Essay // Stress in Occupational & Organisational Psychology | Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory

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Photo/Design // Leonardo Da Vinci : L’Uomo Universale

Sustained Stress may have a fatal impact on Physiological Health

Stress is known for causing the increased secretion of cortisol, a hormone that could halt the production of cytokines, which are vital for maintaining a functional immune system (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2002). Over the years, a large number of research has also found positive correlations between daily cortisol levels and general health. The different levels of cortisol secretory activity have been linked to health problems such as hypertension, burnout, emotional distress, upper respiratory illness and eating behaviour. However, cortisol is paramount to increasing access to energy during stressful experiences and is released on a daily pattern by 2 well defined components; the “Cortisol Awakening Rise”; and the Diurnal levels that gradually decrease over the day. It has also been found that high levels of stress could lead to less cortisol being produced in the morning (O’Connor et al., 2009b). An individual going through a serious series of stressful events would have an increased risk of developing an infectious disease with no regards to their age, sex, education, allergic status and/or body mass index (Cohen, 2005).

Two types of stress associated with increased health deficiency

Cohen et al. (1998) identified two types of stress associated with increased health deficiency; these were interpersonal problems with family and friends; and/or enduring problems associated with work. As further research unveiled the dangers of stress, Janice Kiecolt et al. (1995) found that wound healing was also prolonged on people exposed to continuous stress, along with the lower levels of cytokine. Similarly, Marucha, Kiecolt-Glaser and Favagehi (1998) also concluded to findings over healing being prolonged on test subjects (dental students) where quicker healing was observed on vacation and not before their exams. Eventually, the conclusion of stress being a response to stressors lead to the latter being investigated in our daily lives by researchers for improvement.

Stress may be perceptual deficiency depending on whether subjective appraisal is Positive or Negative

Stress is generally perceived as negative perceptions and reactions when pressure is excessive. The transactional approach devised by Lazarus defines stress as “a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being” (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, p.19) The theory has so far been one of the most solid finds in the field of occupational and organisational psychology and continues to be applied to various sections in the quest to enhance quality of both work and output.

Occupational Psychology in the Workplace: Stressors

In the field of Occupational psychology, the main focus has been on the study of human behaviour and experience in the workplace. As the world of work in the present generation is constantly changing, with companies adopting more flexible styles – along with developing technology – Lazarus and Folkman’s theory has been used in most stages of the employment life cycle in order to minimise the effects of stress on employees while maintaining a sensible amount of “good stress” (pressure) to maintain motivation. The concept is based on such solid logic that it could be applied to most areas of human interactive environment.

Applying Lazarus and Folkman’s theory of stress to occupational psychology will consider all elements that cause stress in the workplace connected to the physical requirements of the job. Stress can be physical, with factors such as noise, unsafe heights or slippery floor. These factors when present will not only cause the employee to be on guard but also likely distract them from being fully concentrated on their job for fear of harm. The solution would be to make a safer and more comfortable environment, however too safe is known to affect performance. The perfect fit would be right balance between motivational factors (incentives) and physical environment (not overly comfortable), that would lead to a design for the best fit for the job to the person (Morgeson & Campion, 2002). The human element should also not be forgotten in the case of a sociotechnical system (Trist & Bamforth, 1951) present where a Swiss cheese defence system might be in place to correct possible human errors. As mentioned, the stress element requires modelling according to Lazarus’ Theory which proves to be versatile for its huge range of application when considering different types of stressors and how to balance their effect on the employee.

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Organisational “Culture”: Synchronised Workforce through situational patterns of performance-oriented behaviour

A strong culture is also essential for the organisation as this ensures the employee fits in with the organisation’s values. The organisation also has to ensure that most stressors are regulated and checked in order to ensure a stable functioning of the work force.

According to Richard Lazarus’ transactional theory of stress, minor day to day problems known as “hassles” can accumulate and cause stress. However one coping mechanism from the theory comes from coping which follows the appraisal stage. When a task is being appraised, the outcome defines whether the employee will see it as stress. However, the stressor can be approached positively and be re-appraised to instead fit the employee’s belief and capacity. Different appraisals usually define how the employee copes, such as understanding employee needs using Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs (1974). It is assumed that some needs are basic and innate and have to be met to sustain motivation. Managers can provide environments that harmonise with the needs of employees after learning what they are.

Maslow’s model puts forth the belief that safety and security have to be met before one can realise their full potential. One this basic need is satisfied, Maslow assumes the attention is shifted to the next need, which in this case would be a motivated move towards achieving the job. However, if this need is not satisfied, this gives rise to discomfort. Indirectly, Maslow’s model is applying the logic of Lazarus & Folkman (1984), as the stressors – which in this case is the inability to feel safe and secure – are being targeted while the manager would try to motivate the employee. Some criticism however questions the flexibility of the model for its assumption. Assuming several needs become important & crucial simultaneously how would the motivation of the employee be affected? Furthermore, self-actualisation is hard – if not impossible – to define, therefore it is hard to confidently know whether someone has reached the stage.

Mismatch between employee & job may cause Occupational Stress

Mismatch between an employee and a job can also cause occupational stress (French, 1973). If the job demand is appraised as too high, the employee could feel discouraged if the task creates demands than exceeds his/her capabilities, unless he has a stake in the outcome of his/her performance motivation will not be successful. Lazarus and Folkman’s theory of stress is once again applied with great efficiency as it opens the door for reasoning in how to deal with stressful situations and find the right coping mechanism that would allow the employee to carry on without negative attributions. One example of this application is to organisational development which is premised on the assumption of planned transformational change.

Organisational development  has been defined as “a systematic effort applying behavioural science knowledge to planned creation and reinforcement of organisational strategies, structures and processes for improving an organisation’s effectiveness” (Huse & Cummings, 1985). The aim is to achieve commitment from the whole organisation dedicated to change. Organisational development intervention looks to a range of planned programmatic activities pursued by both clients & consultants. French, Bell and Zawacki (1994) differentiate between interventions directed at individuals (coaching, counselling), dyads (arbitration), teams (feebacks), inter group configurations (Survey, Feedback, etc) and organisations as whole (business process re-engineering). As the focus is swapped from one level to the next, the number of dimensions to consider increases, this adds to the complexity of the intervention process. However, all interventions tend to rely on organisational diagnosis [the assumption that something is not performing well enough and needs to be changed).

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Photo // Bryan Christie Design

Tuning the Environment to balance Stress Levels

Appreciative inquiry is an organisational development model that focus on how things might have been or might be better (Cooperrider & Srivasta, 1987). The whole concept of organisational development follows the logic of  Lazarus & Folkman (!984), as the transitions are all supported by teams of professionals [counselling / accustoming] which are geared at balancing the stress levels of accustoming the workforce to the new changes through a combination of modifications to the environment, motivational factor and security and support.

As organisational psychology deals with the administrative side and operational psychology deals with the task itself, they are still very closely associated. Changes in operational hassles will reduce the stress on the employee, as this would assumingly make the task at hand much more simple and straightforward. Changes in organisational hassles will increase the job satisfaction of the employee, as his time at work would be less cumbersome.

Interventions: Better Outcome when the Source of Stress is the Primary Focal Point

The main concepts of interventions usually concentrates primarily on reducing the source of stress, and secondly by reducing the impact on individuals which has been found to be more effective on people than reducing the risk (LeFevre, et al. 2006). Such an example can be seen when dealing with occupational problems, such as the termination of employment. Such an event can have a devastating effect on an employee’s life, especially if it was unpredicted [redundancy, released]. One way to deal with such a situation would be to provide counselling support to the released employee; these include trained professionals with listening, questioning & goal setting skills who help people to carry on in life (Egan, 1996). Clarifying with employees, the employable, marketable skills and helping them to plan short term goals by which skills might be applied in other situations.

Allowing the person concerned to release their feelings by speaking out over vocational and personal concerns, and helping them assess their resources. Finally help them find a placement or employment while also reinforcing with the employee, reminding them that they are skilled and mature and that their redundancy was a purely professional decision. What the whole process seems to have once again applied, is the logic of Lazarus & Folkman (1984) that proves itself as a solid formula applicable in most situations where stress is involved. In this context, the employees have been professionally re-appraised and should be better mentally to deal with upcoming challenges for fresh employment.

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Reflexion: Appraisal & Subjective Perception is Key

The particular relationship between a person and his/her environment will vary on the positive or negative depending on the appraisal. Appraisal can sometimes be instinctive, and/or influenced by an individual’s perception which can in turn be influence by other biological factors (hunger, pain). This shows that no matter how deep the stress causes may be, Lazarus’ formula – although simple – has an application that can logically construct or deconstruct most situations dealing with occupational and organisational stress.

One of the main points worth considering however, is the fact that men tend to experience more stress than women from the “need for recognition” pressure, while women experience more stress from health issues; social support benefits stress levels for males and females but affects them differently [organisational commitment in males & state of mind in females].

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References

Cohen, S., Frank, E., Doyle, W.J., Skoner, D.P., Rabin, B.S. & Gwaltney,J.M., Jr. (1998) Types of stressors that increase susceptibility to the common cold in adults, Health Psychology 17: 214- 23

Cohen, S. (2005) The Pittsburgh common cold studies: Psychosocial predictors of susceptibility to respiratory infectious illness, International Journal of Behavioral Medecine 12: 123-31

Cooperrider, D.L. & Srivastva, S (1987) Appreciative inquiry in organizational life, in
R.W. Woodman & W.A. Passmore (eds) Research in Organizational Behaviour, Stamford, CT: JAI Press.

Davey, G. (2011) Applied Psychology, West Sussex: British Psychological Society and Blackwell Publishing

Egan, G. (1996) The Skilled Helper, 6th edn, London: Brooks / Cole

French, JRP. (1973) Person Role Fit. Occupational Mental Health. 3, 15-20

French, W., Bell, C. & Zawacki, R. (eds) (1994) Organizational Development and Transformation: Managing Effective Change, Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin McGraw-Hill

Huse, E. & Cummings, T. (1985) Organizational Development and Change, St Paul, MN: West.

Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Marucha, P.T., Malarkey, W.B., Mercado, A.M. & Glaser, R. (1995) Slowing of wound healing by psychological stress, The Lancet 346: 1194-6

Kiecolt-Glaser, JK., McGuire, L., Robles, TF., Glaer, R. (2002) Psychoneuroimmunology: Psychological Influences on Immune Functtion and Health, J Consult Clinical Psychology, 70, 537-47

Lazarus, R.S. & Folkman, S. (1984) Stress, Appraisal and Coping, New York: Springer

Le Fevre, M., Kolt, G.S., Matheny, J. (2006) Eustress, distress and their interpretation in primary and secondary occupational stress management interventions: Which way first? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (6), pp. 547-565.

Marucha, P.T., Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K. & Favagehi, M. (1998) Mucosal wound healing is impaired by examination stress, Psychosomatic Medicine 60 362-5

Morgeson, J.P., Campion, M.A, Dipboye, R.L., Hollenback, J.R., Murphy, K. & Schmitt, N. (2007) Reconsidering the use of personality tests in personnel selection contexts, Personnel Psychology 60: 683-729

O’Connor, D.B., Hendrickx, H., Dadd, T. et al. (2009) Cortisol awakening rise in middle-aged women in relation to chronic psychological stress, Psychoneuroendocrinology 34: 1486-94

Trist, E.L. and K.W. Bamforth (1951) “Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal getting.” Human Relations, 4:3-38

 

22.04.2014 | Danny J. D’Purb | DPURB.com

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16 thoughts on “Essay // Stress in Occupational & Organisational Psychology | Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory

  1. “In many organisations, the fear of being a fool is stronger than the hope of being a genius”

    http://econ.st/1li8lrU

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    “Can #People Really #Change?”

    #Society #Psychology #Progress #Growth #Awareness #Future #World

    http://goo.gl/SYGX44

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    “Mankind is made #great or little by its own will.”- Friedrich Schiller

    #Quote

    _________________________________________

    Systems need periodic & consistent maintenance service & update to keep up with #evolution, #research & #human requirements.

    #Life #Today

    _________________________________________

    Prejudice & Discrimination in the World of SCIENCE

    Guy, R. McPherson, Professor Emeritus of Natural Resources and Ecology & Evolutionary Biology covers some of the unfair lack of credibility the world of science treats scientific reasoning and papers depending on institutions, without [sometimes] considering and analysing the credibility & quality of the scientific methods, material & reasoning used.

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    “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” –Alvin Toffler

    21st Century

    #Psychology #Behaviour #Conditioning #Psyche #Understanding #Peace #Unity #Society (RT @TofflerQuote)

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    You can’t change the past, but you can always change the future.

    _________________________________________

    “The entrapment of an uncertain & fluctuating sense of #solidarity may sometimes #result in perceptive #bias.”

    #Psychology #Social #Group

    _________________________________________

    “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is most adaptable to change.” – C.Darwin

    #DARWIN’s take on #CHANGE

    (#Psychology #Society #World #Evolution #Survival #Future #Humanity #Earth #Extinction)

    _________________________________________

    “Any event (conditioned) deemed ‘predictable’ can be re-defined and subsequently changed…”

    #Social #Psychology #Predictability

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    “Progress is impossible without change, & those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.” -GB Shaw

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    While Communicative patterns in #Human #Primates are defined by factors such as #Culture & #Environment; #creativity & #IQ remain #constant.

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    #Psychology #Neuroscience #Medicine #Science #Research #Evolution #Health #Culture #Art

    _________________________________________

    #Research shows when different #cognitive #skills peak over our lifetime

    http://hvrd.me/LcD7c

    #Brain #Health

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    #Young Vs. #Old: Who Performs More Consistently?

    (#Psychology #Performance @ScienceDaily)

    http://goo.gl/fyJfxa

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    Hormone released after exercise can ‘predict’ biological age

    Extract:
    “Scientists have discovered a potential molecular link between Irisin, a recently identified hormone released from muscle after bouts of exercise, and the aging process. Irisin, which is naturally present in humans, is capable of reprograming the body’s fat cells to burn energy instead of storing it. This increases the metabolic rate and is thought to have potential anti-obesity effects. The finding provides a potential molecular link between keeping active and healthy aging with those having higher Irisin levels more ‘biological young’ than those with lower levels of the hormone.”

    Full Article: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/02/140217085609.htm

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    “The secret of change is to focus all your energy, not on fighting the old, but on building the new.” -Socrates

    Building the new in Socratic style…

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    Forget, forgive; conclude and be agreed

    _________________________________________

    Don’t look for WHY things happen. Contemplate HOW they happen to be able to prevent them from ever happening again.

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    When docs make mistakes, should colleagues tell? Up to 440,000 #deaths

    (#Health #Hospitals #Doctors #Medecine #Science via @JoNel_Aleccia)

    http://goo.gl/gpNf0O

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    A neurosurgeon has been jailed for 16 years after being found guilty of nine indecent assaults against patients

    Extract:
    He told Hamid witnesses had spoken highly of his clinical skills, but he had been “brought low by a simple failing – lust”.
    “And you exercised your lust as a result of arrogance,” he said.
    “These ladies went to see you because they had significant problems and they thought – with your skills, abilities and experience – you were the person who could help them with the medical problems.
    “Instead, you grossly abused them.”

    Full Article: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-birmingham-30098655

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    From #ancient enemas to tapeworm #doctors: 7 #history of #medicine facts

    #Society #Education

    http://www.historyextra.com/article/prehistoric/7-more-surprising-facts-about-history-medicine

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    10 years of #OpenAccess at the Wellcome Trust in 10 numbers

    #Research #Edu @wellcometrust

    http://goo.gl/YgXH2T

  2. Tests don’t measure your child’s most #important strengths

    #Education #Children #Development

    http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-moment-youth/201108/the-fallacy-good-grades

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    “#Immune #System Strongly Tied to #Children’s #Brain #Development”

    #Science #Health #Psychology

    http://goo.gl/fdvbpj

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    FIRE’s 15th Anniversary Gala Dinner Speech

    Harvard’s Experimental Psychologist, Cognitive Scientist, Linguist, & Science author, Steven Pinker on FREE SPEECH & current issues [science, education, society, development, creativity…]

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    Jrnal of Early #Education & Develpmnt: Wht Kids Shd Knw Abt Their Own Brains

    (#Psychology #IQ)

    http://goo.gl/FtFXQW

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    How fun! Young art lovers use Pantone guides to color match masterpieces in the family fun area of the @MuseeLouvre

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    “Education is not the learning of facts, but the training of the mind to think.” -Albert Einstein

    ______________________________________

    #Brain #development, #parenting & language

    #Neuro #Cognition #EarlyEducation

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    Learn more about the role of a literary #translator

    #Liguistics #Culture #Education

    http://francobritishchamber.com/literary-translators-do-they-get-the-recognition-they-deserve

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    Language Control in Bilinguals: Monitoring and Response Selection

    Branzi, F., Della Rosa, P., Canini, M., Costa, A. and Abutalebi, J. (2015). Language Control in Bilinguals: Monitoring and Response Selection. Cereb. Cortex, 26(6), pp.2367-2380.

    Abstract:

    Language control refers to the cognitive mechanism that allows bilinguals to correctly speak in one language avoiding interference from the nontarget language. Bilinguals achieve this feat by engaging brain areas closely related to cognitive control.

    However, 2 questions still await resolution: whether this network is differently engaged when controlling nonlinguistic representations, and whether this network is differently engaged when control is exerted upon a restricted set of lexical representations that were previously used (i.e., local control) as opposed to control of the entire language system (i.e., global control).

    In the present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated these 2 questions by employing linguistic and nonlinguistic blocked switching tasks in the same bilingual participants.

    We first report that the left prefrontal cortex is driven similarly for control of linguistic and nonlinguistic representations, suggesting its domain-general role in the implementation of response selection.

    Second, we propose that language control in bilinguals is hierarchically organized with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/presupplementary motor area acting as the supervisory attentional system, recruited for increased monitoring demands such as local control in the second language. On the other hand, prefrontal, inferior parietal areas and the caudate would act as the response selection system, tailored for language selection for both local and global control.

    http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/6/2367.full

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    In France, #grammar & #language is how #people differentiate themselves socially

    http://www.lemonde.fr/education/article/2016/02/16/en-france-l-orthographe-sert-a-se-distinguer-socialement_4866346_1473685.html#TqLWMwEa0sETwzAh.99

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    Changes in #Thickness & #SurfaceArea of the #HumanCortex & Their #Relationship with #Intelligence

    These findings suggest that intelligence may be more related to the magnitude and timing of changes in brain structure during development than to brain structure per se, and that the cortex is never completed but shows continuing intelligence-dependent development.

    http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/6/1608.full#content-block

    Cereb. Cortex (2015) 25 (6): 1608-1617.

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    Links between #grammar, #rhythm explored by researchers

    #Neuroscience #Mind #Music #Edu

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/11/141105101238.htm

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    Rich #vocabulary cn protect against #cognitive #impairment

    #Health #Language #Brain #Grammar

    http://goo.gl/0nyFaK

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    Quiz Yourself: Is Your #Grammar Holding You Back?

    #Society #Education #Economy #People

    http://s.hbr.org/1Lp60Yc

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    #GCSE #Statistics – Limited Value #Qualifications

    #Resits / #English & #Maths | #Education #Quality

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    Infant #mortality rates by father’s social class in #England & #Wales (1930–2001)

    http://bit.ly/1G2y1aF

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    Men talk about their battles with #depression

    #Psychology #MentalHealth #Mind #People

    http://goo.gl/M6MRD1

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    How #Trauma Affects The #Brain Of #Learners

    #Stress #Psychology #Mind #Dendrites #Cortex

    http://www.wbur.org/npr/320725558/how-trauma-affects-the-brain-of-a-learner

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    #Judgment & #decision-making: #Brain #activity indicates there is more than meets the #eye

    http://goo.gl/7e1xKj

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    “It is the artist who tries to gradually accustom people to the possibilities of a better state of things.” ― C.A. Dawson Scott

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    Moral tales with positive outcomes motivate kids to be honest

    http://medx.cc/322282049

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    #Literacy & #Education are major factors in the decrease in #violence globally

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    Albert Einstein on Fairy Tales & Education

    Extract:

    “How far superior an education that stresses independent action and personal responsibility is to one that relies on drill, external authority and ambition.”

    Albert Einstein, celebrated as “the quintessential modern genius,” is credited with many things — from era-defining scientific discoveries to great wisdom on everything from creativity to kindness to war to the secret to learning anything. Among them is also a sentiment of admirable insight yet questionable attribution: In Christopher Frayling’s 2005 book Mad, Bad and Dangerous?: The Scientist and the Cinema, Einstein is credited as having said:
    “If you want your children to be intelligent, read them fairy tales. If you want them to be very intelligent, read them more fairy tales.”

    Full Article: http://www.brainpickings.org/2014/03/14/einstein-fairy-tales/

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    #Brain is Designed for #Art #Appreciation

    Elsevier Brain and Cognition | Volume 87, June 2014, Pages 52–56 | DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2014.03.004

    #Health #Biopsychology

    http://goo.gl/5Dm2ug

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278262614000487

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    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology | Not everyone wants cheering up, new study of self-esteem suggests

    Extract:
    “People with low self-esteem want their loved ones to see them as they see themselves. As such, they are often resistant to their friends’ reminders of how positively they see them and reject what we call positive reframing–expressions of optimism and encouragement for bettering their situation,” said Professor Denise Marigold, from Renison University College at Waterloo, and lead author of the study.
    These individuals usually prefer negative validation, which conveys that the feelings, actions or responses of the recipient are normal, reasonable, and appropriate to the situation…

    Link: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-06-not-everyone-wants-cheering-up.html

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    Happy people think they’re good at empathising with the pain of others. They’re wrong!

    #Society #Psychology #People #Ethics #Understanding

    From: Devlin, H., Zaki, J., Ong, D., & Gruber, J. (2014). Not As Good as You Think? Trait Positive Emotion Is Associated with Increased Self-Reported Empathy but Decreased Empathic Performance PLoS ONE, 9 (10) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110470

    Extract:

    Which of your friends – the happier, or the more melancholy – is better at spotting your excitement that Chris is attending your birthday, or that a B+ has left you disappointed?
    Evidence suggests that more upbeat people consider themselves especially empathic, and it would be reasonable to believe them, given that they know more people on average, and tend to form deeper, more trusting relationships. The reality, however, is more complicated. New research led by Yale’s Hillary Devlin suggests that cheerful people may think they’re high in empathy, but their confidence outstrips their ability.
    In psychology research, measures of empathy are often based on participants’ assessments of themselves, so this new study suggests researchers need to be aware that such beliefs may not track reality. For the rest of us, it’s useful to know that you don’t need to be a Pollyanna to figure out how people are doing. Sometimes, it’s the Eeyores who are more understanding…

    Full Article: http://digest.bps.org.uk/2014/11/happy-people-think-theyre-good-at.html

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    #Bureaucracy Must Die by G.Hamel

    #Society #World #Creativity #Innovation

    http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/11/bureaucracy-must-die/

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    Pope has sacked the head of his Swiss Guard – for being ‘too strict’

    http://fw.to/OPYY9dF
    (Pic: Getty)

    ______________________________________

    #Business #Culture #Interaction

    Expressional #Adaptation Getting to Si, Ja, Oui, Hai, & Da

    https://hbr.org/2015/12/getting-to-si-ja-oui-hai-and-da

  3. #Depression increases #heart #failure #risk by 40%

    #Medecine #Health #Cardiology #Science #Work #Stress #Society

    http://www.escardio.org/about/press/press-releases/pr-14/Pages/depression-increases-heart-failure-risk-by-40-percent.aspx?hit=dontmiss

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    Women with high levels of #stress hormones are more likely to fail to get pregnant

    http://ow.ly/uTaFQ
    #ttc #fertility @sarahknapton

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    #Suicide rates around the #world.

    The #data-entry on suicides in OurWorldInData is here

    http://ourworldindata.org/data/health/suicide/

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    #People who die by #suicide are 5 times more likely to be on #antipsychotic #drugs

    #Health #Science #Depression

    http://www.thementalelf.net/populations-and-settings/primary-care/suicide-in-primary-care-findings-of-the-national-confidential-inquiry-into-suicide-and-homicide-by-people-with-mental-illness/

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    Prof Tony Morrison on “Cognitive behaviour therapy without antipsychotics”

    http://ow.ly/riCPF

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    The medicine in our minds

    http://bbc.in/1oEr6ZM

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    Can psychological therapies help people who self-harm?

    A review by the respected Cochrane organisation, and led by Oxford University Professor of Psychiatry Keith Hawton, has found that psychological therapies, more commonly known as ‘talking treatments’, may help people who self-harm.

    Lead author, Keith Hawton, Professor of Psychiatry from the Centre for Suicide Research, part of Oxford University’s Department of Psychiatry, said: ‘While most of the studies were small, taken together we found that CBT-based psychological therapy may have led to a small-to-modest reduction in the number of patients repeating self-harm behaviours. We found some variation between the results of the studies. Also, a difficulty with trials in this area is that patients will be aware that they received either the specific psychological therapy or the care they would normally have received, (unlike in placebo-controlled trials of medication). This expectation could have influenced the results. It is important to bear these points in mind when considering the implications of these findings. However there were indications that CBT-based psychological therapy also helped patients’ emotional well-being.

    http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2016-05-12-can-psychological-therapies-help-people-who-self-harm

    ______________________________________________

    The samurai secret to mind & situational control

    #Psychology #Personality #Brain #Relax

    http://goo.gl/47nz9V

    ______________________________________________

    #Brain Scans Hint at Therapy Uses of #Ecstasy

    (#Psychology #Science #Psyche #Treatment #Drugs)

    http://goo.gl/u1aRlV

    ______________________________________________

    How #Spirituality Protects The #Brain

    (#Psychology #Psychiatry #Health #Psyche #Mind #Meditation #Mindfulness)

    http://t.co/NobkKZ5GEK

    ______________________________________________

    #Spirituality: mediator b/w engagement with #nature & #psychological #wellbeing

    (#Health)

    http://goo.gl/p5AJE6

    ______________________________________________

    Know your rights – you should never be made to feel uncomfortable about public breastfeeding

    ______________________________________________

    Do #Humans Belong With #Nature?

    (#Environment #Future #Development #Climate #Children)

    http://goo.gl/ypPcbM

    ______________________________________________

    St #Cecilia, the #patron #saint of #music holding a #book and #organ

    http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1403348&partId=1

    ______________________________________________

    ‘#Beautiful but #sad’ #music could #help #people #feel better

    (#Psychology #Health #Emotions #Stress @ScienceDaily)

    http://goo.gl/cMJi2G

    ______________________________________________

    How Repetition Enchants the Brain and the Psychology of Why We Love It in Music

    Extract:

    “The repetition itself becomes the important thing; it’s a form of mesmerism,” Haruki Murakami reflected on the power of a daily routine. “Rhythm is one of the most powerful of pleasures, and when we feel a pleasurable rhythm we hope it will continue,” Mary Oliver wrote about the secret of great poetry, adding: “When it does, it grows sweeter.” But nowhere does rhythmic repetition mesmerize us more powerfully than in music, with its singular way of enchanting the brain.

    How and why this happens is precisely what cognitive scientist Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis, director of the Music Cognition Lab at the University of Arkansas, explores in On Repeat: How Music Plays the Mind (public library). This illuminating short animation from TED Ed, based on Margulis’s work, explains the psychology of the “mere exposure effect,” which makes things grow sweeter simply as they become familiar — a parallel manifestation of the same psychological phenomenon that causes us to rate familiar statements as more likely to be true than unfamiliar ones…

    Full Article: http://www.brainpickings.org/2014/09/18/on-repeat-margulis/

    ______________________________________________

    CNN | THIS is your brain on MUSIC: The patients who listened to music had less anxiety and lower cortisol than people who took drugs

    Journal Trends in Cognitive Neurosciences | The Neurochemistry of Music)

    Extract:
    Listening to music feels good, but can that translate into physiological benefit? Levitin and colleagues published a meta-analysis of 400 studies in the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences, suggesting the answer is yes…
    The results: The patients who listened to music had less anxiety and lower cortisol than people who took drugs. Levitin cautioned that this is only one study, and more research needs to be done to confirm the results, but it points toward a powerful medicinal use for music…

    Full Article: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/04/15/health/brain-music-research/index.html

    ______________________________________________

    The #neurochemistry of #music

    Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Volume 17, Issue 4, April 2013, Pages 179–193 | Mona Lisa Chanda, Daniel J. Levitin

    #Development #Brain #Edu

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364661313000491

    ______________________________________________

    Compelling #Design is about #Psychology, Not #Technology

    (#Gamification #Society @ab_phd)

    http://goo.gl/1LvH8m

    ______________________________________________

    #Psychology #Radical #Empiricism

    [W.James works were influential to intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim, W. E. B. Du Bois, Edmund Husserl, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Hilary Putnam, and Richard Rorty]

    Quote:

    1890, Principles of Psychology

    “Millions of items of the outward order are present to my senses which never properly enter into my experience. Why? Because they have no interest for me. My experience is what I agree to attend to. Only those items which I notice shape my mind – without selective interest, experience is an utter chaos…”

    William James 1842-1910

    ______________________________________________

    World of Psychology: 7 Tips for Setting Boundaries At Work

    http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2014/03/10/7-tips-for-setting-boundaries-at-work/

    ______________________________________________

    #Bullying: Long Term #Health Affected According to #Study

    #Psychology #Stress #Children via @HarvardHealth

    http://goo.gl/IyBqj3

    ______________________________________________

    Bullied at work? Keep a diary with dates, times and account of incident …

    http://ow.ly/z2JBp

    ______________________________________________

    5 Ways To Protect Yourself From Your Phone’s Radiation

    http://www.medicaldaily.com/cellphone-radiation-5-ways-protect-yourself-your-phones-potentially-harmful-emissions-270733

    ______________________________________________

    Now Hear This! Most People Stink at Listening

    http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/plateau-effect-digital-gadget-distraction-attention/

    ______________________________________________

    The health hazards of sitting

    #Career #WorkLife #Health

    http://ow.ly/sUrwQ

    ______________________________________________

    How inactivity changes the brain

    http://nyti.ms/1bj5TLP

    ______________________________________________

    Overweight & #Obesity are linked to 10 common #Cancers and more than 12 000 #UK cases

    (@bmj_latest BMJ2014;349:g5183) Published: August 2014

    Full Article: http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g5183

    ______________________________________________

    Obesity

    1 US
    2 Mexico
    5 Australia
    6 Canada
    8 UK
    9 Ireland
    28 France
    34 Italy
    38 Japan

    http://goo.gl/xJXmsf

    ______________________________________________

    ______________________________________________

    #Gamification helps #hospital improve workers’ #health

    (#Psychology #Social #Work #Technology)

    http://goo.gl/rS6dMw

  4. A sad & bad case of misjudgement

    #Death #Science #Work #Society #Money via @AnnaMaslin

    http://goo.gl/nSNc83

    http://goo.gl/jImJSC

    _________________________________________

    Blood test can diagnose Alzheimer’s 3 years in advance – but would people want to know

    http://ow.ly/3hVvp5

    _________________________________________

    Fading Sense of #Smell may be a #warning for #Dementia

    #Psychology #Neuroscience #Olfaction #Health @PsychCentral

    http://goo.gl/wCFaLy

    _________________________________________

    Alzheimer’s Risk Doubled In People With Herpes [cold sores] Virus; How The Virus Stimulates Alzheimer’s Development

    Extract:
    A new study finds that people carrying the herpes virus have double the risk of developing Alzheimer’s. Considering that almost everyone contracts one particular form of the virus, it could explain why so many people also develop Alzheimer’s.

    Full Article: http://www.medicaldaily.com/alzheimers-risk-doubled-people-herpes-virus-how-virus-stimulates-alzheimers-development-307995

    _________________________________________

    Impact of #dementia on business: New figures from PHE and @alzheimerssoc

    http://bit.ly/1AZLt9W
    #DementiaFriends

    _________________________________________

    How does #UK #public #spending compare with other #countries?

    #People #Culture #Econ

    http://www.ifs.org.uk/tools_and_resources/fiscal_facts/public_spending_survey/uk_spending_in_an_international_context

    _________________________________________

    Are #Journalists at risk for #PTSD?

    Post Traumatic #Stress #Disorder

    http://goo.gl/UaFZfw

    _________________________________________

    Could there be a bright side to depression?

    The researchers administered their test to nearly 600 subjects. Their paper, “Measuring the bright side of being blue”, appears in the peer-reviewed, open access journal PLOS ONE.

    The researchers at McMaster and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health were able to show a meaningful connection between answers to a 20-question test and analytical rumination – a type of distraction-resistant thinking that is characteristic of clinical and sub-clinical depression alike…

    Full Article: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-11-bright-side-depression.html

    _________________________________________

    These maps show the best and worst countries for journalists, and changes in recent years

    http://glpo.st/1tDeyCS

  5. #Income & #Lifespan of #all #countries

    ____________________________________

    Changing #mortality at a #young #age matters. Life expectancy increased for all ages.

    #ChangingWorld

    ____________________________________

    ‘Come, O men, to see the #miracles that such #studies will disclose in #nature.’ – Leonardo #daVinci

    ____________________________________

    L’apparence physique, cette discrimination négligée

    Dans «La société du paraître», Jean-François Amadieu attire l’attention sur le rôle de l’apparence physique (beauté, poids, taille, âge, etc.) dans la réussite sociale. La période de tension identitaire est-elle propice à la reconnaissance de ces formes négligées de discriminations?

    Le café où j’ai interviewé Jean-François Amadieu, professeur en sciences de gestion, auteur de La société du paraître, a servi de cas d’étude pour vérifier les observations qu’il popularise dans ses travaux depuis une quinzaine d’années. Rive gauche parisienne, près de l’université Panthéon-Sorbonne où il enseigne, les riverains sont beaux. «Dans les quartiers comme celui où nous sommes, il n’y a pas de personnes obèses, remarque-t-il. Chez les CSP+ les taux d’obésité dégringolent au-delà de 3.800 euros par mois.»

    La question de l’apparence physique n’est pas une question de riches pour autant. Une serveuse peut être désavantagée en raison d’un surpoids, d’un visage jugé disgracieux, d’une origine ethnique à laquelle sont associés des stéréotypes négatifs, d’un âge qui sera jugé trop avancé pour que le candidat soit perçu comme efficace. «La masse des victimes de discrimination en raison de l’apparence ne se manifeste pas», écrit Amadieu. Et à le lire nous serions presque tous concernés.

    Au fil des années, note l’auteur, Le Grand Journal de Canal+ a changé de présentateur mais le casting du premier rang s’en est tenu à une formule immuable: jeunes, minces, beaux. Amadieu utilise cette image pour évoquer la relégation d’une partie du public qui, de fait, forme une large «majorité silencieuse» de Français interdits de représentation dans les médias et confrontés un jour où l’autre, à leur insu ou pas, à une forme de discrimination sur la base de leur apparence. Ce «poids des apparences», titre de son précédent livre, pèse lourdement sur le destin des individus. Il fait l’objet de dénis fréquents, parce qu’il est trop inconfortable, pour une société dont l’égalité est une valeur centrale, de considérer que le tour de taille des individus, la symétrie de leur visage ou l’apparence juvénile jouent un rôle dans la répartition des ressources.

    Full Article: http://www.slate.fr/story/128933/discriminations-apparence-physique

    ____________________________________

    How do you define #wellbeing? See what others have to say

    #ModernSociety #World #Edu

    http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/#/11111111111

    ____________________________________

    Adoption of new #technology since 1900 in th #US

    #Society #Consumer #Culture

    http://bit.ly/19wkABd

    ____________________________________

    New research suggests central bankers should be bolder and more innovative

    http://econ.st/1ptpvnh

    ____________________________________

    Artificial-intelligence system learns how to spot liars

    http://ow.ly/ul5s9

    ____________________________________

    Studies suggest that even the smartest investors struggle to outdo a blindfolded monkey

    http://econ.st/1kLgJOd

    ____________________________________

    #Success as #LOW as 30% when promoting #finance #people to broader #leadership roles

    http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/leading-by-the-numbers//

    ____________________________________

    #Economy

    Can #Business leaders #benefit from studying great #writers?

    #Philosophy @EconBizFin

    http://goo.gl/dqWiLP

    ____________________________________

    Harvard Business Review | Curiosity Is as Important as Intelligence

    Extract:

    “There seems to be wide support for the idea that we are living in an “age of complexity”, which implies that the world has never been more intricate. This idea is based on the rapid pace of technological changes, and the vast amount of information that we are generating (the two are related). Yet consider that philosophers like Leibniz (17th century) and Diderot (18th century) were already complaining about information overload. The “horrible mass of books” they referred to may have represented only a tiny portion of what we know today, but much of what we know today will be equally insignificant to future generations.

    In any event, the relative complexity of different eras is of little matter to the person who is simply struggling to cope with it in everyday life. So perhaps the right question is not “Is this era more complex?” but “Why are some people more able to manage complexity?” Although complexity is context-dependent, it is also determined by a person’s disposition. In particular, there are three key psychological qualities that enhance our ability to manage complexity…

    Full Article on the Harvard Business Review Blog: http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/08/curiosity-is-as-important-as-intelligence/

  6. What #economicgrowth means:You can #afford more of the things you #need

    ____________________________________

    “Which is the best language to learn?”

    by Robert Lane Greene

    Extract:

    From INTELLIGENT LIFE magazine, March/April 2012

    For language lovers, the facts are grim: Anglophones simply aren’t learning them any more. In Britain, despite four decades in the European Union, the number of A-levels taken in French and German has fallen by half in the past 20 years, while what was a growing trend of Spanish-learning has stalled.

    In America, the numbers are equally sorry. One factor behind the 9/11 attacks was the fact that the CIA lacked the Arabic-speakers who might have translated available intelligence. But ten years on, “English only” campaigns appeal more successfully to American patriotism than campaigns that try to promote language-learning, as if the most successful language in history were threatened.

    Why learn a foreign language? After all, the one you already speak if you read this magazine is the world’s most useful and important language. English is not only the first language of the obvious countries, it is now the rest of the world’s second language: a Japanese tourist in Sweden or a Turk landing a plane in Spain will almost always speak English.

    Nonetheless, compelling reasons remain for learning other languages. They range from the intellectual to the economical to the practical…

    Full Article: http://moreintelligentlife.com/content/ideas/robert-lane-greene/which-best-language-learn

    ____________________________________

    “Savoir Aimer”, courtesy of @florentpagny (1997)

    #Society #Culture #Art #Education #World

    ____________________________________

    #Society: #French #literature in #Anglophone #countries

    http://goo.gl/r4Alrv

    @ULIP_French #Education #Culture

    ____________________________________

    Anatomical Correlates of Foreign Speech Sound Production

    Golestani, N. and Pallier, C. (2006). Anatomical Correlates of Foreign Speech Sound Production. Cerebral Cortex, 17(4), pp.929-934.

    Abstract:

    Previous work has shown a relationship between brain anatomy and how quickly adults learn to perceive foreign speech sounds. Faster learners have greater asymmetry (left > right) in parietal lobe white matter (WM) volumes and larger WM volumes of left Heschl’s gyrus than slower learners. Here, we tested native French speakers who were previously scanned using high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. We asked them to pronounce a Persian consonant that does not exist in French but which can easily be distinguished from French speech sounds, the voiced uvular stop. Two judges scored the goodness of the utterances. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that individuals who more accurately pronounce the foreign sound have higher WM density in the left insula/prefrontal cortex and in the inferior parietal cortices bilaterally compared with poorer producers. Results suggest that WM anatomy in brain regions previously implicated in articulation and phonological working memory, or the size/shape of these or adjacent regions, is in part predictive of the accuracy of speech sound pronunciation.

    http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/17/4/929.full?sid=483f4956-4fa4-4e95-b948-a1d953fe5c9d

    ____________________________________

    Music Training for the Development of Speech Segmentation

    Francois, C., Chobert, J., Besson, M. and Schon, D. (2012). Music Training for the Development of Speech Segmentation. Cerebral Cortex, 23(9), pp.2038-2043.

    http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/23/9/2038.full?sid=e74acf07-170a-4a09-992b-ed0bda4f172d

    ____________________________________

    #Scientists identify a neural #population highly #selective for #music

    #Neuroscience #Edu

    http://medicalxpress.com/news/2015-12-scientists-neural-population-highly-music.html

    ____________________________________

    Musicians’ Enhanced Neural Differentiation of Speech Sounds Arises Early in Life: Developmental Evidence from Ages 3 to 30

    Strait, D., O’Connell, S., Parbery-Clark, A. and Kraus, N. (2013). Musicians’ Enhanced Neural Differentiation of Speech Sounds Arises Early in Life: Developmental Evidence from Ages 3 to 30. Cerebral Cortex, 24(9), pp.2512-2521.

    http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/9/2512.full?sid=c5a29f5a-5aae-4170-9670-c4c74ebbab42

    ____________________________________

    Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors

    Dohn, A., Garza-Villarreal, E., Chakravarty, M., Hansen, M., Lerch, J. and Vuust, P. (2013). Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors. Cerebral Cortex, 25(5), pp.1379-1388.

    Abstract:

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability.

    http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/5/1379.full?sid=c5a29f5a-5aae-4170-9670-c4c74ebbab42

    ____________________________________

    Easily distracted by noise? You might be a creative genius

    Creativity and sensory gating indexed by the P50: Selective versus leaky sensory gating in divergent thinkers and creative achievers.

    Overall results suggest that leaky sensory gating may help people integrate ideas that are outside of focus of attention, leading to creativity in the real world; whereas divergent thinking, measured by divergent thinking tests which emphasize numerous responses within a limited time, may require selective sensory processing more than previously thought.

    Zabelina, D., O’Leary, D., Pornpattananangkul, N., Nusslock, R. and Beeman, M. (2015). Creativity and sensory gating indexed by the P50: Selective versus leaky sensory gating in divergent thinkers and creative achievers. Neuropsychologia, 69, pp.77-84.

    ____________________________________

    #Learning #difficulties

    The “dys” #disorders

    #Science #Neuroscience #Brain #Abilities

    http://www.inserm.fr/thematiques/neurosciences-sciences-cognitives-neurologie-psychiatrie/dossiers-d-information/troubles-des-apprentissages-les-troubles-dys

    ____________________________________

    Anthony van Dyck
    Frans Snyders
    c.1620

    ____________________________________

    #Human #Development #Index is rising around the #World

    #Society #People #Global

    More at: http://OurWorldInData.org/data/economic-development-work-standard-of-living/human-development-index/

    ____________________________________

    “What is the #purpose of conceiving something that nobody wants?” – @JulienDelRio

    ____________________________________

    Unequal at #birth

    #Society #Biology #Culture #People #Education #World

    http://blog.oup.com/2015/05/african-american-unequal-birth/

    ____________________________________

    Indulging in #unrealistic positive #fantasies linked to problems in #mentalhealth

    http://pss.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/14/0956797615620783.abstract

    ____________________________________

    Instrumentational Complexity of Music Genres and Why Simplicity Sells

    Percino, G., Klimek, P. and Thurner, S. (2014). Instrumentational Complexity of Music Genres and Why Simplicity Sells. PLoS ONE, 9(12), p.e115255.

    Abstract:

    Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an ‘instrumentational complexity value’ to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. ‘New wave’ or ‘disco’ quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like ‘folk rock’ remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in.

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0115255

    ____________________________________

    Afr Americans much mor likely to be mrdered in devloped countries

    http://fivethirtyeight.com/datalab/black-americans-are-killed-at-12-times-the-rate-of-people-in-other-developed-countries

    ____________________________________

    Most #people in #prison

    1 US
    2 China
    3 Russia
    4 Brazil
    5 India
    11 Turkey
    24 Germany

    http://www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest/prison-population-total?field_region_taxonomy_tid=All

    ____________________________________

    Hw #World #Poverty will end if #incomes (by country) grow at rate of period 2000–10

    https://goo.gl/MT9Ofo

    ____________________________________

    #World #poverty has halved in last 20 yrs

    66% in #US think it “almost doubled”

    http://goo.gl/MOA0NX

    ____________________________________

    Mapped: #Global spread of #Leprosy, #Malaria & #Smallpox

    http://bit.ly/1LAtUmx

    #Disease #Culture

    ____________________________________

    Article: 6 components of the mindset of a #successful enterprise #leader

    #Business

    http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/developing-the-next-generation-of-enterprise-leaders/

    ____________________________________

    #Global #population: 11.2 #billion by 2100 driven by #Africa’s soaring #growth

    #People

    http://goo.gl/KYZOb4

    ___________________________________

    A #Map of #Population & #Income

    (#World #Economy)

    PopIncome

    http://t.co/lZwE3zHicb

    ____________________________________

    Percentage of top #minority #language in #Europe

    #Society #Culture #Communication #Edu

    http://mapsontheweb.zoom-maps.com/post/141427045409/percentage-of-top-minority-language-in-every

    ____________________________________

    #Society #Culture #Education #People

    % #EU #people able to hold an #English #conversation

    ____________________________________

    Tangled #roots of the #English #language

    #World #Culture #Evolution #Communication

    http://nyti.ms/1DlhhGY

    ____________________________________

    We can’t always turn people into better speakers but we can make ourselves better listeners

    http://s.hbr.org/1xAyera

    ____________________________________

    MEG shows early (115-140 ms) categorical #speech #sound responses in left IFG

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811916000227

    ____________________________________

    Interactive #brain #map shows which areas respond to #hearing different #words

    #Neuroscience

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v532/n7600/full/nature17637.html?WT.mc_id=TWT_NatureNews

    ____________________________________

    Analysis of 165 skills suggests employers recall oral communication more frequently than other skills

    Coffelt, T., Baker, M. and Corey, R. (2016). Business Communication Practices From Employers Perspectives. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly.

    Abstract:

    This study investigates the meaning of communication skills from employers’ perspectives. Students enrolled in a business communication course were asked to contact potential employers in their fields of interest, requesting information about important communication skills in those fields. Using content analysis, two coders familiar with business communication analyzed 52 of the resulting open-ended responses. The analysis of 165 skills suggests employers recall oral communication more frequently than written, visual, or electronic communication skills. Of oral communication subskills, interpersonal communication was mentioned more than other workplace communication skills.

    http://bcq.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/05/24/2329490616644014.abstract

    ____________________________________

    #Sociology unfound:Contextualizing the bias & #dominance of #economist mentions

    #Management

    http://goo.gl/XZo3h8

    ____________________________________

    80% of #French trust #citizens more than #politicians

    #Society #Change #People

    http://www.lefigaro.fr/politique/le-scan/2016/03/08/25001-20160308ARTFIG00166-selon-un-sondage-80-des-francais-font-confiance-aux-citoyens-plutot-qu-aux-politiques.php

    ____________________________________

    More #people in the #UK trust the #TRUTH to come frm #SCIENCE

    #Society #Modernity

    Source: https://goo.gl/exfhIj

    ____________________________________

    ____________________________________

    #ModernSociety #Politics #Transition #Management #Population #Education #Innovation #World

    ____________________________________

    Most desired #jobs in #Britain

    Author 60%
    Academic 51%
    Movie Star 31%

    http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/news/britons-would-rather-be-an-academic-than-a-hollywood-star/2018676.article

    ____________________________________

    74% say libraries should have #services for #military #personnel/#veterans

    http://goo.gl/A7S70n

    ____________________________________

    Healthcare for the armed forces community

    Healthcare information and support for the UK’s 10 million-strong armed forces community, including serving personnel, reservists, families and veterans.

    http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/Militaryhealthcare/Pages/Militaryhealthcare.aspx

    ____________________________________

    Thomas Piketty’s “Capital”, summarised in four paragraphs

    IT IS the economics book taking the world by storm. “Capital in the Twenty-First Century”, written by the French economist Thomas Piketty, was published in French last year and in English in March of this year. The English version quickly became an unlikely bestseller, and it has prompted a broad and energetic debate on the book’s subject: the outlook for global inequality.

    http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/05/economist-explains

  7. Most Stressed Out #Nations in the #World

    #Health #MentalHealth #Mind #Personality #Society

    http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2013-07-1

    ____________________________________

    Your Stress is my stress! Merely observing stressful situations can trigger a physical stress response. Your Stress Is My Stress

    http://neurosciencenews.com/cortisol-hpa-axis-stress-psychology-1007/
    #neuroscience

    ____________________________________

    The effects of #stress on the body– especially the brain.

    ____________________________________

    Journal Sleep | “How you cope with stress may increase your risk for insomnia”

    Extract:
    “Results show that coping with a stressful event through behavioral disengagement – giving up on dealing with the stress – or by using alcohol or drugs each significantly mediated the relationship between stress exposure and insomnia development. Surprisingly, the coping technique of self-distraction – such as going to the movies or watching TV – also was a significant mediator between stress and incident insomnia. Furthermore, the study found that cognitive intrusion – recurrent thoughts about the stressor – was a significant and key mediator, accounting for 69 percent of the total effect of stress exposure on insomnia…”

    Link: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-07-cope-stress-insomnia.html

    ____________________________________

    “Depression – it has nothing to do with wealth or fame. It is a mental illness, and it can strike anyone.”

    http://on.apa.org/1sOMUSY

    ____________________________________

    “An organism at war with itself is doomed.” -Carl #Sagan on Organisms

    #Life #Earth #Animals #Humans #Science #Climate #Extinction #Society #Civilization

    _____________________________________

    “Many people who suffer from depression are actually masking feelings of anger, turning their rage on themselves.”

    http://bit.ly/1pC1Um4

    _____________________________________

    “Sacred Longing: The #Wisdom of Embracing Our #Desires”
    #Psychology #Civilization #Individual

    http://goo.gl/kdLK7q

    _____________________________________

    The #Neurochemistry of #Positive #Conversations

    #Psychology #Management #Leadership #Relationship #Behaviour

    http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/06/the-neurochemistry-of-positive-conversations/

    _____________________________________

    #Psychology #Motivation

    Raising Windhorse: How to Harness Personal Power

    by Dr. Donna Rockwell, Psy.D., L.P. Clinical psychologist, adjunct faculty member, community outreach worker, columnist, and mindfulness meditation teacher

    Extract:

    “… we learn from the earliest age to look to others to determine our self-worth and deservedness. Paralyzed by fear, we reduce our likelihood of success and achievement. Instead of being trained to ask, why not me, our minds are trained to ask, why would it be me? Rather than simply living out our unique and individual giftedness, engaging in life with the fervor of a love affair, our brains have developed deeply entrenched ruts that drag us through baseless fears and career-stopping apprehensions. Looking outside the self and treating the illusory reflection as a mirror is the first problem.
    We need to understand that due to years of mental conditioning and popculture brainwashing, negative self-appraisals and knee-jerk self-doubt are as much a bad habit as nail biting. The trick is to break the habit.
    The way to free ourselves from such conditioned habits of mind is to build inner-confidence through a process Tibetan meditation master, Chögyam Trungpa calls, “raising windhorse.”
    1. There is an uplifted quality that exists in our lives. You could call it sacred existence, which is automatically created because of your mindfulness and awareness. We pay attention to details: we wash the dishes, we clean our room, we press our shirts, and we fold our sheets. When we pay attention to everything around us, the overall effect is “upliftedness.” The…term for that is “windhorse.”
    The best way to raise windhorse, and generate this state of upliftedness that makes everything else…”

    Full Article Below:

    “We learn from the earliest age to look to others to determine our self-worth and deservedness.” http://bit.ly/1jIWTtx

    Depression is often the result of some form of mental oppression. Liberate yourself.

    Don’t let your mind be occupied by blame towards others. A liberated mind is a forgiving one.

  8. “Yes, it’s official, men are from Mars and women from Venus, and here’s the science to prove it”

    #Science #Gender #Differences #Men #Women

    Extract:
    I am a developmental biologist who has studied how embryos develop from the fertilised egg. Genes control the development of the embryo by providing the codes for making proteins, which largely determine how cells behave.
    The cells in the human embryo give rise to the structure and function of our brains and bodies. These cells determine whether we are male or female, and I want to understand the extent to which important differences in the behaviour of men and women are controlled by their genes during development and by the action of hormones both in the womb and in later life.
    Exactly how different men and women are is, of course, a controversial subject. The view that there are inborn differences between the minds of men and women is being challenged by others who call this the pseudoscience of “neurosexism”, and are raising concerns about its implications. They emphasise instead social influences, such as stereotyping, in determining the differences in the behaviour of the sexes…

    Full Article: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/11087100/Yes-its-official-men-are-from-Mars-and-women-from-Venus-and-heres-the-science-to-prove-it.html

    _______________________________

    Heart Disease the No.1 Killer in Women | #FightTheLadyKiller

    #Cardiology #Health #Society

    A campaign aimed at raising awareness about Heart Disease, a no.1 killer in women [that does not seem to have been given enough attention] is being supported by campaigners worldwide (incl. artist Edward Norton)

    Important reminder for our mothers, daughters, sisters, lovers and friends #fighttheladykiller

    _______________________________

    Impact of Mental Stress on Heart varies between Men & Women

    Extract:

    Men and women have different cardiovascular and psychological reactions to mental stress, according to a study of men and women who were already being treated for heart disease.

    The study, in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, looked at 56 women and 254 men diagnosed with heart disease enrolled in a larger REMIT study of the impact of the medication escitalopram on heart disease induced by mental stress…

    …more women experienced myocardial ischemia, decreased blood flow to the heart. Women also experienced increased platelet aggregation, which is the start of the formation of blood clots, more than men. The women compared with men also expressed a greater increase in negative emotions and a greater decrease in positive emotions during the mental stress tests.

    Full Article: http://www.psypost.org/2014/10/impact-mental-stress-heart-varies-men-women-28674

    _______________________________

    Being depressed can be deadly for young women who have a heart attack

    http://www.futurity.org/depression-heart-disease-death-women-719342/

    _______________________________

    Could there be a bright side to depression?

    The researchers administered their test to nearly 600 subjects. Their paper, “Measuring the bright side of being blue”, appears in the peer-reviewed, open access journal PLOS ONE.

    The researchers at McMaster and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health were able to show a meaningful connection between answers to a 20-question test and analytical rumination – a type of distraction-resistant thinking that is characteristic of clinical and sub-clinical depression alike…

    Barbic, S., Durisko, Z. and Andrews, P. (2014). Measuring the Bright Side of Being Blue: A New Tool for Assessing Analytical Rumination in Depression. PLoS ONE, 9(11), p.e112077.

    _______________________________

    NASA | Study Investigates How Men and Women Adapt Differently to Spaceflight (Journal of Women Health)

    Extract:

    The groups focused on cardiovascular, immunological, sensorimotor, musculoskeletal, reproductive and behavioral implications on spaceflight adaptation for men and women

    In June 2013, NASA and NSBRI hosted a virtual workshop to present the groups’ findings. The Journal of Women’s Health published the manuscripts in the Nov. 2014 issue…

    Full Article: http://www.nasa.gov/content/men-women-spaceflight-adaptation/index.html#.VGzV3Pmx1o5

  9. Fixing a Work Relationship Gone Sour

    Extract:

    “Sometimes you get stuck in a rut with someone at work — a boss, a coworker, a direct report. Perhaps there’s bad blood between you or you simply haven’t been getting along. What can you do to turn the relationship around? Is it possible to start anew?

    What the Experts Say

    The good news is that even some of the most strained relationships can be repaired. In fact, a negative relationship turned positive can be a very strong one. “Going through difficult experiences can be the makings of the strongest, most resilient relationships,” says Susan David, a founder of the Harvard/McLean Institute of Coaching and author of the HBR article, “Emotional Agility.”

    The bad news is that fixing a relationship takes serious effort. “Most people just lower their expectations because it’s easier than dealing with the real issues at hand,” says Brian Uzzi, professor of leadership and organizational change at Northwestern’s Kellogg School of Management and author of the HBR article, “Make Your Enemies Your Allies.” But, he says, the hard work is often worth it, especially in a work environment where productivity and performance are at stake. Here’s how to transform a work relationship that’s turned sour…

    Full Article on the Harvard Business Review Blog: http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/08/fixing-a-work-relationship-gone-sour/

    _________________________________

    Incompetent Managers Don’t Want to Hear Your Ideas

    #Management #Research #Psychology #Experiment #Employment #Direction

    Academy of Management Journal: Managing to Stay in the Dark: Managerial Self-Efficacy, Ego Defensiveness, and the Aversion to Employee Voice

    ACAD MANAGE J amj.2012.0393; published ahead of print September 13, 2013 (http://amj.aom.org/content/early/2013/09/13/amj.2012.0393.abstract)

    Extract:

    “In an experimental role-playing scenario, “managers” who were primed to feel incompetent were more likely to denigrate the competence of an “employee” who spoke up and proposed a new operational plan, according to a team led by Nathanael J. Fast of the University of Southern California.
    The managers who felt unable to fulfill their job expectations rated the employee more negatively than did those who were primed to feel competent.
    Incompetent managers who are personally threatened by employee suggestions send signals that they are unreceptive, shutting off avenues of new ideas, the researchers say…”

    Incompetent Managers Don’t Want to Hear Your Ideas http://s.hbr.org/1oU9Hc6

    _________________________________

    What’s the right way to tell a coworker that they’re annoying you?

    Extract:

    Whenever we’re working closely with other people, it’s easy for tensions to arise thanks to differences in personal styles and priorities. When they do, we have a choice: should we raise the issue, or keep quiet? Many of us bite our tongue, worrying that speaking up will harm an important relationship.

    But research suggests that letting something simmer can make things worse, for several reasons. When we’re stressed, our brain tends to mount a defensive “fight-flight-or-freeze” response—during which there’s reduced activity in brain areas. And trying to suppress our irritation has been found to make our brain’s defensive response more pronounced rather than less. So chanting “I’m fine” repeatedly is unlikely to get us back onto an even keel.

    Our supposedly hidden emotions are also strangely contagious. Psychologists have found that one person in a negative mood transmits their angst to others nearby within five minutes—even when they aren’t speaking to each other or working together. So your colleague will be subconsciously picking up your disapproving signals, whether you mean for them to read your mind or not.

    The good news is that there is a safe way to raise difficult issues with a colleague, even in awkward hierarchical situations—one that helps to keep both your brains from going on the defensive and that helps you set a positive tone for the conversation. Here’s how it works…

    Full Article: https://hbr.org/2016/03/how-to-tell-a-coworker-theyre-annoying-you

    _________________________________

    Signs That You’re a Micromanager

    Extract:

    Absolutely no one likes to be micromanaged. It’s frustrating, demoralizing, and demotivating. Yet, some managers can’t seem to help themselves. Dealing with a controlling boss who doesn’t trust you is tough, but what if you’re the one doing the micromanaging?

    If you’re like most micro-managers, you probably don’t even know that you’re doing it. Yet the signs are clear:

    You’re never quite satisfied with deliverables.
    You often feel frustrated because you would’ve gone about the task differently.
    You laser in on the details and take great pride and /or pain in making corrections.
    You constantly want to know where all your team members are and what they’re working on.
    You ask for frequent updates on where things stand.
    You prefer to be cc’d on emails.

    Let’s face it. Paying attention to details and making sure the work is getting done are important. So it’s easy to chalk all of the above up to a necessary part of managing. But they aren’t necessary all the time. The problem with micromanagers is…

    Full Article: https://hbr.org/2014/11/signs-that-youre-a-micromanager

    _________________________________

    Harvard Business Review | Make Sure Your Employees’ Emotional Needs Are Met

    Extract:

    “In today’s developed-world workplace, physiological and safety needs are, for the most part, already met. Salary and benefits can enhance motivation, but organizations shouldn’t focus on them disproportionately because emotional experiences can matter equally, if not more.
    In a recent study of outstandingly engaged business units, I asked people what drove their high engagement scores. Only 4% of respondents mentioned pay. Instead, they highlighted feeling autonomous and empowered, and a sense of belonging on their teams.

    We all know people who trade high salaries and even safety for love, esteem,and self-actualization at work – the accountants who become high school teachers, or the journalists who move to war zones with pennies in their pockets.

    The reality is that human needs can’t be neatly arranged into a pyramid. Motivation isn’t simple, and it’s certainly not linear. Different people are motivated by different things. Even Maslow began to worry about the uses of his theory at the end of his life, arguing that the most important way to achieve personal satisfaction was to face one’s inner demons. He entered psychoanalysis himself at age 61 to deal with long-repressed anger…”

    Full Piece Below:

    A much-needed update to Maslow’s hierarchy http://s.hbr.org/1oqPOK4

    _________________________________

    2 Ways to Regain Your Boss’s Trust // by David DeSteno

    Extract:

    You’ve lost your supervisor’s trust. Now what? That pit in your stomach likely stems from the uncomfortable realization that your status and chances for advancement have taken a sudden and unwelcome hit. After all, trustworthiness is the currency of most workplaces. It allows you to build productive relationships and to earn greater responsibility. Without it, you’re unlikely to succeed.
    The first step in solving this dilemma is to discern whether the unfortunate event called your integrity or your competence into question…

    While it’s clear that we’ll avoid working with someone whose integrity we doubt, all the integrity in the world won’t be much help if a partner lacks the skills required to accomplish the task at hand.
    As a result, successful managers are quite sensitive to these two factors and weigh them in assigning responsibilities. Ever wonder why the seemingly most honest and earnest members of a team are often overlooked for promotion in favor of less personable, but perhaps more skilled people? Top decision makers rightly recognize that the benefits of integrity and niceness begin to top out at a certain level, whereas the benefits of increasing competence usually show no similar levelling…

    Full Article: https://hbr.org/2014/11/2-ways-to-regain-your-bosss-trust

    _________________________________

    Employer who terminated applicant for disclosing medical marijuana use faces lawsuit

    http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=b36c2fc2-6b3c-40f3-be49-30628ed4bf1d

    _________________________________

    Effects of Marijuana Smoking on the Lung

    Tashkin, D. (2013). Effects of Marijuana Smoking on the Lung. Annals ATS, 10(3), pp.239-247.

    In summary, the accumulated weight of evidence implies far lower risks for pulmonary complications of even regular heavy use of marijuana compared with the grave pulmonary consequences of tobacco.

    http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1513/annalsats.201212-127fr#.VzpfUmgrJhG

    _________________________________

    The #Anxiety relief properties of #marijuana

    Ramikie, T., Nyilas, R., Bluett, R., Gamble-George, J., Hartley, N., Mackie, K., Watanabe, M., Katona, I. and Patel, S. (2014). Multiple Mechanistically Distinct Modes of Endocannabinoid Mobilization at Central Amygdala Glutamatergic Synapses. Neuron, 81(5), pp.1111-1125.

    #Society #Medicine #Health #Science #MentalHealth #People #World

    These data identify a prominent role for eCBs in the modulation of excitatory drive to CeA neurons and provide insight into the mechanisms by which eCB signaling and exogenous cannabinoids could regulate stress responses and emotional learning.

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627314000178

    _________________________________

    Cannabis and its effect on diabetes

    There is growing research investigating cannabis use and the effects on diabetes.

    Possible benefits of cannabis

    However, some studies, albeit animal-based ones, in recent years have highlighted a number of potential health benefits of cannabis for diabetics.

    A research paper published by the American Alliance for Medical Cannabis (AAMC) suggested that cannabis can help:

    Stabilise blood sugars – a large body of anecdotal evidence is building among diabetics to support this.
    Suppress some of the arterial inflammation commonly experienced by diabetics, which can lead to cardiovascular disease:

    Prevent nerve inflammation and ease the pain of neuropathy – the most common complication of diabetes – by stimulating receptors in the body and brain.

    Lower blood pressure over time, which can help reduce the risk of heart disease and other diabetes complications
    Keep blood vessels open and improve circulation.

    Relieve muscle cramps and the pain of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders

    Be used to make topical creams to relieve neuropathic pain and tingling in hands and feet

    Cannabis compounds have also been shown to reduce intra-ocular pressure (the fluid pressure within the eye) considerably in people with glaucoma – a type of eye disease that is caused by conditions that severely restrict blood flow to the eye, such as severe diabetic retinopathy.

    http://www.diabetes.co.uk/recreational-drugs/cannabis.html

    _________________________________

    Marijuana Decreases Insulin Resistance, Improves Blood Sugar Control

    Researchers have found that marijuana users have lower fasting insulin levels compared to non-users, as well as healthier waist sizes and BMI scores.

    Epidemiologists at the Harvard School of Public Health, the University of Nebraska College of Medicine, and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center have discovered something surprising about the metabolic effects of Cannabis sativa, better known as marijuana. A drug notorious for giving users the munchies can in fact help moderate blood sugar levels, waist size, and body mass index (BMI).

    Their novel study, published in the current issue of The American Journal of Medicine, lays the groundwork for further investigation.

    “Previous epidemiologic studies have found lower prevalence rates of obesity and diabetes in marijuana users,” said lead investigator Murray Mittleman, M.D., in a press release. “Ours is the first study to investigate the relationship between marijuana use and fasting insulin, glucose, and insulin resistance.”

    http://www.healthline.com/health-news/policy-marijuana-use-helps-with-blood-sugar-control-and-bmi-051613#1

    _________________________________

    “Respecter les institutions, ce n’est pas en accepter toutes les décisions.”

    _________________________________

    #Drugs, #Science & #Society ft. @ProfDavidNutt

    #Society #People #Living #Environment #World

    _________________________________

    Anti-drinking advert shows man falling off platform while trying to kick pigeon

    http://bbc.in/15b7nJA

    _________________________________

    How does #alcohol cause #cancer? Read some of the leading theories

    We’ve written about the link between alcohol and cancer many times before – from discussing the evidence that it causes cancer to talking about how drinking less reduces your risk of developing the disease.

    But we haven’t yet explored the science behind how alcohol affects and damages our cells, and how this can cause the cells in our bodies to develop into cancer.

    Which cancers?

    There are seven types of cancer linked to alcohol – bowel, oesophageal (food pipe), larynx (voice box), mouth, pharynx (upper throat), breast (in women), and liver. There’s also mounting evidence that heavy drinking might be linked to pancreatic cancer. But how, and why?

    Read in full: http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2016/02/09/how-does-alcohol-cause-cancer/

    _________________________________

    New #review concludes that #evidence for #alcohol causing #cancer is strong

    A new review of epidemiological evidence supports a causal association between alcohol consumption and cancers at seven sites in the body: oropharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colon, rectum and female breast. This is a stronger statement than the long-recognised association between alcohol and cancer. An association means there is a relationship of some kind between the two variables. A causal association means there is evidence that alcohol consumption directly causes cancer…

    Read in full: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2016-07-evidence-alcohol-cancer-strong.html

  10. Engineers find faults & fix systems, some work on organic systems (surgeon), others on servers (network), some on behaviour (environment).

  11. ______________________________________

    The tech revolution, inconceivable 20 years ago

    #Society #Technology #Trends #Economy #World

  12. #Meditators hv #brains that are physically 7 yrs younger, on average, than non-meditators

    http://digest.bps.org.uk/2016/04/experienced-meditators-have-brains-that.html

    _____________________________

    “Something new often seems to invigorate us, yet we’ve taught ourselves to be afraid of change. Learn again to embrace the excitement.”

    _____________________________

    “The world will not be destroyed by those who do evil, but by those who watch them without doing anything” -Albert Einstein

    _____________________________

    “The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge”

    A piece of #wisdom from our very own @Prof_S_Hawking (#Knowledge #Ignorance #Illusion #Enemy #StephenHawking)

    _____________________________

    #Question and #Answer from @RichardDawkins @ #Berkeley

    #Genetics #Evolution #Culture #Edu

    _____________________________

    “Only the educated are free.” -Epictetus

    _____________________________

    Oxford #comma usage among people w/ different levels of #grammar

    #Education

    http://fivethirtyeight.com/datalab/elitist-superfluous-or-popular-we-polled-americans-on-the-oxford-comma/

    _____________________________

    #Ecosystem #Organism #Influences #Human #Evolution #Education #Sci – @danieldennett @RichardDawkins @_Four_Horsemen

    _____________________________

    Study of healthy adults finds that 2 types of extroverts have more brain matter than most common brains

    #Society #Neuroscience #Evolution #Science #Mind

    DOI:10.3758/s13415-014-0331-6

    http://goo.gl/7J8Rxj

    _____________________________

    #CarlJung #Quotes #Society #Mind #Education #Thoughts #Reasoning #Logic #Reason #People #World

    _____________________________

    You shouldn’t be threatened if yr #direct reports are #smarter than you

    http://s.hbr.org/1eXNooj

    _____________________________

    Many personal & professional #learners cite a range of benefits frm seeking extra #knowledge

    http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/03/22/lifelong-learning-and-technology/

    _____________________________

    Psychology: The Concept of Self

    The concept of the self will be explored in this essay – where it comes from, what it looks like and how it influences thought and behaviour. Since self and identity are cognitive constructs that influence social interaction and perception, and are themselves partially influenced by society, the material of this essay connects to virtually all aspects of psychological science. The self is an enormously popular focus of research (e.g. Leary and Tangney, 2003; Sedikides and Brewer, 2001; Swann and Bosson, 2010). A 1997 review by Ashmore and Jussim reported 31,000 social psychological publications on the self over a two-decade period to the mid-1990s, and there is now even an International Society for Self and Identity and a scholarly journal imaginatively entitled Self and Identity…

    Read in full: https://dpurb.com/2016/01/23/essay-psychology-the-concept-of-self/

    _____________________________

    _____________________________

  13. _____________________________________________

    The effects of gratitude on others, and how giving thanks can motivate and encourage

    http://ow.ly/rc91k

  14. ________________________________________

    Publics most interested in “#science & #tech” and “#health & #medicine” mostly don’t overlap

    http://goo.gl/PFI28w

    ________________________________________

    Join the #Organ Donor Register today & you cld save or improve up to 9 #lives

    https://www.organdonation.nhs.uk/register-to-donate/register-your-details/

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