vocalists on the planet, Chris Cornell, has sent a shock throughout the arts world and reports have revealed that the gifted artist was on Lorazepam [a benzodiazepine medication sold under the name Ativan used in the treatment of anxiety disorders], the substance is known to heighten the risk of suicide in those suffering from depression, while a recent investigation (Bushnell et al., 2017) has also shown no meaningful clinical benefit from the addition of benzodiazepines during treatment initiation. To prevent such tragedies from affecting the human race, more emphasis could be placed on « the mind » with clear guidance on the « thinking styles » (cognitive scripts) to adopt in the protection of the individual organism’s own psyche (mind). Simple foundations based on psychological logic should be propagated educationally to help people understand their uniqueness as organisms while protecting their psyche [mind] from the influence/control of external environmental factors that are beyond their control [e.g. biased negativity, uninformed prejudicial comments of meaningless acquaintances, etc]; acknowledging the fact that as long as an individual organism is within the boundaries of the law, he is allowed to live the life of his choice, and external factors would only affect one’s psyche if attention is given to them; and selectively ignoring parts of the environment  is also an acquired skill vital in maintaining sanity, along with the ability to select experiences that are positive & progressive to the organism [while discarding negative ones] in the context and theme of their chosen individual lifestyles.

ChrisCornell

An artist many might consider to be the Fréderic Chopin & the Edouard Manet of Rock, composing with his heart and painting with his voice, enigmatic vocalist Chris Cornell, known for timeless titles such as « What You Are« , « Like A Stone« , « The Last Remaining Light« , « Exploder« , « Be Yourself« , « Getaway Car » & « Dandelion » left a hole in the hearts of millions touched by his work. His tragic death is a reminder that further research is required in understanding the thought structure of artistic individuals whose psychological subjective reality would likely be deeper and more complex compared to the average person – an approach focusing on the « mind » rather than the « behaviour or brain » in the tradition of Sigmund Freud would likely reveal and explain the granularity of their psyche; and whether their suicidal decisions are rooted in full awareness and motivated by a reality they consider to be inadequate for their state of consciousness and IQ; and whether appropriate interventions involving the restructuration of their psychosocial patterns/exposure [to prevent the burden of stress] may be more individualistic & appropriate.

This would also shift the focus to the individual’s mind, courage & abilities to handle the world while maintaining a stable sense of self and resilience; and not turn them into biological organisms that are having their neurochemistry savagely altered by powerful chemical substances that are known to affect individuals differently with dangerous & sometimes fatal outcomes.

PrinciplesOfPsychology

The same would apply to sufferers of post-traumatic stress disorder who would benefit of a non-pharmacological and empowering intervention to manage and take control of recurrent intrusive and distressing memories – it may be useful to study fear, distress and courage as normal psychological processes happening on a dimensional scale on a normal continuum from one individual to another where those on the extreme ends of the scales may be considered for psychological interventions.

Similarly, antidepressant medication used to treat depression remains controversial due to its questionable efficacy and side-effects. The high level of effectiveness of SSRIs reported in academic journals was greatly due to only trials with positive results of antidepressants being published while those where antidepressants were found to be no more effective than placebos being rejected. The effects of TCAs and SSRIs have also been found to be negligible in mild to moderate depression but effective in severe depression in meta-analyses (Fournier et al., 2010). The negative side-effects of antidepressants are known to be risky and dangerous where symptoms such as loss of sexual desire and impotence, weight gain, nausea, sedation or activation, and dizziness are known to be some of the more disturbing ones, with effects varying with types of antidepressants – for depressed pregnant women, health risks may affect their offspring. Dangerous antidepressants such as MAOIs are only prescribed to patients who can follow strict dietary patterns that exclude foods with thyramine (e.g. cheese) to prevent risks of high blood pressure and hypertensive crises. Although meta-analyses suggest benefits may outweigh the risks, an increased risk of suicide has also been noted among patients under 25 (Bridge et al., 2007).

Edouard Manet - Le Suicide

Edouard Manet (1832 – 1883), « Le Suicidé« 

Electroconvulsive therapy has also sparked a major controversy as a primitive, dangerous and non-scientific practice for the brevity of its effect and negative side-effects on memory (Read & Bentall, 2010). A thorough review of studies on the effectiveness of ECT and its side-effects [retrograde and anterograde amnesia] revealed it to be effective for a brief duration in treating severe depression [in cases that are unresponsive to psychological treatment] and questionably only supported by psychiatrists with a vested interest in proving ECT’s effectiveness. ECT has also been associated with a slight but significant risk of death, and a qualitative study of patients’ negative experiences concluded that for some ECT leads to fear, shame and humiliation, and reinforces experiences of worthlessness and helplessness associated with depression.

brainbuilding

Medicalization has also led to controversy over the diagnosis of schizophrenia, a condition classified as a disease by the World Health Organization and ranked second only to cardiovascular diseases in terms of overall disease burden internationally (Murray & Lopez, 1996). Diagnosis is believed to be part of best practice in the patient’s “best” interest, however a strongly presented viewpoint by Thomas Szasz (2010) qualified diagnosis as an act of oppression as it may pave way for involuntary hospitalisation; where a deviant, maladjusted or poorly educated person may be subjected to « control » processes that they are not fully aware of – this has been proposed as a « possible » explanation for the greater rates of schizophrenia among ethnic minorities (particularly Africans in the US & those of low-SES groups). This view has also been supported by many who argue that schizophrenia as a distinct category may not be a fully valid diagnostic, but a fabrication constructed that may stigmatise disadvantaged or poorly educated people – while this may be positive in shaping « unacceptable behaviour » and protect citizens & society, some people with moderate symptoms may also be forcefully hospitalised. Thus, nowadays, schizophrenia is not a single definite disorder anymore, but one among others, as it has been revised and turned into a spectrum, known as the schizoid spectrum [with other related disorders]. In the treatment of schizophrenia, medicalisation has also led to the evaluation of psychotherapy as a possibly ineffective treatment (Lehman & Steinwachs, 1998). Freud & others in his discipline acknowledged the treatment of psychosis as problematic with psychotherapy as psychotic individuals tend not to develop transference [interpretation of their hidden feelings, defences & anxiety] to the analyst – unlike neurotic patients. For personality disorders, addictions and other severe mental health problems medicalisation has led to the development of alternative methods of treatment that unlike the traditional authoritarian & hierarchically organised inpatient mental health settings, are run in a more democratic line where service users are encouraged to take an active role in their rehabilitation rather than simply being passive recipients of treatment.

clinicalpsychology

Therapeutic communities have turned out to be effective in the long-term treatment of difficult patients with severe personality disorders with the outcome being more positive with longer treatments. These therapeutic communities are believed to lead to improvements in mental health and interpersonal functioning. For drug misuse issues, the assumption that clinicians make over users attempt to quit being due to conscious guidance & coherent plans should be revised as no evidence suggests so, and more evidence argue that unconscious processes, classical and operant conditioning, erratic impulses, and highly specific environmental cues affect the development and cessation of drug use (West, 2006). According to West, interventions should not stimulate adolescents to think of what ‘stage’ they are in or be matched to a stage, but maximum tolerable pressure should be put on the young person to cease drug use – which contradicts the stages of change model (DiClemente, 2003; Prochaska et al., 1992) where 30 days are allocated to stages [pre-contemplation, contemplation, action & maintenance] based on no evidence. While concepts such as harm reduction programmes with needle exchange, safe injection sites, and the provisions of free tests of quality of MDMA sold at raves remain controversial, some believe they prevent mortality and morbidity (Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2010), while others argue they send the message that hard drug use [such as heroin] may be acceptable.

The second major controversy in modern day mental health practice remains the “Person or Context” debate where many in the field still question the validity of focusing on context as it shifts attention from the individualistic characteristics of the patient, and whether the focus should shift depending on the disorder and the patient’s age. For example in the treatment of childhood disorders, if difficulties are assumed to be individual ‘psychiatric’ illnesses the risk of focus being solely on the child and not on broader social environment may lead to medical treatments and individual therapy without addressing important risk factors for those of such young age who are influenced by their social environment, e.g. teacher, school and wider social context. This may not be the case for some adults who value a sense of autonomy more than being influenced by wider social contexts that they have no connection to, interest in or affinity for. In contrast, to the autonomic adult, treatment cases of other childhood behaviour disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorders may be particularly problematic, since the major risk factors that should be addressed are social: through interventions such as parent training, family therapy, multisystemic therapy and treatment foster care. For ADHD, the bold emphasis on medication is dangerous as the effects are limited to only 3 years (Swanson & Volkow, 2009), while growth and cardiovascular functioning may be affected that may lead to somatic complaints such as loss of appetite, headaches, insomnia and tics, which are present in 5-12% of cases (Breggin, 2001; Paykina et al., 2007; Rapport & Moffitt, 2002).

Another interesting argument comes from the Scottish psychiatrist and psychoanalyst R. D. Laing (2009) in the 1960s and 1970s who opposed the view that schizophrenia was a genetically based medical condition requiring treatment with antipsychotic medication. His dimensional approach led him to view schizophrenia as a ‘sane reaction to an insane situation’ where the contents of psychotic symptoms were simply viewed as psychological responses to complex, confusing, conflicting and powerful parental injunctions that left no scope for more rational and adaptive modes of expression. Thus, Laing proposed that the treatment involved creating a context where insight into the complex family process [e.g. poor housing, low SES, deviant parents with drug problems, over-involved family members who maintain the patient’s stress, alcohol problems, sexual deviance, incest, lack of financial stability, poor educational motivation, poor emotional education, lack of problem solving skills, lack of sophistication, poor nutrition, restricted finances, etc] of patients with schizophrenia and psychotic response to these could be facilitated. The context here seems partially important in the case where the patient’s delusions and hallucinations are linked, where their interpretation would be the client’s response to conflicting parental injunctions. The experience of psychosis and recovery was a process where the individual could emerge stronger with new and valuable insights regarding the solutions to their problems. However, this has not been supported by any evidence or subsequent research. In contrast, strong scientific evidence points to the importance of a more client-centred individual approach focussed solely on the patient with defective inherited neurobiological factors as major focus for the role they play in schizophrenia, and antipsychotic medication for the reduction of symptoms in two-thirds of psychotic patients affected (Ritsner & Gottesman, 2011; Tandon et al., 2010). Research has supported the hypothesis that suggests the family does affect the psychotic process and that psychotherapy has a place in the management of psychosis, for example personal trauma, including child abuse increases the risk of psychosis, and stressful life events including those within the family can precipitate an episode of psychosis, and high levels of family criticism, hostility and emotional over-involvement increase the risk of relapse (Bebbington & Kuipers, 2008; Hooley, 2007; Shelvin et al., 2008). So for those with a strong sense of family, and heavily involved peers, family therapy delays relapse in troubled families characterized by « extreme » levels of expressed emotion; and cognitive behaviour therapy which stresses the idea that psychotic symptoms are understandable and on a continuum with normal experience can help patients control these psychotic symptoms (Tandon et al., 2010), with solutions to rebuild their lives, their own identity and manage their social circle intelligently by differentiating types of relationship and expectations.

personality

The third and last controversy to be addressed is the ongoing debate in clinical psychology over the categorisation of psychological disorders where many have been arguing over a dimensional outlook on psychological conditions that offers more precision in diagnosis along with a more scientific approach. In the case of childhood behaviour disorders with regard to scientific approaches, there is an ongoing debate over whether they should be viewed and classified in categorical or dimensional terms. While DSM are based on rigid categories, most empirical studies support the view of a dimensional outlook. Furthermore, factor analytic studies consistently show that common childhood difficulties belong to two dimensions of internalizing and externalizing behaviour, which are normally distributed within the population (Achenbach, 2009). Young children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder and ADHD are part of a subgroup of cases with extreme externalizing behavioural problems, while those with anxiety or depressive disorders have extreme internalizing behaviour problems (Carr, 2006a). By the same dimensional approach, children diagnosed with intellectual disability fall at the lower end of the continuum of intelligence, a trait also normally distributed within the population (Carr et al., 2007). The dimensional approach is not only more scientific, but also has a less stigmatizing and rational approach to human uniqueness. The dimensional approach has also enhanced the movement critical of qualifying psychological deficiencies as ‘real psychiatric illnesses’, conditions such as ADHD, conduct disorder and other DSM diagnoses. Questions have been raised over whether they are invalid fabrications or spurious social constructions (Kutchins & Kirk, 1999). Those who trust the evidence of the dimensionality of childhood disorders argue that they may simply be traits distributed normally among the population where some cases fall on the extreme ends of certain traits, while those who point to the interests of pharmaceutical industries’ financial motives argue that they are spurious social constructions. The latter seems unethical but is a part of the decadent and immoral economic reality that we have allowed to exist. As parents, health and educational professionals, it is clear that the pharmaceutical industry and governments may all gain from conceptualising children’s psychological difficulties as ‘real psychiatric illnesses’. Some schools or uncaring parents may prefer children to receive a diagnosis of ADHD with stimulant therapy as they may have difficulty meeting their needs for intellectual stimulation, nurturance and clear limit-setting; thus these children in their care become more aggressive and disruptive.

In the case of schizophrenia, a dimensional approach has also led to the schizotypy construct as a dimensional alternative to the prevailing categorical conceptualization of schizophrenia (Lenzenweger, 2010). In contrast to the categorical view based on Kraepelin’s (1899) work and used in the DSM which sees schizophrenia as a discrete diagnostic category, this one proposes that anomalous sensory experiences, odd beliefs and disorganized thinking exist in extreme forms of schizophrenia as hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder, but these are simply on continuum with normal experience [i.e. it is present in all ‘normal’ people but peaks in abnormal ones] – a position originally advocated by Bleuler (1911). Research measures have provided support for the dimensional construct of schizotypy (Lenzenweger, 2010) where the continuum may be composed of sub-dimensions; from normal to psychotic experiences. Schizotypy is heritable; and patients with high schizotypy scores but who are not psychotic show attentional, eye-movement and other neuropsychological abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Further, the dimensional approach has also led to the distinction between schizophrenia and split personality where 40% in the UK equated split or multiple personality with schizophrenia – as popular culture often does. It is clear that schizophrenia does not refer to such characteristics.

dr_jekyll_and_mr_hyde_poster_d'purb

The closest equivalent to split personality is a condition known as dissociative identity disorder (DID), where the central feature is the apparent existence of two or more distinct personalities within the same individual, with only one being evident at a time. Each personality (or alter) is distinct with its own memories, behaviour and interpersonal style. In most cases, the host personality is unaware of the existence of alters and these vary in knowledge of each other. Evidence suggests that the capacity to dissociate is normally distributed within the population and an attribute many use to manage their own lives and network. Those with high degree of this trait may cope by dissociating their consciousness from the experience of trauma (such as child abuse, extreme graphic violence, etc) in early childhood by entering a trance-like state. This dissociative habit is negatively reinforced (strengthened) as an effective distress-reducing coping strategy over repeated traumas in early childhood as it brings relief from distress during trauma exposure. Eventually a sufficient number of experiences become dissociated to constitute a separate personality that may be activated in later life at times of stress or trauma through suggestion in hypnotic psychotherapeutic situations. Treatment often simply involves helping clients integrate the multiple personalities into a single personality and develop non-dissociative strategies for dealing with stress [e.g. argument with work colleagues, new manager, divorce, adolescents leaving home for studies, partner with alcohol problems, over-involved family members, etc] – this helps them deal with tough situations by facing them with problem-solving abilities and skills to come out with a firm resolution and have their views understood. Core symptoms of multiple personality disorder are not treated with psychotropic medication unlike schizophrenia but involves psychological education for patients to learn the skill of mentalizing [understand their own state of mind and that of others].

whoareyou

Finally, with personality disorders, the dimensional approach has led to the trait theory in conceptualizing important aspects of behaviour and experience from a limited number of dimensions. Any given trait is believed to be normally distributed in the population, for example, introversion – extraversion, most people show a moderate level of the trait, however those who exhibit extremely low or high levels [extremes] would have the sort of difficulties attributed in the DSM. So, normal people only differ from the abnormal in the degree to which they show particular traits. The trait theory has become dominated by the five-factor theory (McCrae & Costa, 2008) in recent years. This model includes the dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. There is evidence for the heritability of all of factors within the Five Factor Model except agreeableness which seems to be predominantly determined by one’s environment (Costa & Widiger, 1994). Thomas Widiger has proposed that the five-factor model may be used as an alternative system for describing personality disorders (Widiger & Mullins-Sweatt, 2010). Widiger also argues that trait theory offers a more scientifically useful approach to assessment with good psychometric properties embraced by its questionnaires (De Raad & Perugini, 2002) – they are reliable and valid, and have population norms. Compared to categorical classification systems, trait models offer a more parsimonious way of describing patients with rigid dysfunctional behaviour patterns which in turn offers a more parsimonious way to conceptualize the development of effective treatments.

LondonCity

Photo: The Promise of Dawn (J.Hawkes)

The major controversies in modern day mental health practice seem to revolve around the precision and the validity of constructs as psychological illnesses, and since they may stigmatise those who suffer from them, the constant research into better and more modern interpretations and explanations of their characteristics and treatment seem bound to revolutionise the field of psychology, as the movement takes a more dimensional approach; with a new generation of psychologists applying the rules with an open mind and a creative outlook on new perspectives and methods – the field of psychology looks set on a positively progressive course.

UneNation

« A great aggregation of men sane in mind & warm in the heart, creates a moral conscience that is known as a nation » – Ernest Renan / Source: Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne

Arthur Hughes - A Music Party 1864

Arthur Hughes (1832 – 1915), « A Music Party« 

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References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (2009). ASEBA: Development, findings, theory, and applications. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Research Centre for Children, Youth and Families.
  2. Bleuler, E. (1911). Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. New York: International University Press.
  3. Breggin (1991). Toxic psychiatry. London: Harper Collins.
  4. Breggin, P. (2001). Talking back to Ritalin: What doctors aren’t telling you about stimulants and ADHD. New York: Da Capo Press.
  5. Bridge, J. A., Iyengar, S., & Salary, C. B. (2007). Clinical response and risk for reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in paediatric antidepressant treatment: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297, 1683-1696.
  6. Bushnell, G., Stürmer, T., Gaynes, B., Pate, V. and Miller, M. (2017). Simultaneous Antidepressant and Benzodiazepine New Use and Subsequent Long-term Benzodiazepine Use in Adults With Depression, United States, 2001-2014. JAMA Psychiatry, 74(7), p.747.
  7. Carr, A. (2006a). Handbook of child and adolescent clinical psychology: A contextual approach (second edition). London: Routledge.
  8. Carr, A. (2012). Clinical psychology. 1st ed. New York: Routledge.
  9. Carr, A., O’Reilly, G., Walsh, P., & McEvoy, J. (2007). Handbook of intellectual disability and clinical psychology practice. London: Brunner-Routledge.
  10. Costa, P. & Widiger, T. (1994). Personality disorders and the five factor model of personality. Washington, DC: APA.
  11. De Raad, B., & Perugini, M. (2002). Big five assessment. Bern, Switzerland: Hogrete & Huber.
  12. DiClemente, C. (2003). Addiction and change. New York: Guilford.
  13. Fournier, J., DeRubeis, R., Hollon, S., Dimidjian, S., Amsterdam, J., & Shelton, R. (2010). Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303, 7-53.
  14. Hankin, B., & Abele, J. (2005). Developmental psychopathology: A vulnerability-stress perspective. Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage.
  15. Kraepelin, E. (1899). Psychiatrie (sixth edition). Leipzig, Germany: Barth.
  16. Kutchins, H. & Kirk, S. (1999). Making us crazy: DSM – The psychiatric bible and the creation of mental disorders. New York: Constable.
  17. Laing, R. D. (2009). Selected works of R. D. Laing, Volumes 1-7. (Vol. 1. The divided self. Vol 2. Self and others. Vol. 3. Reason and violence. Vol. 4. Sanity and madness in the family. Vol. 5. The politics of the family. Vol. 6. Interpersonal Perception. Vol. 7. Knots.) London: Routledge.
  18. Lehman, A., & Steinwachs, D. (1998). At issue: Translating research into practice: The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) treatment recommendations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2, 1-10.
  19. Lenzenweger, M. (2010). Schizotypy and schizophrenia. New York: Guilford.
  20. Maine, M. & Bunnell, D. (2010). A perfect biopsychosocial storm: Gender, culture, and eating disorders. In M. Maine, B. McGilley, & D. Bunnell (Eds.), Treatment of eating disorders: Bridging the research-practice gap (pp. 3-16). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
  21. Marlatt, G. A., & Witkiewitz, K. (2010). Update on harm-reduction policy and intervention research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 591-606.
  22. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (2008). The five-factor theory of personality. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (third edition, pp. 159-181). New York: Guildford Press.
  23. Murray, C., & Lopez, A. (1996). The global burden of disease: A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  24. Paykina, N., Greenhill, L., & Gorman, J. (2007). Pharmacological treatments for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In P. Nathan & J. Gorman (Eds.), A guide to treatments that work (Third Edition, pp.29-70). New York: Oxford University Press.
  25. Prochaska, J., DiClemente, C., & Norcross, J. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviours. American Psychologist, 47, 1102-1114.
  26. Rapport, M. & Moffitt, C. (2002). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and methylphenidate: A review of height/weight, cardiovascular, and somatic complaint side effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 1107-1131.
  27. Read, J., & Bentall, R. (2010). The effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy: A literature review. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 19, 333-347.
  28. Ritsner, M., & Gottesman, I. (2011). The schizophrenia construct after 100 years of challenges. In M. Ritsner (Ed.), Handbook of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, Volume I: Conceptual issues and neurobiological advances (pp. 1-44). New York: Springer.
  29. Swanson, J. M., & Volkow, N. D. (2009). Psychopharmacology: Concepts and opinions about the use of stimulant medications. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50 (1-2), 180-193.
  30. Szasz, T. (2010). Psychiatry, anti-psychiatry, critical psychiatry: What do these terms mean? Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 17, 229-232.
  31. Tandon, R., Nasrallah, H. A., & Keshavan, M. S. (2010). Schizophrenia, “just the facts” 5. Treatment and prevention past, present and future. Schizophrenia Research, 122, 1-23.
  32. West, R. (2006). Theory of Addiction. Oxford: Blackwell.
  33. Widiger, T.A., & Mullins-Sweatt, S. N. (2010). Clinical utility of a dimensional model of personality disorder. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 488-494.

Updated 8th of August 2017 | Danny J. D’Purb | DPURB.com

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Essay // History on Western Philosophy, Religious cultures, Science, Medicine & Secularisation

essay-history-dpurb d'purb

Part I: Western Philosophy

The fact that philosophy’s focus has never remained static over time makes its history very complex with the added possibility that most of the early writers may have even been philosophers before historians. The world’s main philosophical trends and traditions can however be traced with a decent amount of precision while considering that the ruling philosophy of any period is determined by the socio-cultural climate and economic context [when it was written and published].

The first Western philosophers, starting with Thales of Miletus (c.620-c.555BC), were cosmologists who made inquiries about the nature and origin of all things; what defined them particularly as a new type of thinkers was that their speculations unlike those before them were purely naturalistic and not based on or guided by myth or legend. The traditions of Western philosophy originates around the Aegean Sea and southern Italy in the 6c BC in the Greek-speaking region which saw its philosophical traditions and teachings blossom with Plato (c.428-c.348BC) and Aristotle (384-322BC), who have remained highly influential in Western thought, and who probed virtually all areas of knowledge; no distinction separated theology, philosophy and science then.

As the centuries came, Christianity grew as a major religious and socio-cultural force in Europe (2-5c), and apologists such as Augustine de Hippo (354-430) started to synthesise the Christian world-view with ancient philosophy, a tradition that continued with St Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) and throughout the Middle Ages.

As the 16c and the 17c were the years that experienced the Scientific Revolution, the physical sciences started to assert their authority as a field of their own and grow separate from theology and philosophy. A new age of Rationalist philosophers, notably Descartes (1596-1650) started their works based on the minute analysis and interpretation of the philosophical implications of the ground-breaking new scientific discoveries and knowledge of the time. The 18c produced the empiricist school of thought of John Locke and David Hume (1711-1776) in the search for the foundations of knowledge, to conclude the turn of the century with Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) who developed a strong synthesis of rationalism and empiricism as a school of philosophy. Further, the development of positivist philosophy in the 19c was inspired and based solely on the scientific method and American pragmatism [with the competing philosophy of Utilitarianism and Marxism]. Later, the individual experienced the philosophy of existentialism based on the works of Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) and in the 20c the discipline of psychology had firmly invented itself as a field separate from philosophy [including many branches such as neuroscience, psychiatry, psycho-analysis, etc].

 

The 20c and Western Philosophy’s influence across civilisation

Perhaps due to its wide use in maintaining reason among intellectuals and society, philosophy had fragmented into different precise and specific branches by the 20c [philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, philosophy of religion, philosophy of medicine…]. However at its core, the emphasis of philosophy remained on the analytics and linguistic philosophy due to the huge influence of Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951).

Indian philosophy for example shares similarities with some aspects of Western philosophy in its foundations based on the development of logic from the Nyaya School, founded by Gautama (fl. 1c). The tenet of most schools were codified into short aphorisms (sutras) commented upon by later philosophers in the Southern parts of Asia, and India. More specifically the emphasis on linguistic expression and the nature of language which is believed to be similarly important as in the West, but different in theme as India’s language was greatly enhanced by the early development of linguistics or Sanskrit grammar, and the nature of knowledge and its acquisition. In modern times, Indian philosophy has seen an increasing Western influence especially from the social philosophies of utilitarian schools which inspired a number of religious and socio-cultural movements, such as the Brahmo Samaj. The 20c saw the Anglo-American linguistic philosophy form the basis of research, with added influence from European phenomenology present in the works of scholars such as KC Bhattacharya. The trend of Western philosophy as inspiration continued to be disseminated by intellectuals in the East, and Chinese philosophy too which first made its appearance during the Zhou Dynasty (1122-256BC) later experienced Western influence in the 20c, most notably in the introduction of the leftist branch of Marxism which became China’s official political philosophy. Around the same period, a New Confucian movement rose, attempting to synthesise the traditions of the West and the East [traditional Confucian values with Western democracy and science].

As for the African continent, starting from the Middle-East and North-Africa, it may be unsurprising that Western values or philosophy had no major influence in the Islamic territories and Muslim world who had been subjugating non-Muslin civilisations with violent wars [jihad] in the name of their God. The major European incursions and hence influence in the Arab world comes from the time of Napoleon I’s invasion of Egypt (1798) which led to the promotion of Western philosophy in the area for a short time before a backlash from Islamic circles called for a religious and politically-oriented philosophy to counter foreign domination.

Regarding African philosophy, it is to this day a subject of intense debates among intellectuals and cultured circles whether such a thing exists, along with the definition that ‘African philosophy’ may include: for example, many scholars associate the term to communal values, beliefs and world-views of traditional Black African oral cultures, highlighting the rich, long and sometimes violent tradition of indigenous African philosophy [stretching back in time] with tales of supernaturalism and communally-derived ethics by tribes. What seems to be a certitude is that African philosophy is unlike Western, Indian, Chinese and Arabic traditions as there is very little in terms of African philosophical traditions before the modern period. However, the logical question remains, and that is: if African philosophy are works that were created within the geographical area that constitutes Africa, then perhaps all of the writings of ancient Egyptians may quality as African, and also Christian apologists of the 4-5c period like St Augustine de Hippo. Indeed, to further the argument of logic, the whole world’s culture and societies could all be qualified as African, since it has recently been proven scientifically that all humans evolved after leaving Africa.

allafricans

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Part II: Religious Cultures

religiouschoices

Image: The Atlantic

SigmundFreudOnReligion

The main driving power behind the psychological movement focused on the « Human Mind », Sigmund Freud, was an atheist unlike Isaac Newton who was a devout Christian with complex and heterodox private beliefs

The world’s cultures are generally classified into the five major religious traditions:

  • Buddhism
  • Islam
  • Hinduism
  • Judaism
  • Christianity

 

Buddhism

The tradition of Buddhism which is made up of thought and practice originates in India around 2500 years ago, it was inspired by the teaching of Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama). The concept of Buddha is explained in the ‘Four Noble Truths’, which concludes by the claim of a path leading to deliverance from the universal human experience of suffering. One of its main tenet is the law of karma, which states that good and evil deeds result in the appropriate reward or punishment in life or in a succession of rebirths. 

SONY DSC

Dharma day commemorates the day when Buddha made his first sermon or religious teaching after his enlightenment

Division

Dating from its earliest history, Buddhism is divided into two main traditions.

  • Theravada Buddhism adheres to the strict and narrow of early Buddhist writings, where salvation is possible only for the few who accept the severe discipline and effort necessary to achieve it.
  • Mahayana Buddhism is the more ‘liberal form’ and makes concession to popular piety by seemingly diluting the degree of discipline required for salvation, claiming that it is achievable for everyone instead. It introduces the doctrine of bodhisattva (or personal saviour). The spread of Buddhism lead to other scho