Essay // Psychological Explanations of Prejudice & Discrimination

Paralympic-Cheetah-blades

Prejudice and discrimination are usually classified as behavioural attitudes towards a certain group or individual based on a multitude of reasons [according to different psychological theories]. The main reasons for prejudice are believed to be rooted in individual psychological processes related to groups, social influence and/or upbringing.

Authoritarian Personality

One plausible explanation for prejudice is the authoritarian personality, which suggests that those belonging in the category are concerned with status and upholding conventions, are very conformist and tend to be obsequious to those they see as holding a higher status – while treating those ‘below’ with contemp. Authoritarian personality is believed to be the result of strict and punitive upbringing which later leads to hostility being directed towards disliked [justified or unjustified] groups through the process of « displacement ». Adorno et al (1950) found strong and positive correlations between respondents’ scores on the F-Scale and scores on other measures intended to assess anti-semitism (AS scale) and ethnocentrism (E scale). However, the PEC-scale (Political and economic conservatism) was not strongly related, which only led to the conclusion of how people who are anti-Semitic are also « likely » to be hostile towards most « out-groups ».

The Adorno et al (1950) test only consisted of agreement that could only be geared towards anti-Semitism, ethnocentrism and fascism, which might have led to the problem of acquiescent response. The fact that the interviewer knew the interviewee’s F-score might have also led to experimenter bias; and the theory also falls short in the explanation of mass changes in behaviour: “Antisemitism in Nazi Germany grew during a decade or so, which is much too short a time for a whole generation of German families to have adopted new forms of childrearing practices giving rise to authoritarian and prejudiced children (Brown, 1988)” [not plausible]. The reality is that anti-Semitism may have been the result of a more sinister social and economic problem caused, inflicted by or related to the jews powerful Zionist business associations on the German economy at a time where the country was suffering [people, heritage, identity, economy…].

Stereotyping

Social Roles

Individual identity differs according to heritage, education, language(s), individual choices, profession and social roles

Another form of prejudice is stereotyping, which plays a major part in the process of inter-cultural [note: culture may refer to groups defined by language, geography, religion, and other common similarities] prejudice where the root of its cause has proven to be fairly ambiguous in explanation.

Art - D'Purb Website

Groups founded and united based on the behavioural patterns of a particular geography [usually] tend to stereotype others negatively [i.e. out-group(s): the other group(s) with petty differences in the way they go by their daily activities as all human primates on this planet – as the chart below suggests].

Development Era_The World as One Consuming Unit

Where Do We Buy What? (Source: Statista)

It is believed that the process of stereotyping is the result of minimising mental effortreminiscent of Carl Jung‘s quote:

« Thinking is difficult, that is why most people judge. »

LesConsOseTout_Audiard

Stereotyping is linked to psychological processes within the individual and is assumed to be connected to environmental influences that lead to a prejudiced mind; where out-groups and there members are defined unrealistically by single characteristics (negative usually). Stereotyping can sometimes [at least when dealing with members of the public who may not be deemed as « intelligent or smart », even bordering on plain « stupid »] play a role in the legitimisation of prejudiced and discriminatory treatment of other individuals who simply [consciously or unconsciously] made the choice to live by different modes of group-oriented behavioural patterns (culture).

Rational reasoning and the humane ability to understand each group’s choices while also respecting each group’s boundaries [geographical, social, economic, psychosocial, linguistic, etc] are surprisingly never considered by individuals and authorities in the quest to correct the mistakes of a world designed on outdated ideologies [e.g. the scientifically poor logic of global communism] to design a new one based on creative scientific reasoning, evolutionary logic, design & progressive innovation.

Bloomsbury 113 D'Purb Website

Another reason why some individuals resort to stereotyping others may be insecurity. That is, some individuals may be frustrated at their inability to conquer other(s) who are above their league in terms of abilities and achievements, and may stereotype these individuals in their quest to compensate for their own lack of abilities and feeling of inferiority when faced with these individuals who are more talented than them. Arguably, it may also be that these petty common brains who stereotype, simply fear that their competitors may be able to excel and deliver a similar or even superior performance/output than them if not distracted and slowed by insignificant and childish acts of stereotyped behaviour.

Carl-Gustav-Jung

Traduction(EN): « Thinking is difficult, that is why most people judge. » -Carl G. Jung

Prejudice as an Illusionary Cure to Low Self-Esteem/Insecurity

The Social Learning Theory, on the other hand, assumes prejudice as the result of maintaining self-esteem of both the individual and the in-group (individuals with the same behavioural patterns as the individual/tribe) members – where one tends to be biased towards glorifying the group whilst also paying particular attention to criteria that make the group look better. This is related to our sense of identity being determined by the groups we belong to and thus tend to be biased towards favouring them. Tajfel et al (1982) showed how schoolboys chose the strategy to allocate more points to their own group at the expense of getting least overall – showing bias in the absence of competition. The two main problems however are the fact that [1] the tendency for favouritism might be group-oriented and not universal (Wetherall, 1982), and also how [2] most studies show bias towards in-group (which could not only be prejudice but stereotyping or other influences).

Unrealistic Conflict? Competition for the same Resource(s) while presuming in-group members to be « unconditional benefactors »

Finally, the realistic conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises when two or more groups compete for the same resource which in turn leads to a tendency to favour in-group members, while being hostile and denying resources to out-groups. This was proven in Sherif et al (1961) where the artificially stimulated competitive conflict lead to negative stereotyping towards out-group which persisted even after the competition. However, the validity was questioned over the artificiality of the situation and the samples (US American boys only?); as Tyerman & Spencer also showed how competition does not always cause prejudice – where UK scouts co-operated instead. Furthermore, individuals with different upbringing and philosophical orientations had not been considered, which in turn affects the ecological validity of the finding where inferences from generalisation would likely lack precision – with a world in constant social evolution with more psychological research being constantly published to guide society towards a more harmonious design.

LesVieuxChiensFrustrés

Conclusion and Reflections: Relocation, Adaptation, Design & Assimilation

Together, the theories seem to offer a plausible explanation for prejudice but cannot be ranked; as they compensate each other’s weak points. A sensible application of each theory – depending on the situation – seems like the rational method forward, since factors such as group-based behavioural patterns (culture), present situation/environment and norms/values remain vital considerations when researching about prejudice, its causes & a more direct approach to solutions.

Furthermore, the world has made such leap socially with the technological era, and people have been inclined towards knowledge, discoveries and innovation with social media contributing towards a more educated humanity [i.e. a civilisation with its different societies that come with their own values, philosophy, feelings and behavioural and communicative patterns, that are the main seperators and organising factors in each group’s identity].

 

Relocation

A new and strong global inclination towards a realistic synchronised unity [where the world’s population can live harmoniously in their own geographical location with their chosen units, laws and lifestyle], may shape intellectual thought in the decades to come now that the experience learnt from psychosocial disasters due to badly managed population shifts [that turned out to be destructive to the safety of Western European nations] could be considered in future policies. [Visit the website of the Banque Mondiale for more precise population statistics].

Unbelievable African Population Growth

Source: UN via The Guardian

Negro Population Counter

The current population of Africa is 1,300,976,080 as of Wednesday, December 5, 2018, based on the latest United Nations estimates. / Source: Worldometers (Click to see a live count of the majorly negro population of Africa)

La Taille Du Continent Africain

The Size of the African Continent: With the speed of progress and the development brought by the digital era, an increasing number of Negro people nowadays, with their global population rising at a rate faster than any other group, are considering a relocation to their homelands in Africa

Organisms who do not want to/cannot assimilate, should consider a relocation to an environment that is adjusted and more suited to their evolutionary needs, as this seems like the most rational solution, such as the growing number of sensible Negro people nowadays who are gradually shifting back to their homelands in Africa to help it grow economically and culturally with the world developing at a speed never seen before in this era partly accelerated with modern technology.

Africa Unite - Negro People

A great example of environmental and socio-psychological synchronisation is India, with 94% of Hindus being the native Hindi-speaking population of India who also live there, although Hinduism and its various branches of philosophy [explored by one of the most influential Western philosopher, Arthur Schopenhauer, and also many others such as Aldous Huxley, Alfred North Whitehead, Arnold Toynbee, François Voltaire, Rudolf Steiner, Wilhelm von Humbolt & Will Durant] – as other major religious cultures such as Christianity – also spread in influence globally.

India United

Hinduism, Hindus and India

Like Christianity & the other major religions, Hinduism and its philosophy also gradually spread in influence across the globe. However, 94% of people who practice Hinduism  are the native Hindi-speaking population of India

The Climate Collapse disaster has also made Civilization aware of the importance of « synchronised unity » in matters of global human advancement –  future research surrounding prejudice and discrimination would likely benefit the human world more if applied in intra-group scenarios – should the world’s population be managed and geographically engineered according to each group’s evolutionary logic [to fit their respective psycholinguistic, cultural and organic environments to further refine group evolution and guide society towards a harmonious pattern of living] for each group by their respective identities, collective beliefs, values & vision.

Chart of the Year - Global Poverty

A Visual History of Global Poverty from 1820 – 2015 / Source: Our World In Data

Infant Mortality 1950 - 2015

Infant Mortality, 1950 to 2015 / Source: Our World in Data

Global Income Inequality is Falling 1820 - 2000

Global Income Inequality is falling, 1820 – 2000

As World poverty is down, solving matters of the 3rd world on location along with a systematic and diplomatic relocation of culturally alien migrant crowds seems rational. Progress & development globally means relocation should be considered in the future if human beings are realistic about world peace, and the understanding of evolutionary science and its application to humanity.

World Charity by Country

Charitable giving by country / Source: Guardian DataBlog

libray users cite impacts from personal learning d'purb dpurb website

Library users and Learning / Source: Pew Research Centre (Internet & Technology)

We, as Western Europeans should consider a diplomatic process for relocating incompatible populations [who struggle to or cannot adapt] according to their respective societies and cultural identity for peace; with links and cooperation in business and education if necessary to support the sophistication and the continuous linguistic and cultural development of human societies on Planet Earth.

Geographical management towards synchronisation and stability by exploring the logic of the « Organic theory » involves prioritizing one’s « own organisms » [i.e. organisms that are part of or have become part of one’s own society through complete assimilation] for psycholinguistic, cultural, social & genetic chemistry, evolution and enhancement.

nous

For example, if I myself were a retrograde and atavistic burden to Western Europe or France because of my religious beliefs, maladaptive needs, genes, intelligence [lack of], organic composition, fitness/health, education, philosophical perspectives, traditions, psycholinguistic heritage and national outlook, then I would change geographical location to one that is more suited to myself to be able to live much more comfortably. But since, I am of 100% Franco-British heritage and would not feel at « home » in a different environment other than Western Europe, I have fully assimilated and live here, thus, the concept of « Geographical Management », which is simply the process of keeping together organisms sharing similar beliefs, philosophy, culture, vision, perception, goals, intellect, language(s) and identity for chemistry, stability and mutual understanding: a synchronised and functional society founded on modern evolutionary science & humanistic philosophy.

We need to understand the identity of a society in terms of linguistic, cultural [mostly behavioural and perceptive patterns], and genetic authenticity but also consider and follow the progressive course of evolution as modern and sophisticated beings to include evolved organisms that assimilate, enhance, stabilise, and strengthen the group with superior or gifted genes that also care about, have a sense of belonging, take pride, interact, speak for and identify with the culture and nation. All humans are similar yes, but not equal … similar physiologically [blood, bone, organs, etc] but not equal in any case [culture, philosophy, language(s), IQ, genetics, fitness/health, intelligence, vocabulary, sensibility, skills, etc].

Rodin

 

Adaptation

For cases of exceptional organisms who have moved to a new locations [geography] to create themselves and build their lives, it would certainly be helpful for them to see themselves as singular and individual units with the power to reshape their whole being if they intend to be able to live a life that is not restrictive and is in complete synchronisation with the new society and people they choose to be a part of; thus assimilation seems to be the only reasonable and humane option.

It is fundamental for all to understand that geographical groups have evolved and have gained and maintained a structured organisation because each region on planet Earth and its respective organisms [of a particular type of organic composition – what some refer to as “race”] have created societies and behavioural patterns that led to a group with some form of synchronisation and organisation.

Human evolution

But, it is also very important to consider that from the perspective of the universality of life on Planet Earth, any human organism of whatsoever type of organic composition can procreate with one another. This simple but fundamental scientific observation means that if the laws of evolution and nature that contain and govern all life on this planet had different intentions, then organisms of different organic compositions would not be able to create new life. This does not mean that countries should be encouraging uncontrolled and savage communist/zionist mass invasion policies in terms of migration to disrupt their own stability, since preserving a sense of synchronisation and organisation for all groups involves promoting agendas with organisms that have evolved in their environment and have the characteristics to support the continuity and  productivity of their group & societyHowever it is of vital and fundamental importance for all groups [around the world] to consider the never-ending and ongoing process of evolution and natural selection, a process that affects all organisms on planet Earth similarly and also the singular adaptive evolution of some superior and genetically gifted organisms [See: [I] Psychology: The Concept of Self, [II] How our Neurons work, [III] The Temporal Lobes: Vision, Sound & Awareness and [IV] The 3 Major Theories of Childhood Development]

Darwin sur l'adaptation environmentale Oxford University Press Quote D'Purb Website

Traduction(EN): Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882), best known for his theory on evolution by natural selection, demonstrated that all species have developed over time from common ancestors and that individuals with characteristics most suited to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.

Putz_Michel_Richard_Orpheus_and_Eurydice D'Purb Website

 

Design

All societies should be asking the question of whether some select superior organisms [whatever the field in which they may excel / See: Scientists discover 1,000 new “intelligence genes” & 2 types of extroverts have more brain matter than most common brains] would enhance them as a group [i.e. upscale their organic composition], since we are now in 2019 and are part of a generation that has the scientific knowledge that previous generations before us did not have.

After all, the choice of partnership should always remain that of the individual, and since the criteria in partnership selection differs from one individual to another [e.g. some may look for physical attributes, others for emotional intelligence, or philosophical sensibilities, or typical personality traits, and on extremely rare occasions some may be incrediby lucky to find all the qualities in a single organism, etc], this may lead some individuals to choose from a range of organic compositions.

Human-Design-Organic-Composition

In 2019, with the knowledge of genetics and health, couples who want children worldwide should also consider whether the future wellbeing of their children involves more than simply good food, education and upbringing, but also good genes that also lead to better attributes. Hence, couples who choose to embrace the reality of science in 2019, may choose sperm or eggs from healthy donors if they do not consider themselves as genetically healthy or gifted; and this may also open the door to creating a healthier generation of humans on planet Earth and also encourage healthy males and females, to donate sperm and eggs as a contribution to the better design of a new generation of mankind. Since, science has always been seen by many as the study of God’s work, to create a better world, and this gave us better medicines and treatments after our understanding of Nature evolved, so it seems logical to also look at genetics and design similarly.

Masters of Deception - Salvador Dali 026 - D'Purb Website

We also know that environmental and psycho-social influences have more salience and effect in shaping the mind of the individual, so avant-garde couples who choose to have a child through donated eggs or sperm should understand that the child will be theirs as the infant will carry their names, manners, attitudes and values, and not the donor’s. A good way of looking at it may be to simply think of the donor as a piece of healthy flesh that the couple borrowed to give their child a better design, health and future.

« spermini » par l'artiste maurizio cattelan d'purb website 1200

«Spermini», l’oeuvre par l’artiste Maurizio Cattelan / Source: Fondation Louis Vuitton

 

Assimilation

As for human organisms that have chosen to shift their geography to be part of a new society along with its heritage, they do not seem to have any other concrete option but to fully « assimilate » and prove their genetic fitness/health and abilities, and hence become an asset to the new group by becoming a part of it to help maintain its stability and sense of synchronisation.

Men and women who make the choice and who have the necessary education and intelligence to guide them, build themselves and change cultural / national identification registers when they have the capacity for development, the linguistic heritage and the genetics of intellect with a mastery of expression and speech. It is only then that they manage to represent a nation or an empire [or two?]. In 2019, as far as ‘The Organic Theory’ [which focuses on the singularity of the individual organism] is concerned, there is no debate between intellectuals in psychology, but simply the discovery of the new mechanical / scientific perspectives that it introduces to explain the psychological and philosophical conception of the individual – as Carl Sagan phrased it, ‘Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge’. Construction [training], which ‘can be’ mechanical and structured in its application [e.g. distance learning by text / video / audio], develops indirectly to create and give a socio-cultural dimension to the individual once the desired skills have been fully adopted, mastered, and deployed in life. The term ‘social’ is also far too vague to be important as such… the term ‘social’ can simply be defined as the interaction and exposure [of all types] between organisms. So the term ‘social’ is not really valid scientifically and it lacks precision itself since it may refer to a wide range of variables. What we are left with then is only the individual’s choices, language(s) & abilities of personal development [e.g. psycholinguistic & cultural synthesis]: the major factors in the psychological & philosophical explanation of his/her singular conception [to note that each conception is unique to the individual human organism such as his/her fingerprints, skull shape, or body structure: singularity]. Thus: training, meritocracy, order and love! [See: The Concept of Self]

Feuerbach_Anselm(1829-1880)_Paolo_And_Francesca D'Purb Website

If the new organisms lack genetic fitness/health, then they should consider conceiving [through healthy donors] or adopting children of the similar organic composition of the majority from the respective societies they moved to and live in, as this will not cause any instability for the future continuity of the group.

So for organisms who do change their mode of existence, i.e. organisms that have the potential and have taken the decision to and do assimilate in Western European societies, the best option seems to see, think, breathe & live” [as a way of speaking] like the new society and nation they chose to be a part of, and also “feel” the new group’s pain, joy, values and heritage [even religion if possible / See: The Relationship between Religion and Discrimination].

Assimilation generally means to see the members of one’s new community as one’s own « blood », just like those from avant-garde French schools of thought do, as it will be in any individual’s best interest in living « fully » [although it is vital for all organisms to also consider the problems of «bad blood», since social incompatibility and/or a lack of chemistry – which is not necessarily hateful – within organisms of the same geographical environment are common due to a range of factors (e.g. intelligence, philosophy, values, sensibility, personality, character, etc)].

Tennessee

Any society that cannot add highly talented organisms with exceptional genes that have the potential to enhance and sharpen them as a group through the process of assimilation, would be missing out and will forever have a weakness over avant-garde societies that can. However, it is important not to take the process of assimilation lightly as it is not a costume party. Assimilation is not an easy process as we have found.

The large majority of organisms who change geographic locations do not seem to have the abilities or the desire to assimilate, since it involves focusing their loyalty and dedication to the new society and people while also adopting [e.g names that are sycnhronised with the society’s heritage as it is commonly done in France] and mastering new behavioural and communicative patterns [as Nicolas Sarkozy also pointed out], which requires learning & adaptation. Hence, the diplomatic deportation and relocation of incompatible organisms along with campaigns to help them settle still remain the best solution to alleviate the burden of mass migration and psycho-social disruption to Western European societies, because assimilation requires skills and dedication and the majority of foreign organisms fail to master them.

Nous En France - Sarkozy - d'purb

Traduction(EN): « Us in France, we are different from others. To live, we have to drink, eat, but also to cultivate ourselves. » -Nicolas Sarkozy

We should also take note that there are some [not many] “incredible” individuals who manage to assimilate and become fully part of their new societies, and guide, manage and promote it passionately.

DocPaints

These individuals who have made the tremendous effort to become fully part of their new society where they have moved to and have the potential to enhance, guide and promote it should be applauded and encouraged because these individuals who have proven their genetic fitness/health, psycholinguistic/cultural belonging, national loyalty & identity are not in a new society simply for economic gains [as a foreign leech] but see themselves as part of the national community/family, and have taken the sensitive personal decision to completely blend in [assimilate] and be similar to the natives of their new societies where it reflects in their values, sentiments, perception, behaviour & nationalistic feelings.

Charles Darwin sur l'evolution par la sélection naturelle D'Purb Website

Traduction(EN): « I have called this principle, by which, each slight variation, if useful, is preserved by the term of natural selection. » -Charles Darwin / Note: Darwin devised the Theory of Evolution and was against bad breeding, and even supported a campaign to make marriage between cousins illegal due to the range of diseases and disabilities caused by consanguineous inbreeding [See: (1) Inbreeding, Consanguinity and Inherited Diseases, (2) The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty, (3) Royal dynasties as human inbreeding laboratories: the Habsburgs & (4) 75% of Jews Are Lactose Intolerant and 11 Other Facts 

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Bibliography

Boakes. R (1984) From Darwin to behaviourism: Psychology and the minds of animals. Cambridge University Press

Cohen D. (1979) J.B Watson: The Founder of Behaviourism. London, Boston and Henley

Gross. R (2005) Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. London, Hodder and Stoughton Educational

 

Mis à jour le Mardi, 1er Janvier 2019 | Danny J. D’Purb | DPURB.com

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7 réflexions sur “Essay // Psychological Explanations of Prejudice & Discrimination

  1. ‘Come, O men, to see the miracles that such studies will disclose in nature.’ – Leonardo da Vinci

    « A partir d’une petite graine, un tronc puissant peut pousser. » -Aeschylus

    Traduction(EN): “From a small seed a mighty trunk may grow.” -Aeschylus
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    “Progress is impossible without change, & those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.” -GB Shaw

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    «L’humanité est faite grande ou petite par sa propre volonté. »- Friedrich Schiller

    Traduction(EN): « Mankind is made great or little by its own will. » – Friedrich Schiller

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    Study of healthy adults finds that 2 types of extroverts have more brain matter than most common brains

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    Scientists discover 1,000 new “intelligence genes”

    Intelligence is associated with important economic and health-related life outcomes1. Despite intelligence having substantial heritability2 (0.54) and a confirmed polygenic nature, initial genetic studies were mostly underpowered3,4,5. Here we report a meta-analysis for intelligence of 78,308 individuals. We identify 336 associated SNPs (METAL P < 5 × 10−8) in 18 genomic loci, of which 15 are new. Around half of the SNPs are located inside a gene, implicating 22 genes, of which 11 are new findings. Gene-based analyses identified an additional 30 genes (MAGMA P < 2.73 × 10−6), of which all but one had not been implicated previously. We show that the identified genes are predominantly expressed in brain tissue, and pathway analysis indicates the involvement of genes regulating cell development (MAGMA competitive P = 3.5 × 10−6). Despite the well-known difference in twin-based heritability2 for intelligence in childhood (0.45) and adulthood (0.80), we show substantial genetic correlation (rg = 0.89, LD score regression P = 5.4 × 10−29). These findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of intelligence.

    Sniekers, S., Stringer, S., Watanabe, K., Jansen, P., Coleman, J., Krapohl, E., Taskesen, E., Hammerschlag, A., Okbay, A., Zabaneh, D., Amin, N., Breen, G., Cesarini, D., Chabris, C., Iacono, W., Ikram, M., Johannesson, M., Koellinger, P., Lee, J., Magnusson, P., McGue, M., Miller, M., Ollier, W., Payton, A., Pendleton, N., Plomin, R., Rietveld, C., Tiemeier, H., van Duijn, C. and Posthuma, D. (2017). Genome-wide association meta-analysis of 78,308 individuals identifies new loci and genes influencing human intelligence. Nature Genetics, 49(7), pp.1107-1112.

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    fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control.

    The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain.

    We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity.

    Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output.
    These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control.

    Bilingualism confers a variety of cognitive advantages (Abutalebi et al. 2009; Diamond 2010), including improved nonlinguistic executive skills (Bialystok et al. 2012), and delaying the appearance of symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (Schweizer et al. 2012).

    It has been suggested that the observed benefits of bilingualism stem from enhanced inhibitory control, required for continual selection between multiple languages in bilinguals (Green 1998). More recently, it has been proposed that the bilingual advantage arises from increased use of a more general “conflict monitoring” system in bilinguals compared with monolinguals (Costa et al. 2009; Hilchey and Klein 2011; Abutalebi et al. 2012b). Consistent with these suggestions, brain-imaging evidence indicates that bilingual language control depends upon a cortico-subcortical network incorporating the dorsal striatum, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the supplementary motor area (SMA) (Abutalebi and Green 2008; Kroll et al. 2008; Hervais-Adelman et al. 2011; Abutalebi et al. 2012a).

    These brain regions are known to participate in nonlinguistic executive-control processes such as response selection (Grahn et al. 2008), response inhibition (Aron 2008), and conflict monitoring (Botvinick et al. 2004;Abutalebi et al. 2012b).

    Our results provide new insights into the profound overlap between the neural bases of extreme language control and those of domain-general control of cognition and action. Indeed, recent evidence suggests that experienced simultaneous interpreters display enhanced cognitive flexibility compared even with bilingual individuals (Yudes et al. 2011;Stavrakaki et al. 2012).

    The recruitment of similar fronto-subcortical-cerebellar circuits during language and executive control provides powerful evidence that the continuous demands of language control in the multilingual brain, and associated experience-dependent plasticity, could underlie the nonlinguistic, executive advantages that have been observed in bilingual individuals, advantages that may also be protective in defying challenges posed by aging and even disease.

    Hervais-Adelman, A., Moser-Mercer, B., Michel, C. and Golestani, N. (2014). fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control. Cereb. Cortex, 25(12), pp.4727-4739.

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    L’ile Maurice/Mauritius | The “underground” yet world famous band, A Riot in Heaven, influenced by intricate rock themed musical arrangements and literary lyrics gives us a perfect example of artistic assimilation and Franco-British cultural synchronisation in the Western/English and French speaking world

    More here: « A Riot in Heaven’s Other Albums »

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    “Beautiful” by Marshall Bruce Mathers III AKA Eminem // Album: Relapse (2009)

    [Age Notice / 21+ : The artistic contents and package contain lyrics, opinions and poetry that may offend the more sensitive ones among us. Please bear in mind that this website takes no responsibility for any moral damage that may be caused by the entertainment product which is highly recommended for a mature & “sensible” audience.]

    Vincent Vinel – Lose Yourself

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    A generation of music artists reflect on the thinker, lyricist, vocalist & instrumentalist, Kurt D. Cobain

    Extract:

    -Ryan Hayes // Vocalist
    “I will never forget, as a kid, reading the liner notes of Incesticide (1992), where Kurt told his own fans that if they hated homosexuals, or people of different color, or women, to f*** off and stop buying Nirvana records. Seeing someone with that much fame be so unapologetic and true to his own beliefs, regardless of how it could potentially affect record sales or his popularity, was life changing for me…”

    -Phil Leavitt // Singer/Drummer “Kurt was an inspiration to so many different people. He had a way to connect with kids who didn’t fit in with society or felt lost. Nirvana was an outlet for that. Very real and that is why his music will live on forever…
    …”

    Full Article: http://crypticrock.com/reflecting-on-kurt-cobain-and-nirvana-20-years-later-2/

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    Science sans conscience égale science de l’inconscience… On envoie des pigeons défendre la colombe, qui avancent comme des pions défendre des bombes… » – MC Solaar

    [Translation: Science without conscience is equal to the science of the unconscious… We send pigeons in defence of the dove, who advance like tokens defending bombs…] – MC Solaar

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    The Role of Corticostriatal Systems in Speech Category Learning

    Abstract:

    One of the most difficult category learning problems for humans is learning nonnative speech categories. While feedback-based category training can enhance speech learning, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated neural and computational mechanisms underlying feedback-dependent speech category learning in adults. Positive feedback activated a large corticostriatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, caudate, putamen, and the ventral striatum. Successful learning was contingent upon the activity of domain-general category learning systems: the fast-learning reflective system, involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that develops and tests explicit rules based on the feedback content, and the slow-learning reflexive system, involving the putamen in which the stimuli are implicitly associated with category responses based on the reward value in feedback. Computational modeling of response strategies revealed significant use of reflective strategies early in training and greater use of reflexive strategies later in training. Reflexive strategy use was associated with increased activation in the putamen. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the reflexive corticostriatal learning system as a function of response strategy and proficiency during speech category learning.

    Yi, H., Maddox, W., Mumford, J. and Chandrasekaran, B. (2014). The Role of Corticostriatal Systems in Speech Category Learning. Cerebral Cortex, 26(4), pp.1409-1420.

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    Language Control in Bilinguals: Monitoring and Response Selection

    Abstract:

    Language control refers to the cognitive mechanism that allows bilinguals to correctly speak in one language avoiding interference from the nontarget language. Bilinguals achieve this feat by engaging brain areas closely related to cognitive control. However, 2 questions still await resolution: whether this network is differently engaged when controlling nonlinguistic representations, and whether this network is differently engaged when control is exerted upon a restricted set of lexical representations that were previously used (i.e., local control) as opposed to control of the entire language system (i.e., global control). In the present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated these 2 questions by employing linguistic and nonlinguistic blocked switching tasks in the same bilingual participants. We first report that the left prefrontal cortex is driven similarly for control of linguistic and nonlinguistic representations, suggesting its domain-general role in the implementation of response selection. Second, we propose that language control in bilinguals is hierarchically organized with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/presupplementary motor area acting as the supervisory attentional system, recruited for increased monitoring demands such as local control in the second language. On the other hand, prefrontal, inferior parietal areas and the caudate would act as the response selection system, tailored for language selection for both local and global control.

    Branzi, F., Della Rosa, P., Canini, M., Costa, A. and Abutalebi, J. (2015). Language Control in Bilinguals: Monitoring and Response Selection. Cerebral Cortex, 26(6), pp.2367-2380.

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    Testosterone in healthy men increases their brains’ response to threat

    Extract:

    “”We were able to show for the first time that increasing levels of testosterone within the normal physiological range can have a profound effect on brain circuits that are involved in threat-processing and human aggression,” said Carré, Assistant Professor at Nipissing University.

    “Understanding testosterone effects on the brain activity patterns associated with threat and aggression may help us to better understand the ‘fight or flight’ response in males that may be relevant to aggression and anxiety,” commented Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry…”

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    “Every man can, if he so desires, become the sculptor of his own brain.” ― Santiago Ramón y Cajal

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    Avant-garde French president, Nicolas Sarkozy on assimilation & identity:

    Translation: It is by assimilation that we become French citizens

    Translation: We are French citizens because we share the values & principles of the French civilisation with the French people

    Translation: We are citizens of the French republic because besides having a career and residency in France, we share a language & a culture

    Translation: We are not citizens of France simply because we have an address in France

    Translation: The Republic tells the citizen that to have rights you have to fulfil your duties

    Translation: The Republic is incompatible with constant assistance. A citizen receives, but he also gives… otherwise he is not really a ‘citizen’

    Translation: The Republic is the morality of the man of the citizens, it does not recognise any community, only citizens equal in rights

    Translation: To vote you should be a « citizen » in the Republic

  2. _____________________________________

    « I believe in evidence. I believe in observation, measurement and reasoning, confirmed by independent observers. I’ll believe anything, no matter how wild and ridiculous, if there is evidence for it. The wilder and more ridiculous something is however, the firmer and more solid the evidence will have to be. » -Isaac Asimov

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    «L’ingénierie géo-environnementale consiste à maximiser le potentiel des organismes et des ressources humaines en fonction de leurs aptitudes, leur sens d’identité et leur ajustement environnemental optimal, c’est-à-dire des organismes incompatibles en Europe de l’Ouest [en termes de patrimoine, d’appartenance, d’identité, de composition organique, de langue, de culture et de patriotisme] devront être relocalisés dans des environnements qui maximisent leur contribution à la civilisation humaine en étant synchronisés avec leurs besoins évolutifs et leurs modèles comportementaux, si nous les humains sur terre sont sérieux sur la création des sociétés réalistes et paisible qui respectent aussi la bonne science.

    C’est la seule façon de créer un écosystème harmonieux d’humains sur la planète Terre, et de contribuer ensemble au processus d’évolution: coopérer sur des objectifs communs [nature, environnement, climat, affaires, etc] de notre environnement et de nos sociétés respectives. Parce que n’importe quel système dans n’importe quelle partie du monde deviendra instable et se dégradera avec des organismes qui ne s’identifient pas pleinement à lui, mais qui se considèrent comme faisant partie de systèmes externes et qui ne vivent que pour promouvoir ces systèmes externes et inonder continuellement le système actuel d’organismes incompatibles pour rien d’autre que des besoins financiers tout en ignorant les nécessités civiques vitales pour maintenir un pays et son peuple. Cela rend un système instable, fragmenté et détruit la cohésion socio-linguistique et culturelle due à des organismes inadéquats, médiocres et inadaptés et à leurs rituels [systèmes de croyance incompatibles]. Un système avec des organismes qui ne sont pas entièrement axés sur l’envie de faire partie de son écosystème pour y contribuer, le renforcer, le stabiliser, le protéger et le promouvoir, finira par s’effondrer et être détruit. C’est une observation connue sous le nom de « raisonnement factuel »; c’est un raisonnement basé sur la logique et les faits. [Par exemple. « Si je lâche un œuf à 1m du sol, il tombera et se cassera. » – un énoncé logique].

    En tant qu’intellectuel, je fais tout simplement abstraction des études empiriques, des données et de la philosophie pour prévenir les catastrophes futures tout en corrigeant le chemin désastreux du présent parce qu’il commence à affecter sérieusement l’harmonie de l’environnement où j’habite et compte y rester, l’Europe de l’Ouest. Les ressources médiocres pour ne pas dire inférieures devraient être remplacés par des ressources plus efficaces et productive pour la stabilité, la longévité et l’innovation positive. Les autorités et les dirigeants publics devraient commencer à travailler sur un accord avec les Nations Unies sur les politiques obsolètes qui favorisent le déplacement irrationnel en masse des populations, et commencer à reconstruire des systèmes sophistiqués, intelligents et progressistes avec des campagnes de sensibilisation sur l’ingénierie géographique et la restructuration de la population mondiale. Une fois ceux-ci en place, nous pourrions alors fournir les groupes à relocaliser avec le soutien, la sécurité et l’aide pour s’installer et s’adapter à leurs nouveaux environnements, et même de l’aide en matière d’éducation linguistique et culturelle. Mais la relocalisation est une nécessité si nous, Européens de l’Ouest, sommes sérieux pour construire une nouvelle société basée sur la stabilité et le patrimoine tout en étant ouvert à l’innovation et aux multiples facettes de l’évolution organique, linguistique, philosophique et culturelle. » – Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN):

    « Geo-environmental engineering is about maximizing the potential of organisms and human resources according to their abilities, sense of identity and best environmental fit, that is to say, incompatible organisms in Western Europe [in terms of heritage, belonging, identity, organic composition, language, culture and patriotism] will have to be relocated in environments that maximize their contribution to human civilization by being synchronized with their evolutionary needs and behavioural patterns, if we as humans on Earth are serious about creating realistic and peaceful societies that also respect good science.

    It is the only way to create a harmonious ecosystem of humans on planet Earth, and to contribute together to the process of evolution: to cooperate on common goals [nature, environment, climate, business, etc.] from our respective environments and societies. Because any system in any part of the world will become unstable and will deteriorate with organisms that do not fully identify with it, but who consider themselves as part of external systems while living only to promote their external systems and continuously flood the current system with further incompatible organisms for nothing else but financial needs while disregarding all other civic necessities that are essential in maintaining a country and its people. This renders a system unstable, fragmented and destroys socio-linguistic and cultural cohesion due to inadequate, mediocre and unsuitable organisms and their rituals [incompatible belief systems]. A system with organisms that are not entirely focused in being an integral part of its ecosystem to contribute, strengthen, stabilize, protect and promote it will eventually collapse and be destroyed. This is an observation known as « factual reasoning »; it is reasoning based on logic and facts. [For example. « If I drop an egg 1m above the ground, it will fall and break. » – a logical statement].

    As an intellectual, I am simply using the knowledge gained from empirical studies, data and philosophy to prevent future disasters while correcting the disastrous path of the present, because they are beginning to seriously affect the harmony of the environment where I live and call home, Western Europe. Inferior mediocre resources should be replaced by more effective and productive resources for stability, longevity and positive innovation. Authorities and public leaders should start work on an agreement with the UN regarding outdated policies that promote the irrational mass displacement of people, and start rebuilding sophisticated, intelligent and progressive systems with awareness campaigns on geographic engineering and the restructuring of the world’s population. Once these are in place, we could then provide the groups to relocate with support, security and help to settle in and adapt to their new environments, and even support with educational, linguistic and cultural resources/staff. But relocation is a necessity if we, Western Europeans, are serious about building a new society based on stability and heritage while being open to innovation and the many facets of organic, linguistic, philosophical and cultural evolution. » – Danny J. D’Purb

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    “Le language, la seule capacité sophistiquée qui sépare les hommes des animaux. Sans la philosophie et la profondeur linguistique, vous restez un animal … peut-être bien formé, ou techniquement doué avec un bon salaire, mais un animal néanmoins. Le discours ne devrait pas être une horreur pour les tympans occidentaux, c’est ce qu’on appelle un usage grammaticalement incorrect du langage. Pour que le langage soit considéré comme correct grammaticalement, il devrait être parlé de la façon dont il était censé être parlé. Et, John B. Thompson est un sociolinguiste de Cambridge, et Pierre Bourdieu un sociolinguiste de Paris … mais vous, qui et quoi exactement êtes-vous? Diplomatie? J’apprécie … mais comment vont parler vos légions à la fin? Avec des signes et des dessins? D’ailleurs, en tant qu’homme de lettres et de mots, je pensais qu’ils auraient déjà compris que la communication [l’héritage vocale et écrite] est vitale pour les vraies relations humaines et aussi dans la création d’un environnement harmonieux pour un groupe harmonieux.” -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN): “Language, the only sophisticated ability that separates men from animals. Without philosophy & linguistic depth, you remain an animal… maybe well trained, or technically gifted with a good salary, but an animal nonetheless. Speech should not be a horror to Western eardrums, this is what is called as grammatically incorrect usage of language. For language to be considered correct grammatically, it should be spoken in the way it was meant to be spoken. And, John B. Thompson is a sociolinguist from Cambridge, and Pierre Bourdieu a sociolinguist from Paris… but you, who & what exactly are you? Diplomacy? I appreciate … but how will your legions talk in the end? With signs and drawings? Besides, as a man of letters and words, I thought that they would already have understood that communication [vocal & written heritage] is vital in regards to true human relations but also in the creation of a harmonious environment for a harmonious group.” -Danny J. D’Purb

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    « Le défi de la modernité est de vivre sans illusions et sans être désillusionné. » – Antonio Gramsci

    Traduction(EN): “The challenge of modernity is to live without illusions and without becoming disillusioned.” -Antonio Gramsci

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    « Les citoyens du tiers monde doivent bouger vers une économie où toutes les ressources sont partagées par tous les citoyens. » – Che Guevara

    Traduction(EN): « Third world citizens must move towards an economy where all resources are shared by all citizens. » -Che Guevara

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    L’apparence physique, cette discrimination négligée

    Dans «La société du paraître», Jean-François Amadieu attire l’attention sur le rôle de l’apparence physique (beauté, poids, taille, âge, etc.) dans la réussite sociale. La période de tension identitaire est-elle propice à la reconnaissance de ces formes négligées de discriminations?

    Le café où j’ai interviewé Jean-François Amadieu, professeur en sciences de gestion, auteur de La société du paraître, a servi de cas d’étude pour vérifier les observations qu’il popularise dans ses travaux depuis une quinzaine d’années. Rive gauche parisienne, près de l’université Panthéon-Sorbonne où il enseigne, les riverains sont beaux. «Dans les quartiers comme celui où nous sommes, il n’y a pas de personnes obèses, remarque-t-il. Chez les CSP+ les taux d’obésité dégringolent au-delà de 3.800 euros par mois.»

    La question de l’apparence physique n’est pas une question de riches pour autant. Une serveuse peut être désavantagée en raison d’un surpoids, d’un visage jugé disgracieux, d’une origine ethnique à laquelle sont associés des stéréotypes négatifs, d’un âge qui sera jugé trop avancé pour que le candidat soit perçu comme efficace. «La masse des victimes de discrimination en raison de l’apparence ne se manifeste pas», écrit Amadieu. Et à le lire nous serions presque tous concernés.

    Au fil des années, note l’auteur, Le Grand Journal de Canal+ a changé de présentateur mais le casting du premier rang s’en est tenu à une formule immuable: jeunes, minces, beaux. Amadieu utilise cette image pour évoquer la relégation d’une partie du public qui, de fait, forme une large «majorité silencieuse» de Français interdits de représentation dans les médias et confrontés un jour où l’autre, à leur insu ou pas, à une forme de discrimination sur la base de leur apparence. Ce «poids des apparences», titre de son précédent livre, pèse lourdement sur le destin des individus. Il fait l’objet de dénis fréquents, parce qu’il est trop inconfortable, pour une société dont l’égalité est une valeur centrale, de considérer que le tour de taille des individus, la symétrie de leur visage ou l’apparence juvénile jouent un rôle dans la répartition des ressources.

    Full Article: http://www.slate.fr/story/128933/discriminations-apparence-physique

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    « Let go of what you can’t have and you will be able to embrace what is well within your reach. » – Jerry Corstens

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    George Lincoln Rockwell’s vision seemed similar with the prominent Black nationalist, Marcus Garvey who founded the Pan-Africanism movement, the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). Garvey also founded the Black Star Line, a shipping and passenger line which promoted the return of the African people to their ancestral lands. « Garveyism » wanted all people of Black African ancestry to « redeem » the nations of Africa and for the European colonial powers to leave the African continent. Marcus Garvey’s essential ideas about Africa were stated in an editorial in « Negro World » entitled « African Fundamentalism », where he wrote: « Our [negroes] union must know no clime, boundary, or nationality… »

    Source: Essay // History on Western Philosophy, Religious cultures, Science, Medicine & Secularisation

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  3. Jewish Rabbi Yosef Tzvi Ben Porat Tells How Hitler Was Right to Hate the Jews, and why they should retain the mistakes of the past and re-assimilate in Israel

    Ézéchiel 5 – Bible du Semeur

    Extract:

    « …Voici ce que déclare le Seigneur, l’Éternel : Voilà Jérusalem ; je l’avais placée au milieu des nations, avec de vastes contrées autour d’elle.
    6 Mais elle s’est révoltée contre mes commandements avec plus de perversité que les autres nations, elle a violé mes lois plus que les pays qui l’entourent, car ses habitants ont méprisé mes commandements, et n’ont pas suivi mes lois.
    7 C’est pourquoi le Seigneur, l’Éternel, déclare : Parce que vous avez été plus rebelles que les nations qui vous entourent, que vous n’avez ni obéi à mes lois, ni appliqué mes commandements, que vous n’avez même pas agi selon le droit des peuples qui vous entourent,
    8 à cause de cela, moi, le Seigneur, l’Éternel, je vous dis : Je vais me tourner contre vous. J’exécuterai au milieu de vous ma sentence sous les yeux des nations. »

    Link: https://www.levangile.com/Bible-SEM-26-5-1-complet-Contexte-oui.htm

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    Le nombre de lieux d’où les Juifs ont été expulsés au cours de l’histoire humaine / The Number of Places From Which The Jews Have Been Expelled Throughout Human History

    En 1290, le roi Édouard 1er publia un décret expulsant tous les Juifs d’Angleterre. Cet décret d’expulsion resta en vigueur pendant le reste du Moyen-Âge. Cet édit n’était pas un incident isolé, mais l’aboutissement de plus de 200 ans de persécution accrue. Oliver Cromwell a permis aux Juifs de retourner en Angleterre en 1657, plus de 360 ​​ans après leur bannissement par Édouard Ier, en échange d’argent. / In 1290, King Edward I issued an edict expelling all Jews from England.The expulsion edict remained in force for the rest of the Middle Ages.The edict was not an isolated incident, but the culmination of over 200 years of increased persecution.Oliver Cromwell permitted Jews to return to England in 1657, over 360 years after their banishment by Edward I, in exchange for finance.

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    Jews Are a ‘Race,’ Genes Reveal

    Extract:

    In his new book, “Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People,” Harry Ostrer, a medical geneticist and professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, claims that Jews are different, and the differences are not just skin deep. Jews exhibit, he writes, a distinctive genetic signature. Considering that the Nazis tried to exterminate Jews based on their supposed racial distinctiveness, such a conclusion might be a cause for concern. But Ostrer sees it as central to Jewish identity.

    “Who is a Jew?” has been a poignant question for Jews throughout our history. It evokes a complex tapestry of Jewish identity made up of different strains of religious beliefs, cultural practices and blood ties to ancient Palestine and modern Israel. But the question, with its echoes of genetic determinism…

    …Geneticists have long been aware that certain diseases, from breast cancer to Tay-Sachs, disproportionately affect Jews. Ostrer, who is also director of genetic and genomic testing at Montefiore Medical Center, goes further, maintaining that Jews are a homogeneous group with all the scientific trappings of what we used to call a “race.”

    For most of the 3,000-year history of the Jewish people, the notion of what came to be known as “Jewish exceptionalism” was hardly controversial. Because of a history of inmarriage and cultural isolation, imposed or self-selected, Jews were considered by gentiles (and usually referred to themselves) as a “race.” Scholars from Josephus to Disraeli proudly proclaimed their membership in “the tribe.”

    Ostrer explains how this concept took on special meaning in the 20th century, as genetics emerged as a viable scientific enterprise. Jewish distinctiveness might actually be measurable empirically. In “Legacy,” he first introduces us to Maurice Fishberg, an upwardly mobile Russian-Jewish immigrant to New York at the fin de siècle. Fishberg fervently embraced the anthropological fashion of the era, measuring skull sizes to explain why Jews seemed to be afflicted with more diseases than other groups — what he called the “peculiarities of the comparative pathology of the Jews.” It turns out that Fishberg and his contemporary phrenologists were wrong: Skull shape provides limited information about human differences. But his studies ushered in a century of research linking Jews to genetics.

    “Legacy” may cause its readers discomfort. To some Jews, the notion of a genetically related people is an embarrassing remnant of early Zionism that came into vogue at the height of the Western obsession with race, in the late 19th century. Celebrating blood ancestry is divisive, they claim: The authors of “The Bell Curve” were vilified 15 years ago for suggesting that genes play a major role in IQ differences among racial groups.

    …“On the other, it might provide fodder for anti-Semitism by providing evidence of a genetic basis for undesirable traits that are present among some Jews. These issues will newly challenge the liberal view that humans are created equal but with genetic liabilities.”

    …Jews, he notes, are one of the most distinctive population groups in the world because of our history of endogamy. Jews — Ashkenazim in particular — are relatively homogeneous despite the fact that they are spread throughout Europe and have since immigrated to the Americas and back to Israel. The Inquisition shattered Sephardi Jewry, leading to far more incidences of intermarriage and to a less distinctive DNA.

    It’s stamped on our DNA. As Ostrer explains in fascinating detail, threads of Jewish ancestry link the sizable Jewish communities of North America and Europe to Yemenite and other Middle Eastern Jews who have relocated to Israel, as well as to the black Lemba of southern Africa and to India’s Cochin Jews.

    Why, then, are Jews so different looking, usually sharing the characteristics of the surrounding populations? Think of red-haired Jews, Jews with blue eyes or the black Jews of Africa. Like any cluster — a genetic term Ostrer uses in place of the more inflammatory “race” — Jews throughout history moved around and fooled around, although mixing occurred comparatively infrequently until recent decades. Although there are identifiable gene variations that are common among Jews, we are not a “pure” race. The time machine of our genes may show that most Jews have a shared ancestry that traces back to ancient Palestine but, like all of humanity, Jews are mutts.

    About 80% of Jewish males and 50% of Jewish females trace their ancestry back to the Middle East… America has the largest concentration of Jews outside Israel…

    Full Article: https://forward.com/culture/155742/jews-are-a-race-genes-reveal/

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    « Nous comprenons que la fraternité Juive milite pour la protection de leur communauté et leur propagation globalement, et a une grande influence sur les compagnies « tech », les secteurs financiers et les médias des grandes nations de l’Ouest qu’elle a infiltré aux fils des années. Nous n’avons rien contre le choix de religion d’un primate sur terre aussi longtemps qu’elle respecte l’authenticité du patrimoine de l’Europe de l’Ouest Chrétienne. Nous croyons fermement dans le droit de publier et débattre toutes les perspectives [pas seulement les perspectives juives et communistes] et de discuter l’héritage éducationnel, culturel, socio-linguistique & religieuse des fondateurs de l’Europe de l’Ouest et ses implications citoyenne & national. Nous resterons une communauté qui publie la vérité [qu’elle soit offensante ou pas – nous sommes tous censés être adultes sur ce site de toute façon] pour que le monde puisse en discuter.

    Les opinions des personnages historiques ne sont pas nécessairement les miennes, bien que je sois d’accord avec beaucoup d’entre elles et que je les crois aussi. Nous espérons que nous ne devrons pas nous retrouver devant la cour des imbéciles – je vous remercie de comprendre que le but est de faire circuler l’information dans toute sa vérité et non pas d’inciter à la haine. Si vous êtes un journaliste confus qui ne comprend toujours pas toutes les subtilités de la langue française, alors posez nous une question en utilisant la section ‘À Propos’ du site. » – Danny J. D’Purb

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    Traduction (EN): « We understand that the Jewish fraternity advocates for the protection of their community and its spread globally, and has a great influence on the « tech » companies, the financial sectors and the media of the great nations of the West that it has infiltrated over the years. We have nothing against the choice of religion of a primate on earth as long as it respects the authenticity of the heritage of Western European Christianity. We firmly believe in the right to publish and debate all perspectives [not just those of Jews and communists] and discuss the educational, cultural, socio-linguistic & religious heritage of the founders of Western Europe and its implications [what it implies] in terms of contribution from its citizen at a national level. We will remain a community that publishes the truth [whether offensive or not – we are all expected to be adults on this website anyway] for the world to discuss.

    The opinions of historical figures are not necessarily mine, although I do agree with a good deal of them and believe in them too. We hope not to have to end up in the fools court – I thank you for understanding that the purpose is to circulate information in all its truth and not to incite hate. If you are a confused journalist who still cannot manage to grasp all the intricacies of the English language, then ask a question via the ‘À Propos’ section of the website » – Danny J. D’Purb

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    Jew World Order vs Hitler

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    Transfer Agreement between the National Socialists & the Zionists (Jews) in 1933 was to simply transfer the Jews to Palestine with all of their wealth intact in full diplomatic procedures without any harm done to a single jew

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    Discover the lies behind the demonisation of Adolf Hitler: As many as 150000 Jews gave up their heritage, assimilated in German society & served in Hitlers military against Communism & Bolshevism, some with the Nazi leader’s explicit consent

    https://thegreateststorynevertold.tv/as-many-as-150000-jews-served-in-hitlers-military/

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    Comment j’ai cessé d’être juif

    « Supportant mal que les lois israéliennes m’imposent l’appartenance à une ethnie fictive, supportant encore plus mal d’apparaître auprès du reste du monde comme membre d’un club d’élus, je souhaite démissionner et cesser de me considérer comme juif ». Shlomo Sand

    Article: https://www.franceculture.fr/conferences/iremmo/comment-jai-cesse-detre-juif

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    The late American, George L. Rockwell voicing his opinions about jews, the fast-growing negro population problems& National Socialism in the USA at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, 1966

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    « Baai » performed by Emmanuel Jal with Abdel Gadir Salim

    Our hidden Neandertal DNA may increase risk of allergies, depression

    Extract:

    Depressed? Your inner Neandertal may be to blame. Modern humans met and mated with these archaic people in Europe or Asia about 50,000 years ago, and researchers have long suspected that genes picked up in these trysts might be shaping health and well-being today. Now, a study in the current issue of Science details their impact. It uses a powerful new method for scanning the electronic health records of 28,000 Americans to show that some Neandertal gene variants today can raise the risk of depression, skin lesions, blood clots, and other disorders.

    Neandertal genes aren’t all bad. “These variants sometimes protect against a disease, sometimes make people more susceptible to disease,” says paleogeneticist Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. Two other new studies identified three archaic genes that boost immune response. And most archaic genes that persist in humans were likely beneficial in prehistoric times. But some now cause disease because modern lifestyles and environments are so different.

    Living people carry only trace amounts of Neandertal DNA, which makes its impact on health more striking. “The Neandertal genetic contribution to present-day people seems to have larger physiological effects than I would have naïvely thought,” says Pääbo, who helped launch this avenue of research by sequencing the first ancient genomes but was not involved in these studies. On average, Europeans and Asians have inherited about 1.5% of their genomes from Neandertals. Island Melanesians carry an additional 2% to 3% of DNA inherited from another extinct group, the Denisovans. Most Africans lack this archaic DNA because the interbreeding happened after modern humans left Africa.

    Full Article: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/02/our-hidden-neandertal-dna-may-increase-risk-allergies-depression

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    The mind grows with new ideas, but turns dark by embracing unethical ones. Open your mind when you must and close it when needed.

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    The Intellectual Enlightenment that started in 18th century Europe lectured by Dr. Alan C. Kors

    #WesternHeritage #Tradition #Education #Society

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    Richard Dawkins: Why are there still Chimpanzees?

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    A depiction that human face has undergone significant evolution within the last 6 million years.

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    Craniofacial genetics: Where have we been and where are we going?

    Looking at faces is always illuminating. Perhaps, this is because our faces reveal so much about us, ranging from our evolutionary history to our embryological development, genetic endowment, propensity for disease, current health status, and exposures over our lifespan. The structure of our faces may even reveal insights into our personalities—an idea that stretches back to the ancient Greeks. The face is a complex constellation of parts serving functions as diverse as sight, hearing, smell, breathing, nourishment and digestion, protection, and communication. Despite our collective fascination, we still have limited understanding of the molecular machinery that controls how our faces form or how morphological variation in facial features arises, from the typical and often subtle differences that endow each of us with our unique facial appearance to the rare craniofacial malformations seen in the clinic. However, we are making incredible progress in these areas, and the pace of discovery is poised to accelerate rapidly, facilitated by the emergence of high-throughput experimental methods, advances in computational modeling, and the investment and availability of large-scale craniofacial data resources, (e.g., the FaceBase Consortium).

    Weinberg, S., Cornell, R. and Leslie, E. (2018). Craniofacial genetics: Where have we been and where are we going?. PLOS Genetics, 14(6), p.e1007438.

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    María Martinón-Torres weighs up an original study on where we come from – and where we’re going

    Many people assume that palaeoanthropology deals only with the past. The thinking goes that, beyond a curious, somehow romantic interest in the early accounts of our ancestors, there is not much that this discipline can add to the understanding of present-day humans. South Korean palaeoanthropologist Sang-Hee Lee disputes that view in Close Encounters with Humankind. She shows us to ourselves as the living (and, importantly, still changing) outcome of a wonderful interplay between biology and natural selection over the roughly 6 million years since hominins diverged from the chimpanzee lineage…

    Full Article: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-01807-7

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    “Dans les questions de science, l’autorité de mille ne vaut pas l’humble raisonnement d’un seul individu.” -Galilée

    Traduction(EN): “In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual.” -Galileo Galilei”

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    Understanding Evolution through Dinosaurs

    When your focus is on correcting others, you won’t be able to correct yourself.

    Don’t look around to find that which can only be found within yourself.

    What people say about you is a manifestation of their own thought. It says more about them than about you. Learn not to take it personally.


    Social realists, they will add a sense of political realism to your views and actions.

    Translation: “Badly managed migratory influxes have created communitarianism…”

    Translation: “We cannot imagine a political team organised vertically when the society itself is divided into sections.”

    Translation: QUESTION ASKED to NS: “Why integrate when we are not even accepted by society?”

    Translation: “I want everyone to be able to choose their life, speed & orientation. There’s the society that should unite us all.”

    Translation: “Integration is not a choice, it’s a duty.”

  4. Bernard Kouchner, Nicolas Sarkozy’s former Head of Foreign Affairs believes the President was badly hit by the French public’s racism & prejudice in his early years for being the son of a Hungarian & the grandson of a Jew; but has now left all that behind as obstacles he clearly overcame.

    Translation: We have allowed too many foreigners to believe that they could be French by staying who they are. It’s a lie!

    Translation: To be French you have to embrace the French lifestyle, marry the language & the French culture

    Translation: The Republic is incompatible with assistantship. A citizen receives. But he also gives, otherwise he is not really a citizen

    Translation: In the Politics we are creating, everyone will know that they are more intelligent with others than alone

    Translation: The Republic has 1000 faces, but only one soul focussed on justice and human progress

    Translation: Absolute transparency is totalitarian. The Republic respects each and everyone’s right to have their secret gardens

    Translation: In France, we are different from others. To live, we have to eat, drink but we also have to cultivate ourselves.

    Translation: We are the heirs of Victor Hugo. We have a vocation for openness; but we expect to be respected by those we accept.

    Translation: In my conceived Republic, we are on the side of the Security forces. Citizens should not fear the Police.

    Translation: Like all countries in the world, France has the right to chose who she wants and who she does not

    Translation: The need for love has nothing to do with sexual orientation

    Translation: We are humanists, we believe in Life!

    Translation: I do not want us to be trapped inside a France locked & divided into communities. I do not want anyone to be excluded!

    Translation: The desire to be together must be more important that our differences & divisions.

    Translation: Do not allow anyone to speak up for you. Let’s mobilise! Our Political family needs you! The Republic needs you!

    Translation: I need your mobilisation, your engagement, your trust!

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    «Oui … les hommes et les femmes qui en font le choix et qui ont l’éducation et l’intelligence nécessaires pour les guider, se construisent et modifient leurs registres d’identification culturelle / nationale lorsqu’ils ont la capacité de développement, l’héritage linguistique et les gènes de l’intellect avec une maîtrise de l’expression et de la parole. Ce n’est qu’alors qu’ils parviennent à représenter une nation ou un empire [ou deux?]. En 2018, en ce qui concerne ‘La Théorie Organique’ [qui met l’accent sur la singularité de l’organisme individuel], il n’y a pas de débat entre intellectuels en psychologie, mais simplement la découverte des nouvelles perspectives mécaniques / scientifiques qu’elle introduit pour expliquer la conception psychologique et philosophique de l’individu – comme l’a dit Carl Sagan: «La science est une façon de penser beaucoup plus qu’un corpus de connaissances. Donc, la construction [formation], qui «peut être» mécanique et structuré dans son application [p. Ex. apprentissage à distance par texte / vidéo / audio], se développe indirectement pour créer et donner une dimension socioculturelle à l’individu une fois que les compétences souhaitées ont été pleinement adoptées, maîtrisées et déployées dans la vie. Le terme «social» est également beaucoup trop vague pour être important en tant que tel… le terme «social» peut simplement être défini comme des interactions [de tous types] entre des organismes. Ainsi, le terme «social» n’est pas vraiment valable scientifiquement et manque de précision, car il peut faire référence à un large éventail de variables. Il ne nous reste alors que les choix, les langues et les capacités de développement personnel de l’individu [par exemple. de synthèse culturelle et psycholinguistique]: les principaux facteurs observables dans l’explication psychologique et philosophique de sa conception singulière [à noter que chaque conception est unique pour l’organisme humain individuel tel que ses empreintes digitales, la forme de son crâne ou la structure de son corps: singularité]. Ainsi: formation, méritocratie, ordre et amour! Simple… en théorie!» – Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN): « Yes… men and women who make the choice and who have the necessary education and intelligence to guide them, build themselves and change cultural / national identification registers when they have the capacity for development, the linguistic heritage and the genetics of intellect with a mastery of expression and speech. It is only then that they manage to represent a nation or an empire [or two?]. In 2018, as far as ‘The Organic Theory’ [which focuses on the singularity of the individual organism] is concerned, there is no debate between intellectuals in psychology, but simply the discovery of the new mechanical / scientific perspectives that it introduces to explain the psychological and philosophical conception of the individual – as Carl Sagan phrased it, ‘Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge’. Construction [training], which ‘can be’ mechanical and structured in its application [e.g. distance learning by text / video / audio], develops indirectly to create and give a socio-cultural dimension to the individual once the desired skills have been fully adopted, mastered, and deployed in life. The term ‘social’ is also far too vague to be important as such… the term ‘social’ can simply be defined as the interaction [of all types] between organisms. So the term ‘social’ is not really valid scientifically and it lacks precision itself since it may refer to a wide range of variables. What we are left with then is only the individual’s choices, language(s) & abilities of personal development [e.g. cultural & psycholinguistic synthesis]: the major observable factors in the psychological & philosophical explanation of his/her singular conception [to note that each conception is unique to the individual human organism such as his/her fingerprints, skull shape, or body structure: singularity]. Thus: training, meritocracy, order and love! Simple… in theory! » -Danny J. D’Purb

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    Don’t let your mind be occupied by blame towards others. A liberated mind is a forgiving one.

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    « Change Your Attachment Style to Have a Better Life » by Dr. L. Firestone

    “What if we could identify the filter that shapes our perception of the world and change it so as to have a better life? We are born into the social context of our families and quickly need to /develop strategies to get our needs met by our caretakers. Depending on our early emotional environment, we make the best adaptation to get our needs met by the potential caretakers we have available to us, usually our parents or other relatives. We are incredibly adaptive creatures, which is quite possibly our most unique feature as humans. Our early interactions create internal working models of how our future relationships will transpire and of how we will go about getting our needs met. Research has demonstrated that these childhood relationships shape our perceptions of others and our understanding of their minds and motives. These internal working models also influence the ways others are likely to treat us and perceive us…”

    Full Article: https://www.psychalive.org/change-attachment-style-better-life/

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    “Savoir Aimer” courtesy of Florent Pagny // Album: Savoir Aimer (1997)

    “It is the artist who tries to gradually accustom people to the possibilities of a better state of things.” ― C.A. Dawson Scott

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    Affective Priming

    Extract:

    “This blog presents a third example of priming known generally as the affective priming, also known as emotional priming. On page 230 of my book, Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychotherapy: Network Principles for a Unified Theory, I describe emotional priming as follows:

    Emotional priming entails the repeated presentation of words that activate emotions. For example, Power et al. (1991) used sets of words to activate the following four basic emotions: (a) happiness, love, joy, pleasure; (b) sadness, grief, misery, depression; (c) anger, hate, jealousy, aggression; and (d) fear, panic, terror, anxiety…

    Affective priming is a robust method for activating brain mechanisms that modify how we think and feel about a wide variety of matters…

    Full Article: http://scitechconnect.elsevier.com/affective-priming/

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    Functional Neural Plasticity and Associated Changes in Positive Affect After Compassion Training

    Abstract:

    The development of social emotions such as compassion is crucial for successful social interactions as well as for the maintenance of mental and physical health, especially when confronted with distressing life events. Yet, the neural mechanisms supporting the training of these emotions are poorly understood. To study affective plasticity in healthy adults, we measured functional neural and subjective responses to witnessing the distress of others in a newly developed task (Socio-affective Video Task). Participants’ initial empathic responses to the task were accompanied by negative affect and activations in the anterior insula and anterior medial cingulate cortex—a core neural network underlying empathy for pain. Whereas participants reacted with negative affect before training, compassion training increased positive affective experiences, even in response to witnessing others in distress. On the neural level, we observed that, compared with a memory control group, compassion training elicited activity in a neural network including the medial orbitofrontal cortex, putamen, pallidum, and ventral tegmental area—brain regions previously associated with positive affect and affiliation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the deliberate cultivation of compassion offers a new coping strategy that fosters positive affect even when confronted with the distress of others.

    Klimecki, O., Leiberg, S., Lamm, C. and Singer, T. (2012). Functional Neural Plasticity and Associated Changes in Positive Affect After Compassion Training. Cerebral Cortex, 23(7), pp.1552-1561.

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    Warm thanks: Gratitude expression facilitates social affiliation in new relationships via perceived warmth.

    Abstract:

    Recent theorizing on the nature and function of gratitude (the find-remind-and-bind theory; Algoe, 2012) stipulates that expressing gratitude should serve to alert previously unacquainted peers to the potential for a high-quality social bond (i.e., a find function). Although the logic of this premise is supported by extant research, it has not, as yet, been tested empirically. In the current study, participants received a note from a previously unacquainted peer that contained an expression of gratitude (or did not) with regard to prior benefits provided by the participant. After providing ratings of the peer and ostensibly completing the study, participants were given an opportunity to spontaneously give their contact information to the peer, which served as a behavioral measure of affiliation. In line with the proposed find function of gratitude expressions, recipients of expressions of gratitude were more likely to extend the effort to continue the relationship with the novel peer by providing that peer with a means to contact them. This experiment also provided evidence that perceptions of interpersonal warmth (e.g., friendliness, thoughtfulness) serve as the mechanism via which gratitude expressions facilitate affiliation: insofar as gratitude expressions signaled interpersonal warmth of the expresser, they prompted investment in the burgeoning social bond. As such, these findings provide the first empirical evidence regarding 1 of the 3 central premises of the find-remind-and-bind theory of gratitude (Algoe, 2012) in the context of novel relationships.

    Williams, L. and Bartlett, M. (2015). Warm thanks: Gratitude expression facilitates social affiliation in new relationships via perceived warmth. Emotion, 15(1), pp.1-5.

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    Norms, self-sanctioning, and contributions to the public good

    Abstract:

    The relationship between norms, self-sanctioning, and people’s decisions about contributing to public goods is complex and often misunderstood in the public goods literature. We develop a model in which individuals self-sanction (e.g. feel guilty) for contributing less than a subjective norm level of contribution to a public good. From the model we derive the following testable hypotheses: an increase in one’s perception of the norm level of contribution to the public good (1) induces negative self-sanctioning and (2) will lead one to contribute more to the public good, and (3) that contributing to the public good induces positive self-sanctioning. To test these hypotheses, we elicit stated preferences for contributions to an organization which offsets carbon emissions and a proxy for self-sanctioning, respondent “self-image.” We fail to reject each hypothesis. Our results complement existing studies on how to encourage contributions to the public good.

    Interis, M. and Haab, T. (2014). Norms, self-sanctioning, and contributions to the public good. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, pp.271-278.

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    Human Socio-Psychological Evolution & Enhancement

    “From the simple & logical perspective that our brain/mind/’psyche’ adjusts constantly to our Environment [social, physical, mental, philosophical, ‘spiritual’] and learns [never ending process] throughout our lifetime; an individual human organism that willingly chooses to restrict its Socio-Psychological Reality to the boundaries of the Mental Conditioning of a Geographical Group [Groups & Sub-Groups], restricts its own capabilities [education, experience, innovation, cultural blending/expansion, discovery, human understanding, creativity…].

    Systematic & Controlled fusion would likely benefit the Human World in an Era thriving on [unfortunately, dangerously at times] Technology, Science, Innovation, Food, Architecture, Arts, Exploration, Engineering, Creativity, Philosophy & Sharing [Cultural/Group expertise/experience].”

    Topic: Engineering Modern Geo-Environmental & Socio-Political Fusion: A Gradual Process aimed at the Human Civilization’s Stability & Synchronised Efficiency

    – Danny J. D’Purb / November 11, 2014

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    « La vérité et le mensonge sont des attributs de la parole, pas des choses, et là où la parole n’est pas, il n’y a ni vérité ni mensonge ». – Thomas Hobbes

    Traduction(EN): » »True and False are attributes of speech, not of things. And where speech is not, there is neither Truth nor Falsehood. » – Thomas Hobbes

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    A Prolegomenon to the Construct of the Native Speaker: Heritage Speaker Bilinguals are Natives Too!

    Abstract:

    This Forum challenges the generally accepted position in the linguistic sciences—conscious or not—that monolingualism and nativeness are essentially synonymous in an exclusive way. We discuss two consequences of our position that naturalistic bilinguals and multilinguals exposed to a language in early childhood are also native speakers: (i) that bi-/multilinguals have multiple native languages; and (ii) nativeness can be applicable to a state of linguistic knowledge that is characterized by significant differences to the monolingual baseline.

    Rothman, J. and Treffers-Daller, J. (2014). A Prolegomenon to the Construct of the Native Speaker: Heritage Speaker Bilinguals are Natives Too!. Applied Linguistics, 35(1), pp.93-98.

    While Communicative patterns in #Human #Primates are defined by factors such as #Culture & #Environment; #creativity & #IQ remain #constant.

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    “It is impossible to design a system so perfect that no-one needs to be good.” — T.S. Eliot

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    Transforming conflict into peace

    My research has focused on the use of participatory media in conflict-affected communities. The aim has been to demonstrate that involving community members in a media production provides them with a platform to tell their story about the violence they have experienced and the causes they believe led to it. This facilitates the achievement of a shared understanding of the conflict between groups that were fighting and lays the foundations for the establishment of a new social fabric that encompasses peace.

    This is, by no means, an easy process. It is also one that requires the co-implementation of different types of interventions that strive to rebuild peace in those areas. However, what is often lacking in post-conflict contexts is a communication channel that allows people to reconnect. In the aftermath of civil violence, communities are left divided and in need of information to make sense of the brutality they have undergone. Victims and perpetrators live side by side as neighbours, and dynamics based on resentment and hatred hinder the return to a peaceful environment. The mass media are often unable to address the tensions that have remained within communities as a legacy of the conflict; hence, it is crucial to provide a platform where formerly opposing groups can articulate their views.

    By drawing on the experience of a participatory video project conducted in the Rift Valley of Kenya after the 2007/2008 Post-Election Violence, when the country underwent a period of intense ethnic violence, I was able to demonstrate the potential of Communication for Social Change in post-conflict settings through the use of participatory video.

    Social change is a process that seeks to transform the unequal power relations that affect a community. The literature on conflict studies tells us that, in order to achieve social change, what firstly needs to be targeted in conflict interventions is change both at the individual and relational level…

    Full Article: https://blog.oup.com/2014/08/social-change-peace/

  5. Negative Life Experiences May Contribute to Bipolar Disorder

    http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176%2Fappi.pn.2014.6b2

    “Negativity dampens our spirits. Positivity lifts them up. Always look for uplifting thoughts in any situation.” -Jerry Corstens

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    Entre 1982 et 1986, deux hommes, John Duffy et David Mulcahy, ont commis une série de viols et de meurtres sur des femmes à Londres : ils ciblaient leurs victimes dans les gares. Ils étaient connus sous le nom de «Tueurs de voies ferrées».

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    “Les maladies de l’âme sont à la fois plus dangereuses et plus nombreuses que celles du corps.” – Cicero
    Traduction(EN): “Diseases of the soul are both more dangerous and more numerous than those of the body.” – Cicero

    “Vous n’atteindrez jamais votre destination si vous vous arrêtez et lancez des pierres sur tous les chiens qui aboient.” – Winston S. Churchill
    Traduction(EN): “You will never reach your destination if you stop and throw stones at every dog that barks.” – Winston S. Churchill

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    An essay on intelligence

    “The story of intelligence begins with Plato. In all his writings, he ascribes a very high value to thinking, declaring (through the mouth of Socrates) that the unexamined life is not worth living. Plato emerged from a world steeped in myth and mysticism to claim something new: that the truth about reality could be established through reason, or what we might consider today to be the application of intelligence. This led him to conclude, in The Republic, that the ideal ruler is ‘the philosopher king’, as only a philosopher can work out the proper order of things. And so he launched the idea that the cleverest should rule over the rest – an intellectual meritocracy…

    […]

    The idea that intelligence defines humanity persisted into the Enlightenment. It was enthusiastically embraced by Immanuel Kant, probably the most influential moral philosopher since the ancients. For Kant, only reasoning creatures had moral standing. Rational beings were to be called ‘persons’ and were ‘ends in themselves’. Beings that were not rational, on the other hand, had ‘only a relative value as means, and are therefore called things’. We could do with them what we liked.

    According to Kant, the reasoning being – today, we’d say the intelligent being – has infinite worth or dignity, whereas the unreasoning or unintelligent one has none. His arguments are more sophisticated, but essentially he arrives at the same conclusion as Aristotle: there are natural masters and natural slaves, and intelligence is what distinguishes them…

    by Stephen Cave, executive director and senior research fellow of the Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence at the University of Cambridge. A philosopher by training, he has also served as a British diplomat, and written widely on philosophical and scientific subjects

    Full Article: https://aeon.co/essays/on-the-dark-history-of-intelligence-as-domination

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    Analysis of 165 skills suggests employers recall oral communication more frequently than other skills

    Coffelt, T., Baker, M. and Corey, R. (2016). Business Communication Practices From Employers Perspectives. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly.

    Abstract:

    This study investigates the meaning of communication skills from employers’ perspectives. Students enrolled in a business communication course were asked to contact potential employers in their fields of interest, requesting information about important communication skills in those fields. Using content analysis, two coders familiar with business communication analyzed 52 of the resulting open-ended responses. The analysis of 165 skills suggests employers recall oral communication more frequently than written, visual, or electronic communication skills. Of oral communication subskills, interpersonal communication was mentioned more than other workplace communication skills.

    http://bcq.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/05/24/2329490616644014.abstract

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    « Les erreurs sont après tout humaines en particulier quand le désespoir ou l’alcool est impliqué, et si vous en avez fait un ou plusieurs, une décision noble serait de ne pas le normaliser ou le recommander à l’innocent comme le font ‘certaines’ entreprises Juives sans scrupules pour augmenter leur profits sans aucune pensée pour l’instabilité destructive culturelle, socio-linguistique et génétique qu’elles encouragent. Bien qu’il soit bon de souligner comme Johnny Depp que des «erreurs de l’Ouest» bien conçues et calculées avec de la précision artistique ont parfois conduits aux plus grandes créations de l’histoire humaine; des créations d’un fort héritage de l’Ouest qui sont individuelles, rares et uniques – à ne pas généraliser ou comparer a la médiocrité en masse ou les peuples d’héritage culturel, religieux, éducationnel, artistique, philosophique, socio-linguistique et génétique inférieur. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN): »Mistakes are after all human especially when desperation or alcohol is involved, and if you have made one or more, a noble decision would be to not normalise or recommend it to the innocent as ‘some’ unscrupulous Jewish businesses do to increase their profits without any thought for the destructive cultural, socio-linguistic and genetic instability they encourage. Although it is worthy to point out, like Johnny Depp, that well-designed and calculated « Western mistakes » with artistic precision have sometimes led to the greatest creations in human history; unique, rare and individual creations of strong Western heritage – not to be generalised or compared to mass mediocrity or people of inferior cultural, religious, educational, artistic, philosophical, socio-linguistic, and genetic heritage. » -Danny J. D’Purb


    [I]

    « Je devrais demander à ces experts de la haine … ils ont une longue histoire d’expertise en la matière, c’est la pierre angulaire de leur patrimoine. Ils s’ennuieraient à mourir sans ça… donc de nos jours ils semblent le commercialiser. Seul l’esprit libéré peut s’en sortir et se sauver, les autres sont damnés. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN): »I should ask these experts on hate… they have a strong history of expertise in the matter, it is the founding stone of their heritage. They would be bored to death without it… so nowadays they seem to commercialise it. Only the free mind can help and save itself, the rest are doomed. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    [II]

    « Maintenant imaginez qu’une de vos victimes, celui qui se trouve être l’objet de votre sadisme ou érotisme, se transforme en bête sanguinaire et violeur en série… pourriez vous peut-être essayez de trouver les raisons derrière sa haine? Essayons une petite exercise de psychologie ici, pour l’éducation de la nation! Je l’ai toujours dit, la provocation est la raison principale derrière la majorité des violences de tous types dans la société moderne, une sorte de résultat lié aux comportements des sauvages que seul la philosophie, la psychologie & la sophistication peuvent guérir. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN): « Now imagine that one of your victims, the one who happens to be the object of your sadism or eroticism, turns into a bloodthirsty beast and serial rapist … could you perhaps try to find the reasons behind his/her hate? Let’s try a little psychiatric exercise here to educate the nation!
    I have always said it, provocation is the main reason behind the majority of violence of all types in modern society, a sort of outcome related to the behaviour of savages that only philosophy, psychology & sophistication can cure. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    [III]

    « C’est le stade du miroir que je pense que beaucoup de ces imbéciles et universitaires médiocres semblent mal comprendre. La science n’est pas finie, l’évolution non plus … et beaucoup ont encore besoin d’un cours linguistique, de géographie et de culture. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN): « It’s the mirror stage that I think many of those imbeciles and mediocre academics seem to misunderstand. Science is not over, neither is evolution… and many still need a geography, a culture & a linguistic course. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    [IV]

    « Ou est-ce simplement le fait que vous vous ennuyez … et comme d’habitude, avez besoin de trouver quelque chose à haïr… puisque aucune autre émotion n’a jamais reçu aucune forme d’attention ou de structuration durant votre existence, votre formation psychologique et philosophique? » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN): « Or is it simply the fact that you are bored… and as usual, need to find something to hate… since no other emotion has ever been given any form of attention or structuring during your existence, your psychological & philosophical construction [if any]? » -Danny J. D’Purb

    [V]

    « Il est impossible de concevoir un système si parfait que personne ne doit être bon. »
    – T.S. Eliot

    Traduction(EN):“It is impossible to design a system so perfect that no-one needs to be good.”
    — T.S. Eliot

    [VI]

    «Les membres de certaines nations intelligentes qui ont adopté la tradition des lumières s’aiment, se poussent et s’encouragent mutuellement pour aller de l’avant. Ils se voient comme des frères et sœurs et membres d’une communauté unie avec les mêmes chances de réussir dans la vie. Mais plus important encore, ils respectent réellement ceux qu’ils savent qu’ils ne pourront jamais égaler en termes de capacités et de compétences; ils les appellent même véritablement et affectueusement «master», ou «maître», comme un geste d’honnêteté et d’encouragement. Le fait est que la plupart des gens veulent être reconnus, mais ne semblent jamais vouloir reconnaître les autres. Eh bien, si nous voulons de la croissance et un changement de notre statut dans la société par les fruits et la sueur de notre travail, nous devons d’abord reconnaître le fait que le statut existe et que les individus ne sont pas égaux en fonction de leurs compétences acquises,capacités individuelles, éducation, présentation, développement, appartenance culturelle, langage et vocabulaire. N’oubliez jamais le terme ‘singularité’!” -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN):”Members of some enlightened & intelligent nations actually love, push and encourage each other to move forward. They see each other as brothers/sisters & a member of a united community with the same chances of succeeding in life. But more importantly, they actually respect those they know they will never be able to match in terms of abilities & skills; they even genuinely & lovingly call them “master”, or “maître”, as a gesture of honesty and encouragement. The point is, most people want to be recognised, but never seem to be willing to recognise others. Well, if we want growth along with a change to our status in society through the fruits and sweat of our hard work, then we should first acknowledge the fact that ‘status’ actually exists, and individuals are not equal in regards to their acquired skills, individual abilities, education, presentation, development, cultural belonging, language and vocabulary. Never forget the term singularity!” -Danny J. D’Purb

    [VII]

    « La plus haute étape possible dans la culture morale est quand nous reconnaissons que nous devons contrôler nos pensées. » – Charles Darwin

    Traduction(EN): «  »The highest possible stage in moral culture is when we recognize that we ought to control our thoughts. »—Charles Darwin

  6. How do you define wellbeing? See what others have to say

    Link: http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/#/11111111111

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    « Aux personnes frustrées et intellectuellement désespérant, qui ne savent toujours pas pourquoi ils se lèvent chaque matin et quel héritage ils ont l’intention de quitter lorsqu’ils meurent:

    « Vous devez apprendre l’art de vous taire quand il n’y a rien à dire, surtout devant un être supérieur intellectuellement. Il faut comprendre que les individus ne sont pas et n’ont jamais été égaux en matière de compétences. Pensez à retourner à l’école et quand vous le faites, apprenez l’art de poser les bonnes questions. Parce que la façon dont vous voyez les choses n’est pas la façon dont le monde fonctionne, en d’autres termes, ce que vous voyez n’est pas ce que vous obtenez. » – Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN): « To the frustrated and intellectually hopeless people who still do not know why they wake up every morning and what legacy they intend to leave when they die:

    « You have to learn the art of silence when there is nothing to say, especially in front of individuals who are superior intellectually. It must be understood that individuals are not and have never been equal in terms of skills. Go back to school and when you do, learn the art of asking the right questions. Because the way you see things is not the way the world works, in other words, what you see is not what you get. » -Danny J. D’Purb

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    In A Month

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    Les Chiens du Monde, Les Boeufs, Les Sauvages, La Psychologie, La Théorie et Moi

    « J’ai vu un chien, avec 3 autres chiens des amériques et un indien… trop d’alcool, des égos qui surpassaient leurs personalités aux valeurs d’insect…

    Le chien voulait être guide de France et aussi ambassadeur culturel. Et moi je me demaindais s’il allait emmener ses invités des Amériques rencontrer ses camarades d’écoles, Pierrot, Marcel [le beau] et Didier. Alors, gentiment je les ai tous fait comprendre que s’ils ne voulaient pas se faire écrabouiller trop tôt, ils devraient aller jouer très [très] loin de moi, parce que je n’ai jamais eu de la patience pour les bals de sauvages et surtout pas de temps pour y consacrer!

    D’ailleurs concernant le chien, je ne pouvais pas savoir à quel moment de sa vie d’asticot et d’animal qu’il a pu développer l’idée que ses pulsions et ses fantasmes pouvaient définir le monde et les gens qui y habitent comme vous et moi ; comme Dieu qui marche et qui décore comme il le plait.

    Pour la dernière fois alors je leurs ai dit que je suis un homme pensant comme Descartes, et comme je pense, donc je suis, j’existe, je me construis, je me définis, j’absorbe la connaissance que je choisis et je me transforme et évolue avec… libre comme l’esprit des lumières et l’air, et non pas votre esclave!

    Alors, continuant mon discours adressé à ces imbéciles répugnants et répulsifs, j’ai ressenti le besoin d’ajouter qu’ils devraient parler et s’exprimer comme des hommes nobles, aussitôt qu’ils apprennent à utiliser les outils de la langue et de l’expression. Que les conversations inutiles avec des insinuations stupides et sans impactes tout comme les années à écouter leurs plaintes misérables jamais poursuivis par des actions concrètes, ne nous conduirons qu’a un monde statique, insipide, vulgaire et emmerdant, où les esprits sauvages oublient ou ne savent toujours pas que les individus ont et font des choix dans la vie, et que ces choix les conduisent à des résultats fort différents d’un individu à l’autre.

    Et là, j’ai soudainement pensé que, ça faisait un bail que j’avais été à la réception des pires banalités de sauvages de la part de ces certains cochons de la presse juive, de la crasse politique de gauche, du grand roi des porcs américains qui était aussi devenu l’amant de l’enfant à l’égo démesurée à l’Elysée, et aussi des bœufs frustrés et laids de France, alors je ressenti cette vague qui remonta jusqu’à mon cerveau, qui me poussait à en finir pour de bon avec ces sauvages et de aussi finaliser les termes qui vont avec les choix de l’individu [et oui moi ici], la connaissance et le talent.

    Alors, je leurs ai dit calmement que l’empire Français et son héritage ne leur appartenait pas, et que j’en suis aussi l’héritier et aussi un meilleur ambassadeur que les médiocrités dégradant à la France qu’ils sont, et aussi que leurs consentements ou leurs commentaires de sauvages mal-éduqués n’étaient pas requises pour le droit d’exister et de s’orienter dans la vie.

    Je suis toujours choqué par le fait que ces bouffons ont pu croire et se convaincre qu’un permis d’eux et leur bande d’animaux était requis pour exister en tant que français ou se définir dans une classe linguistique que seul l’intellectuel talentueux peut atteindre. Alors je leurs ai dit avec colère de fermer leurs gueules de chiens et d’arrêter de rêver.

    D’ailleurs les chiens, et les vieux chevaux fous, frustrés et impotents devraient lire et relire mes écrits sur la psychologie, les neurosciences et le langage dans la conception de soi, jusqu’à ce qu’ils n’ont plus de questions stupides et jusqu’à ce qu’ils comprennent et apprennent eux-mêmes à se cultiver, parce qu’il n’y a pas d’argument, il n’y en a plus, mais leurs actions nous démontrent, nous les hommes de la culture, des sciences et de la connaissance, leurs stupidités qui révèlent une haine primitive et biensûr la jalousie des chiens blancs frustrés. » -Danny D’Purb

    Traduction(EN) :

    “I saw a dog, with 3 other dogs from the Americas and an Indian… too much alcohol, egos that surpassed their personalities of insect values…

    The dog wanted to be a guide of France and also a cultural ambassador. And I was asking myself if he was going to take his guests from the Americas to meet his classmates, Pierrot, Marcel [pretty boy] and Didier. So, kindly I made them all understand that if they did not want to get squashed too early, they should go play very [very] far from me, because I have never had patience for the balls of savages and especially no time to devote to them!

    Besides, regarding the dog, I could guess at what point in his maggot and animal life that he could have developped the idea that his impulses and his fantasies could define the world and the people who live in it [like you and I]; Like God who walks and decorates as he pleases.

    For the last time I told them I’m a thinking man like Descartes, and as I think, so I am, I exist, I build myself, I define myself, I absorb the knowledge that I choose and I transform and evolve with it… I am free like the spirit of the enlightenment and air, and not your slave!

    So, continuing my speech to these disgusting and repellent imbeciles, I felt the need to add that they should speak and express themselves as noble men, as soon as they learn to use the tools of language and expression. That useless conversations with stupid insinuations and without impact just as the years of listening to their miserable complaints never pursued by concrete actions, will only lead us to a static, insipid, vulgar and boring world; where savage minds forget or still do not know that individuals have and make choices in life, and that these choices lead them to very different results from one individual to another.

    And then I suddenly thought that, it’s been a while since I have been at the receiving end of the worst banalities of savages from some pigs of the Jewish press, the political grime of the left, the great king of American pigs who had also become the lover of The child with the disproportionate ego at the Elysée, and also of the frustrated and ugly oxen of France, then I felt this wave that went up to my brain, which pushed me to end this for good with these savages and also finalise the terms that go with the choices of the individual [And yes me here], knowledge and talent.

    So I told them calmly that the French Empire and its inheritance did not belong to them, and that I am also the heir and also a better ambassador than the degrading mediocrities that they are to France, and also that the consents or comments of ill-educated savages were not required for the right to exist and to orient ourselves in life.

    I am still shocked by the fact that these buffoons were able to believe and convince themselves that a permit from them and their flock of animals was required to exist as a Frenchman or to be defined in a linguistic class that only the talented intellectual can achieve. So I told them angrily to shut their dog-mouths and stop dreaming.

    Besides dogs and frustrated and impotent crazy old horses should read and re-read my writings on psychology, neuroscience and language on self-conception until they no longer have stupid questions, and until they understand and learn to cultivate themselves, because there is no argument, there are no more, but their actions only show us, men of culture, science and knowledge, their stupidity which reveals a primitive hatred and of course the Jealousy of frustrated white dogs.” –Danny J. D’Purb

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    Clinical Psychology: Learning Disabilities, Anxiety, Depression & Schizophrenia and the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

    CAMHS deal with the psychological issues of people under the age of 18. They are a non-specialist service and often refer to other more specialised departments following the initial assessment of patients. The most common cases tend to be adolescents with depression and anxiety whose manifestations are not different to those of adults and so are treated fairly similarly.

    Inclusivism in Learning Disabilities

    In 1969, Bengt Nirje adopted and developed the concept of normalisation in Sweden and beautifully described it as…
    “making available to all mentally retarded people patterns of life and conditions of everyday living which are as close as possible to the regular circumstances and ways of life of society.”

    – Nirje, 1980

    Learning Disability is not just an impairment in Cognition

    The social impairment of Learning Disabilities – US Statute 111 – 256: Rosa’s Law defines the factual impairment, the imposed or acquired disability and the awareness of being different.

    The Normalisation Theory

    This theory focuses on the mainstream social trends of social devaluation or deviancy making. Some categories of people tend to be valued negatively due to their behaviours, appearances and characteristics, and this places them at the risk of being devalued [according to the Normalisation Theory of Nirje on the societal processes he assumed] – people fulfil various social roles and stereotypes. As part of the deviancy making or social devaluation, the unsophisticated minds of the masses generally do not mean to stereotype, however they seem to do it unconsciously [the unconscious is a concept Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan acknowledged in their psychoanalytic theories of mental/psychological activity and its disorders land mental health problems linked to psychopathic tendencies in people towards others], i.e. deviant groups with social symbols or images that are at a higher risk of being devalued are the focus of the normalisation theory, which is believed to be done with the aim of providing them with the skills they need and eventually change the status of these deviant groups.

    Society tends to distance itself from deviant groups without any purpose or belonging, however psychologists provide support for the social integration and valued social participation of people with learning disabilities through exercises that involve learning through imitation. This challenges stereotypes within wider society through direct experiences of spending time with people who are affected by learning disabilities.

    While psychology evolves and sophisticated and modern theories about intelligence and communication such as our « Organic Theory » take shape, we hope that observations such as this one may be digested and understood by the masses, that is:

    « While the communicative patterns [language] in human primates vary with socio-behavioural and geographical patterns; creativity and IQ remain constant and do not change. Intelligence and creativity cannot be stopped because of linguistic differences, since talented and gifted humans do not choose the location of their birth nor their linguistic heritage but still contribute to the enhancement of our civilisation. »

    Which concludes that that the intelligence of an invidual when assessed on a range of variables [e.g. perception, fluid intelligence, reasoning, emotional intelligence, courage, etc] cannot be deduced by simply assessing their academic abilities, since human life has various sides to itself. Hence, the true worth and value of an individual may always remain a problem and a mystery to fully assess, and this seems to go in line with Jean Piaget’s deduction about the uniqueness of the human organism and mind.

    Full Article: https://dpurb.com/2018/07/02/clinical-psychology-learning-disabilities-anxiety-depression-schizophrenia-and-the-effectiveness-of-psychotherapy/

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