Essay // Philosophy Review: “The World as Will and Idea”, by Arthur Schopenhauer (1818)

Schopenhauer et Nietzsche

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 – 1860) & Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 – 1900)

Schopenhauer, a pessimistic philosopher, focused on the dark side of life and mental evils and cruelty, which he considered inevitable and that we as psychologists, intellectuals and masters of the mind view as mental disorders that have a negative effect on both the character of the affected and the human environment at large exposed to the vile side of human nature.

This negative view of man’s behaviour and role in life was a sharp contrast to the other more euphoric philosophers who marked the spirits of the generation before him, and who embraced a more idealistic and perhaps a slightly exaggerated euphoric side of man’s mind and character. Though Schopenhauer’s work originally gained little attention at the time it was published [perhaps being too avant-garde for the atavistic institutions of his time], he expressed an interpretation of the world that was dragging and opposed the great ideal of who went before him, such as Victor Schelling and Hegel on some very important points but did not deny expressions of art such as the romantic movement in its various forms.

Schopenhauer who never refrained from publicly criticising people and ideas he disliked was very vocal in his complete contempt for these men, and regarded himself as their great opponent in the ring of the leaders delivering the “Real truth” to mankind and civilisation. Schopenhauer’s work in many ways could be viewed as an extension of another famous German philosopher, namely Immanuel Kant, who preceded him by one generation, delivering his major philosophical work, “a critique of pure reason”. Schopenhauer worked out a system in which reality is known inwardly by a kind of feeling where intellect is only an instrument of the will: the biological will to live and where process rather than result is ultimate.

Schopenhauer’s pessimism lies in his very strong rejection of life. In fact, this rejection is so strong that he even had to address the question of suicide as a solution to life. He fortunately also rejected this “solution” to life, this rejection to life reflected influences with roots in Eastern philosophy, particularly Buddhism, and it is one of the most significant aspects of his work that he was the first Western philosopher to integrate Buddhist thought into Western philosophy. His preoccupation with the evil of the world and the tragedy of life was also somewhat reminiscent of ancient Hindu philosophies. His writings helped to stimulate in Germany an interest in Oriental thought and religion, which can also be seen in the work of many later German philosophers.

In “The World as Will and Idea”, Schopenhauer also considered the important question of the function of art. The value of arts to human life in far more depth than any of his predecessors, and even graded each of the arts, such as music, poetry, architecture [etc], from most important to least important. For that reason, his book had not only a profound effect on future philosophers, but also artists, particularly poets and composers, such as the enigmatic Wagner, who felt indebted to him and sent him a letter of gratitude when he was first introduced to Schopenhauer’s work.

Tristan und Isolde (John Duncan 1912 Symbolism)

Image: Tristan and Isolde (1912) by John Duncan

It is believed that Wagner’s popular opera “Tristan und Isolde” in particular, shows Schopenhauer’s influence as a philosopher who believed that music was the highest form of art, an idea that of course, Wagner found pleasing and so the composer began to think of himself as a prime example of Schopenhauer concept of a genius. People in other fields of the arts were also influenced by Schopenhauer, including the novelist Thomas Mann. Schopenhauer’s ideas had the unique ability to influence not only philosophy but many other fields of human endeavour and expression. Within philosophy itself, Schopenhauer never founded a school of thought “per se”, but his influence instead was in stimulating other philosophers towards a particular line of thought, which varied with the individual and his or her response to Schopenhauer’s writing. His writing had a major impact on the German philosopher Nietzsche, who was also a friend of Schopenhauer’s admirer, Richard Wagner. Nietzsche shared the idea that life is tragic and terrible but can sometimes be transformed through art. Nietzsche was also the man famous,for his concept of the Ubermensch “Superman”, which later helped to inspire the German National Socialist movement and eventually the founding pillars of the Third Reich of Adolf Hitler.

The Apollo Belvedere (Ancient Sculpture) - Vatican Museum - Roma

Image: Apollo Belvedere (Sculpture Ancienne), Musée du Vatican, Rome

So, these three names Schopenhauer, Wagner and Nietzsche are often linked and are also associated at times, through no fault of the men themselves with a dark period of human history.

“The world is Will and Idea” begins with the famous line, “The world is my idea” when Schopenhauer says the world is his idea, he is referring to the relationship between an “object” and “the subject” [i.e. The person who sees or senses the object]. As an example, he did not mean that an apple is identical with your abstract concept of an Apple, he means that the apple as perceived by you exist only in relation to you as a person or “the subject” who perceives it. Its reality is only in what you perceive, it is what you perceive it to be so.

So, the world is my idea means that a whole visible world and its sum of total experience is “object” for a “subject”, its reality consists in appearing to be perceived by a subject. This theory of the world of idea was taken and developed from Kant’s philosophy, but the second part of Schopenhauer’s philosophy “The World as Will” is completely his own and expresses his very unique interpretation of human life. Briefly, this interpretation says that the will, « the will to survive and live » is the strongest force in man and everything else is subordinate to it. His conception of the supreme wisdom of life is one of resignation to the power this “will” has and the tragic results of it.

Arthur Schopenhauer was born on February 22nd of 1788 in Danzig, Germany. His father was a wealthy merchant and banker who hoped his son would follow in his steps. He was also an independent minded man who moved his family from the city of Danzig when it was taken over by Prussia in 1793. The new family home was in Hamburg. Schopenhauer left to visit England and other countries, on the understanding that when he completed his tour, he would begin work in a business. Schopenhauer, then 16 years old, kept his promise but he had no attraction to business and when his father died, he got consent from his mother to continue his studies. In 1809, he entered the University of Göttingen to study medicine, but he changed to philosophy in his second year, as he put it “life is a problem and he decided to spend his life contemplating it”. He also studied at Weimar where he lived with his mother until he became estranged from her.

Schopenhauer had a moody, irritable temperament and could be violent in his passion. At the university, Schopenhauer developed an affection for Plato and visited Berlin to hear the lectures of contemporary philosophers Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762 – 1814) and Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768 – 1834). Fichte was the first transcendentalist idealist and Schleiermacher was a founder of modern Protestant theology. Schopenhauer found Fichte’s comment, “No one could be a true philosopher without being religious” absurd and retorted that no man who was religious turns to philosophy since they have no need for it [a questionable statement when religion (e.g. Christianity) does not cover all the aspects of the experience of life in detail, or study God’s works methodically through the lens of science and rationality, to understand the further implications in the betterment of the human world].

Rodin - Hands (Musee Rodin, Paris)

Image: « Les Mains » par Auguste Rodin

Schopenhauer left Berlin when Prussia rebelled against Napoleon. He never developed strong German patriotic values and sentiments [perhaps never given a chance or a reason or support to do so at the time], and always regarded himself more as a cosmopolitan without any strong national affiliation. He went into retirement to write his first dissertation called “On the fourfold route of the principle of sufficient reason”, which was published in 1813 and earned him a doctorate at Vienna. The poet Goethe congratulated Schopenhauer, and in return he wrote an essay called « On Vision and Colours » which supported Goethe in his stand against Isaac Newton. But the dissertation, although it won the admiration of Goethe, went practically unnoticed. The author however always considered it the groundwork and essential introduction to his philosophy. Shortly after he published his dissertation, Schopenhauer met an Oriental scholar, Friedrich Majer (1771 – 1818), who introduced him to Indian philosophy and literature. He maintained an interest in Indian philosophy throughout his life, and as an old man, he meditated on the Upanishad, part of the Vedas [the sacred script of the Hindus]. He would later associate his theory of the world of ideas with the Indian doctrine of Maya [to the Indians, Maya is illusion or the world as an illusion]. To Schopenhauer, this meant that the individual subject and object he wrote were “Maya”, all at the end.

For 4 years between 1814 and 1818, Schopenhauer lived in Dresden, which is where he wrote his masterpiece “The World as Will and Idea”. He sent the manuscript to his publishers and left for an art tour of Italy. The book was published the following year in 1819, and although it received attention from some philosophers, it sold very few copies. This was a disappointment to the author who felt sure it contains the secret of the universe.

This failure did not kill his eagerness however, so he returned to Berlin and started lecturing. By now he was 32 years old. He deliberately scheduled his lectures for the hour at which the philosopher Hegel was also accustomed to lecture – planning to compete with the master. But his lecturing career was a failure and Schopenhauer gave it up after only one semester. His ideas seemed at odds with the dominant spirit of the time.

Dolly_the_Sheep

Schopenhauer roamed around a bit and then settled in Frankfurt in 1833, he read European literature and scientific books and journals looking for illustrations or confirmations of his theories. He frequented the theatre and also continued writing, publishing on the Will of nature and winning a Norwegian prize for an essay on freedom. He failed to win a similar prize from the Royal Danish Academy of the Sciences for a separate essay on ethics. The Academy disapproved of his disparaging remarks about other philosophers. These two essays were later published together in 1841, under the title “The two fundamental problems of Ethics”.

In 1844, Schopenhauer published a second edition of “The world as Will and Idea”, which contained 50 new chapters. In the Preface, he took the opportunity to make a strong statement of his views about university professors of philosophy, which were of course not admiring. In 1848 there was an unsuccessful revolution in Germany. A revolution from which Schopenhauer had no sympathy whatsoever. But after the failure of this revolt, people were more willing to consider a philosophy which emphasised the evil in the world in which preached the rejection of life for the route of contemplation. Schopenhauer’s popularity was on the rise. In 1851, he published a collection of essays that dealt with a wide variety of topics, and finally in 1859, he published third edition of the “World as Will and Idea” with more supplements. In the last decade of his life, the author finally became a famous man, all kinds of visitors with all kinds of philosophies came to see him and to enjoy his brilliant conversations. Lectures were given on his system at the University, the very university he has attacked, a sure indication that he had finally achieved success. Schopenhauer has spent a long, lonely life of reflection and only after his works were ignored for many years that he attained fame and reputation. He died in September 1860, at the age of 72.

Schopenhauer by Mitch Francis

Image: Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 – 1860) by Mitch Francis

As a man, Schopenhauer was cultured, broadly educated, eloquent and articulate, witty and conversational, and a very talented writer, but he was also opinionated, egotistical, and often quarrelsome. His remarks about other philosophers were assaulted and his remarks about women in general were so scathing that they had to be deleted from his book by his editor. He was obsessed with the suffering of humanity, but did nothing to alleviate it. He himself made the comment that it is no more necessary for a philosopher to be a saint than it is for a saint to be a philosopher, and he never tried to prove otherwise. But, in the final analysis he was exactly the man he needed to be to write what he wrote. His pessimistic and grim interpretation of life are not very likely to have come from a man of infallible kindness or tolerance, and that interpretation of life played a significant role in the development of human thought and philosophy by inspiring both similar and opposing viewpoints which forced humanity to re-examine itself yet again.

 

Now is a summary of the text of “The World as Will and Idea

The world is my idea. This truth applies to everything that lives and knows, but only man can reflect on it and bring his abstract consciousness to it. It becomes clear to him when he looks at the sun that what he knows is not a sun, but an eye that sees the sun, not a nurse but a hand that feels the earth. This truth is by no means new, it was a fundamental text of the Vedanta philosophy of the Hindus, it was also part of the reflections of the French philosopher René Descartes and finally it was also clarified by the philosopher George Berkeley – although neglected by Kant. But this view of the world as idea is one-sided and must be balanced by another one which is the impressive and awful truth that the world is my “Will”. The world has necessary hands, the subject and object. The object and the subject that perceives it operate together. If one were to disappear, then the whole world would cease to exist. All objects have universal forms and either space, time and causality or the relation of cause and effect as Kant has demonstrated, they may be discovered and known apart from the objects in which they appear, as an expression of reason or the principle of sufficient reason. But what if our whole life is but a dream, or how do we distinguish between dream and reality? Kant tried to answer this question by stating that the connection of ideas, according to the law of causality, constitute the difference between them. But the long life dream in distinction from our short dreams has always had complete connection, according to the principle of sufficient reason. We are such stuff as dreams are made on and our little life is rounded with a sleep.

Life and dreams are leaves of the same book, the book we read through and the one whose leaves we turn idly to read a page here and there. Any system of philosophy that starts with the object has to deal with the whole world of perception, the most consistent form of these philosophies is simple materialism. It regards time and space and matter as existing absolutely. It ignores the relationship to the subject in whom these ideas exist, then it takes a law of causality as its guiding principle: causality exists by understanding alone. Materialism seeks the most simple states of matter and then tries to develop all other states from it. It ascends from mere mechanism and chemistry: the chemical properties and attractions of objects. It ascends to vegetable and animal life, to sensibility and thought. But, the thoughts and knowledge reached through materialism in a long, laborious process, assumed from its starting point that there was a subject or perceived matter: eyes that side, hands that felt it and understanding that knew it.

This system of philosophy which opposes this materialism is idealism, which instead starts with the subject and then tries to derive or reach the object from the subject, but it overlooked the fact that there can be no subject without an object, like materialism this idealism begins by assuming what it is supposed to prove later. The method of Schopenhauer’s system is different from both of these, for it starts from neither object nor subject, it starts from the idea. The idea is the first form of consciousness and its essential form is the antithesis or opposite of subject and object. For each one of us it is our own body that is the starting point in our perception of the world and we consider it like all other real object simply as an idea, the understanding which develops ideas could never come into being if there were no simple bodily sensations from which to start. If the thinker were no more than a pure knowing subject without a body like a winged cherub that is all spirit, he would not be able to know the nature of the world. He would be like a man going around a castle getting to its façade and trying in vain to enter it, all reality would be a riddle, but because the subject of knowledge is also an individual with a body and a bodily nature, the world becomes revealed, it is revealed in the will. Every true act of the will is a movement of the body for the action of the body is nothing but will express through an object. The body is the object, my body and my will are one. The double knowledge which each one has of his body out of idea and inner will becomes the key to the nature of the world. Phenomenal existence, the existence we perceive with our senses, is an idea and nothing more. Real existence or the thing in itself is will.

die welt als wille und vorstellung

Will is a term that applies to both the highest and lowest in man’s nature, it is that which drives us to pursue the light of knowledge and it’s also that which in nature strives blindly and dumbly to survive. Both come under the common name of will, just as the first dim light of dawn in the rays of the full midday are both called sunlight. If we consider the impulse with which waters hurries to the ocean, or the way in which a magnet turns to the North Pole, or the eagerness with which electric poles seek to be united or the way a Crystal takes form, we can recognise our own nature, for the name will describes the inner nature of everything that is in the world. The world as will is one, it knows nothing of the multiplicity of things in the outer world: the world of perception, the world of time and space. Notions like more or less, don’t exist to it, it knows nothing of quantities or qualities. For this reason, it cannot be said that there is a small part of the will in a stone or a large part of the will in a man. Relations like this between part and whole belong to the idea of space which does not apply to the will. In reality, the will is present in its entirety and undivided in every object of nature and in every living thing. Yet in terms of its objectification, that is, its external expression, it has different grades in inorganic matter, in vegetation, in animals and in man. The lowest of these appear in the most universal forces of nature, in the form of gravity, rigidity, elasticity, electricity and the like, which are in themselves manifestations of the will, just as much as human actions are. The higher grades are seen in man where the will takes the form of individuality and consciousness. It is here that the will shows its second side. For in the human brain lies the potential of comprehending the will, so that as it is kindled by a spark it brings the whole world as idea into existence. In this manner, knowledge proceeds from the will, knowledge that is either from the senses or is rational and is destined to serve the will in its aim of expressing itself. In all beasts and in most men, knowledge remains in subjugation to the will, yet in certain individual men, knowledge can free itself from this bondage so the subject of knowledge exists for itself as a pure mirror of the world. As a rule, knowledge remains subordinate to the will and grows on the will [so to speak] as a head on the body. In the case of the beast, the head is directed towards the Earth where the objects of its will are. But in the case of man, the head is elevated and set freely upon the body as in the Apollo Belvedere where the head of the guard stands so freely on his shoulders that it seems delivered of the body and no longer subject to it.

The transition from the individual’s knowledge of particular things to the knowledge of the idea takes place suddenly. It happens when the knowledge of the will changes someone into a pure will-less subject of knowledge, contemplating things as they are in themselves. If raised by the power of the mind, a man leaves the common way of looking at things behind and forgets both his individuality and his will, then he becomes a pure “without will” timeless and painless subject of knowledge – this appears in the genius. For when Genius appears in a man a far larger amount of the power of knowledge comes to him than is necessary for the service of his will. This extra knowledge is free and purified from will: a clear mirror of the inner nature of the world. All willing arises from want. The satisfaction of a desire ends it, but for one wish that is satisfied, there remain 10 which are denied. No attained object of desire can give lasting satisfaction, for it is likely alms thrown to a beggar that keep him alive today that misery may be prolonged tomorrow.

Attending to the demands of the will, continually occupies and influences our consciousness. But when we are lifted out of the endless stream of willing, we can comprehend things free from their relation to our will without any personal interest or subjective opinions, and then the peace we have been seeking comes of our own accord. For we are, at least for the moment, set free from the miserable striving of the will – the wheel stands still. There is no more slavery to the will. It is the function of the fine arts to express this freedom from will or the different grades along the way. Matter as such cannot be an expression of the idea but when it is express through an art like architecture, its characteristics of gravity, cohesion and hardness, the universal qualities of stone appear as a direct but low grade of the objectified or expressed will. In the building nature reveals itself a conflict between the gravity of the building and the rigidity of the structure of the support, as in the simplest form of a column. The problem of architecture, apart from practical utility, is to make this conflict appear in a distinct way so that the building material instead of a mere heap of matter bound to the earth is raised above it, so that the roof example is realised only by the means of the columns or arches which support it. The pleasure that comes from looking at a beautiful building lies in the fact that the viewer is set free from the knowledge which serves the will and is raised to the kind of knowledge which comes from contemplation that has no will.

Woman and Man Roman Sculpture

The highest grade of the expression of the will is found in anything that reflects human beauty in a way which reveals the idea of man. No object transports us so quickly into will-less contemplation as the most beautiful human form. We know human beauty when we see it, but true artists can express it so clearly that it surpasses even what we have seen. In the genius of a sculptor, we find a representation of what nature intended to express, so that if you were to present his statue to nature, he would say “This is what you wanted to say!”

danaide-le-baiser-par-auguste-rodin

Image: « Danaide » & « Le Baiser » par Auguste Rodin

Painting as an art has character as well as beauty and grace for its object, for it attempts to represent the will of the highest grade in the idea of humanity. This, however, can be an abstract form of the concept known as the picture attempt [as it does at times an allegorical painting] to represent something other than what is perceived. In poetry the relationship is reversed, for here what is given directly in words is the concept that leads readers away to the object of perception, this is done through metaphors, similes, parables, allegories and the like. The aim of all poetry is the representation of man. When it is a representation of the poet himself, we have the lyric. The lyric poet reveals himself in joy or more often grief as the subject of his own will, but along with this as the sight of nature impresses him, there is the awareness of himself as the subject of pure will-less knowing, and his joy now appears as a contrast to the stress of desire: desire imposed on him by his will. Epic poetry portrays man in a more historical context in connection with significant situations in human life. Drama in the form of tragedy is not only the best of poetic art, but the most significant in terms of this system of philosophy because it is the strife of the will represented at its highest grade of objectivity, it becomes visible in human suffering that is brought about by fate or error or wickedness, in which the will lives on while people fight against and destroy one another. The tragic effect in poetry may be produced by means of a character of extraordinary evil such as Iago in Othello or Creon in Antigone or by blind fate is in the Oedipus Rex of Sophocles or by circumstance and the situation in which the character finds himself such as Hamlet. In the tragic character we can observe how the noblest of men – after a long personal conflict and inward suffering – come at last to renounce the pleasures of life and the particular goals once so keenly fought for, instead the character joyfully surrenders to life itself. It is in this sense that Hamlet renounces life for himself but askes Horatio to remain a while and to – in this harsh world – draw his breath in pain to tell Hamlet’s story and clear his name.

Shakespeare's Hamlet Tragedy

Beginning with architecture in which gravity and rigidity reveal the lowest grade of the conflict of the will with itself and ending with tragedy where this conflict reaches its highest grade, we have considered the arts and how they represent the will and the idea, but music stands quite alone, cut off from all the other arts, since it’s not a mere copy of any idea of existence in the world. Music is as direct an expression of the whole will as the world itself is. Nature and music are two different expressions of the same thing, and so music speaks a universal language. In the deepest tones of harmony in the bass we recognise the lowest grades of the will, for bass is in harmony with the crudest matter on which all things rest and from which they originate. The higher complimental parts of music are parallel with animal life and in the melody of high voice singing we recognise the high grade of the will in the effort and intellectual life of man. The pleasure we received from beauty, the consolation we get from art and the enthusiasm of the artist, rest on the fact that whereas existence in the world is something sorrowful and terrible, the contemplation of the world as idea is both soothing and significant. But in the case of the artist, the contemplation of beauty doesn’t quiet the will and it doesn’t provide a pathway out of life as does the resignation of the saint. The deliverance from the will only occurs when – tired of the game – one renounces life and gets a grasp on what is real. When the will – this blind and incessant impulse of nature – becomes conscious in man, it is recognised as the will to live. Man may affirm or deny it. He affirms the will to live when – having seen it as that which has produced nature and his own life – he then adds his own desires to it. The denial of the will to live occurs when the awareness or consciousness of it means the end of desire. The phenomena of the world – that what we see and perceive – no longer motivates the will, for the comprehension of the world as idea has freed the will and allowed it to be silent. It the essential nature of the will – nowhere free and everywhere powerful – to strive endlessly towards satisfaction that it is incapable of getting. Just as in nature, gravitation is the ceaseless striving towards a mathematical centre and this striving will not stop even if the whole universe were rolled into a single ball. In the same way the solid will become a fluid, the fluid will become a gas, and the plant – restless and unsatisfied – will strive through ascending forms until it goes to seed where it finds a new starting point.

All nature is a struggle in which war is waged that is deadly to both sides. All striving is in vain, and yet it cannot be abandoned and all this is identical to what appears in us. In us, the blind striving of nature becomes the will to live, but it is self-conscious will: we are aware of it! The fate of this will is in keeping with its striving nature in the face of constant obstacles and hindrances, and anyone who will consider the character and destiny of the will to live, will be convinced that suffering is essential to all life.

Ad Augusta Per Angusta

Translation (EN): « Has grandiose results by narrow lanes » / Source: Le Petit Larousse 2018 / Les locutions étrangères gravées dans nos mémoires ont la magie des formules oubliées dont le charme va croissant lorsque l’alchimie des mots nous est plus mystérieuses. Elles ont l’autorité de la chose écrite. / Mot de passe des conjurés au quatrième acte d’Hernani, de Victor Hugo. On n’arrive au triomphe qu’en surmontant maintes épreuves.

From where then did Dante take the materials for his hell? From the world! And when it came to describing the delights of heaven he had an insurmountable task, for the world could offer him no proper material. The fatal assertion of the will to live has produced man’s body and the desire to preserve and perpetuate it. So the assertion of the will is really the assertion of the body. In such assertion, we find the source of all egoism and all wrongdoing, but such selfhood is really an illusion due to a false philosophy in which the individual imagines he lives to himself alone. He is really only a product of the one will to live. Just as a sailor sitting in a boat trusting to his frail barque in a stormy sea, so it is that in the world of sorrows man sits quietly, trusting to the principle of individualisation and separateness, in which he only knows things superficially or as they appear to him, but when he comes to understand that the one will to live exists in all men alike, he realises that the difference between those that inflict suffering and those that bare it is only a perceived difference that is not real. In truth, the evil man is like a wild beast, who frenzied and excited, unintentionally buries its teeth in its own flesh, injuring itself as it tries to injure another. But no matter how veiled and evil man is by illusion, he still feels the sting of conscience, which creates a sense that the gulf which seems to separate him from others isn’t real. As all hatred and wickedness rely upon egoism and as egoism rest on the assertion of the will to live, so do all goodness and virtue spring from the denial of the will to live. The will turns around and no longer asserts itself but denies its own nature instead. Man then denies his own nature as expressed in his body and no longer desires sensual gratification under any condition. Voluntary and complete chastity is the first step in the denial of the will to live. But then the human race would die out, and with it the mind in which the world is reflected, and without a subject of knowledge, there would be no object, there would be no world. To those in whom the will to live has turned and denied itself, this world of ours with all its sun and milky ways is nothing [dead inside].

 

These are some of the ideas and the basic themes presented in Schopenhauer’s “The world as Will and Idea”, a very lengthy work that of course includes many other ideas and elaborations of the ones we have mentioned. But the essence of Schopenhauer’s philosophy can be found in a few basic point.

 

To begin with, he sees the will of man, and specifically the will to survive as the dominant force in the universe and slavery to this will is the root of all evil. Man and all other creatures are subservient to their will to live. In exercising his will, man inflicts all kinds of cruelties and evil. Schopenhauer first examined these cruelties in the world of nature, spending a lot of time on the way in which animals of one species prey on those of another. Then he moved onto man and says, “the chief source of the most serious evils which afflict man is man himself”. Whoever keeps this last fact clearly in view sees the world as a hell which surpasses that of Dante, through the fact that one man must be the devil of another. Schopenhauer uses war and various other cruelties such as industrial exploitation, bravery and social abuses to back up his claim. Schopenhauer had no sympathy for the revolution of his time because he felt the state was justified, exactly because of the cruelty of man. It existed to make the world a little more bearable than it would otherwise be. He did not consider the state government divine, but he considered it necessary [a view he may have been willing to revise had he been alive in 2018 with democracy falling apart and not being properly applied, leading to evil, unethical, unscrupulous and unskilled street politicians getting into positions above their understanding].

Schopenhauer believed we can do something to alleviate suffering but it is pointless to think that we can change the fundamental character of the world or of human life. If war was abolished for instance and if all of men’s material needs were met, they would eventually still resort to conflict – “it is their nature”. He is quick to condemn the optimism or idealism of other philosophers who disregard the dark side of human existence, or who try to justify it as rational. To Schopenhauer these dark aspects of life were not secondary feature, they were the most significant aspects of human life in history. On this basis, he created his theory of The Blind and Striving Impulse, he called the Will. Then, he looked around and found support for his theory in the inorganic, organic and human phenomena of life.

Unquestionably, Schopenhauer held a one-sided vision of the world, but because of its one-sidedness and exaggeration it served as a counterbalance to philosophers like Hagel who focused attention on the glorious triumph of reason throughout history and he tended to dismiss evil and suffering with elaborate, evasive, phrasing. Schopenhauer did offer 2 ways of escape from the slavery to the will. One was the path of contemplation, which is the way of art and the other was the path of asceticism, of renouncing the world in one’s personal desires or will. He did believe that the human mind could develop beyond what was required just to satisfy his physical and material needs, it could develop a surplus of energy over and above what was needed to fulfil its biological function. When that happened, man can use the extra energy to escape the life of desire and striving, of assertion of the ego, of conflict, none of which brings him satisfaction anyway. In transcending the Will through art [expressing it with insight], Schopenhauer was very specific about which art forms served what purpose, and in defining which were superior to others. Not surprisingly, the the supreme poetic art is tragedy, for tragedy reveals the real character of human life expressed in dramatic form or as he said the unspeakable pain: the wail of humanity, the triumph of evil, the mocking mastery of chance and the irretrievable fall of the just and innocent. But art and contemplation, besides reflecting on the evil of life, can also open a door that becomes perhaps the only hopeful point in Schopenhauer’s entire book. This door is opened when man can see through the veil of Maya. Maya, being the Hindu concept for the illusionary nature of the world and life. It is Maya that causes to see separateness and division where there is none, but Schopenhauer also believed that man had the intellectual capacity to develop gradually a site that penetrated Maya, and raised some questions that made even a glimmer of hope seem a little bright. What is the purpose of achieving such virtue? What happens afterward?

To start with, the man who denies the Will treats the world as nothing, for the world is just the appearance of the will, which he denied. So it is true that when the will denies itself, our world with all its sun and Milky ways is nothing as Schopenhauer said, then what happens at death? Schopenhauer is convinced of the finality of death. “Before us”, he says “there is indeed only nothingness”. Death or the withdrawal from the world means the extinction of consciousness, In life, he reduces existence to thin thread, and at death, it is finally destroyed. The man who denies his will to live reaches the final goal, which is to not live. Schopenhauer does leave one last hope beyond the grim disappearance of consciousness and of the world, admitting that it is possible that ultimate reality, which he called the thing in itself may possess attributes that we do not know about and that we cannot know. This reality would not be a state of knowledge since there would not be a subject and an object, that phenomenal and illusionary relationship that is required for knowledge, but it might resemble some experience that cannot be communicated and to which mystics refer to, but only in obscure vague ways. So, in the end like all great philosophers must, Arthur Schopenhauer admitted that he did not have all the answers but he thought he had some, and ultimately it is the questions his answers posed to others that became his most significant contribution, for the role of the philosopher and of philosophy itself is not only to solve our problems, but also to express points of views that stimulate us to further thought and consideration on human nature and the meaning of life, in that, he was incredibly successful.

Schopenhauer sur Le Style

« Style is the physiognomy of the mind. It is a more reliable key to character than the physiognomy of the body. » – Arthur Schopenhauer

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24.08.2018 | Danny J. D’Purb | DPURB.com

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6 réflexions sur “Essay // Philosophy Review: “The World as Will and Idea”, by Arthur Schopenhauer (1818)

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    Study of healthy adults finds 2 types of extroverts have more brain matter than most common brains

    The neuroanatomical delineation of agentic and affiliative extraversion:

    Extraversion is a fascinating personality dimension that consists of two major components, agentic extraversion and affiliative extraversion. Agentic extraversion involves incentive motivation and is expressed as a tendency toward assertiveness, persistence, and achievement. Affiliative extraversion involves the positive emotion of social warmth and is expressed as a tendency toward amicability, gregariousness, and affection.

    Here we investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of the personality traits of agentic and affiliative extraversion using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Brief Form, structural magnetic resonance imaging, and voxel-based morphometry in a sample of 83 healthy adult volunteers.

    We found that trait agentic extraversion and trait affiliative extraversion were each positively associated with the volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally (t’s ≥ 2.03, r’s ≥ .23, p’s < .05). Agentic extraversion was specifically and positively related to the volume of the left parahippocampal gyrus (t = 4.08, r = .21, p < .05), left cingulate gyrus (t = 4.75, r = .28, p < .05), left caudate (t = 4.29, r = .24, p < .05), and left precentral gyrus (t = 4.00, r = .18, p < .05) in males and females, and the volume of the right nucleus accumbens in males (t = 2.92, r = .20, p < .05).

    Trait affiliative extraversion was not found to be associated with additional regions beyond the medial orbitofrontal cortex.

    The findings provide the first evidence of a neuroanatomical dissociation between the personality traits of agentic and affiliative extraversion in healthy adults.

    Grodin, E. and White, T. (2015). The neuroanatomical delineation of agentic and affiliative extraversion. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci, 15(2), pp.321-334.

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    An essay on intelligence | Aristotle: there are natural masters and natural slaves, and intelligence is what distinguishes them…

    « The story of intelligence begins with Plato. In all his writings, he ascribes a very high value to thinking, declaring (through the mouth of Socrates) that the unexamined life is not worth living. Plato emerged from a world steeped in myth and mysticism to claim something new: that the truth about reality could be established through reason, or what we might consider today to be the application of intelligence. This led him to conclude, in The Republic, that the ideal ruler is ‘the philosopher king’, as only a philosopher can work out the proper order of things. And so he launched the idea that the cleverest should rule over the rest – an intellectual meritocracy…

    […]

    The idea that intelligence defines humanity persisted into the Enlightenment. It was enthusiastically embraced by Immanuel Kant, probably the most influential moral philosopher since the ancients. For Kant, only reasoning creatures had moral standing. Rational beings were to be called ‘persons’ and were ‘ends in themselves’. Beings that were not rational, on the other hand, had ‘only a relative value as means, and are therefore called things’. We could do with them what we liked.

    According to Kant, the reasoning being – today, we’d say the intelligent being – has infinite worth or dignity, whereas the unreasoning or unintelligent one has none. His arguments are more sophisticated, but essentially he arrives at the same conclusion as Aristotle: there are natural masters and natural slaves, and intelligence is what distinguishes them…

    by Stephen Cave, A philosopher by training, he has also served as a British diplomat, and written widely on philosophical and scientific subjects

    Full Article: https://aeon.co/essays/on-the-dark-history-of-intelligence-as-domination

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    Developmental Psychology: The 3 Major Theories of Childhood Development

    In 1984, Nicholas Humphrey described us as “nature’s psychologists’” or homo psychologicus. What he meant was that as intelligent social beings, we tend to use our knowledge of our own thoughts and feelings – “introspection” – as a guide for understanding how others are likely to think, feel and hence, behave. He also argued that we are conscious [i.e. we have self-awareness] precisely because such an attribute is useful in the process of understanding others and having a successful social existence – consciousness is a biological adaptation that enables us to perform introspective psychology. Today, we are confident in the knowledge that the process of understanding others’ thoughts, feelings and behaviour is an ability that develops through childhood and most likely throughout our lives; and according to the greatest child psychologist of all time, Jean Piaget, a crucial phase of this process occurs in middle childhood.

    Developmental psychology can be characterised as the field that attempts to understand and explain the changes that happen over time in the thought, behaviour, reasoning and functioning of a person due to biological, individual and environmental influences. Developmental psychologists study children’s development, and the development of human behaviour across the organism’s lifetime from a variety of different perspectives. Hence, if we are studying different areas of development, different theoretical perspectives will be fundamental and may influence the ways psychologists and scholars think about and study development.

    Through the systematic collection of knowledge and experiments, we can develop a greater understanding and awareness of ourselves than would otherwise be possible…

    Full Article: https://dpurb.com/2018/07/15/developmental-psychology-the-3-major-theories-of-development/

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    Why Kids With High IQs Are More Likely to Take Drugs

    People with high IQs are more likely to smoke marijuana and take other illegal drugs, compared with those who score lower on intelligence tests, according to a new study from the U.K.

    “It’s counterintuitive,” says lead author James White of the Center for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement at Cardiff University in Wales. “It’s not what we thought we would find.”

    The IQ effect was larger in women: women in the top third of the IQ range at age 5 were more than twice as likely to have taken marijuana or cocaine by age 30, compared with those scoring in the bottom third. The men with the highest IQs were nearly 50% more likely to have taken amphetamines and 65% more likely to have taken ecstasy, compared to those with lower scores.

    And these results held even when researchers controlled for factors like socioeconomic status and psychological distress, which are also correlated with rates of drug use.

    So why might smarter kids be more likely to try drugs? “People with high IQs are more likely to score high on personality scales of openness to experience,” says White. “They may be more willing to experiment and seek out novel experiences.”

    That could potentially be linked to the boredom and social isolation experienced by many gifted children, the authors note. But since a link between IQ and drug use remains independent of psychological distress, that can’t be all that’s going on. “It rules out the argument that the only reason people take illegal drugs is to self medicate,” says White…

    White, J. and Batty, G. (2011). Intelligence across childhood in relation to illegal drug use in adulthood: 1970 British Cohort Study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 66(9), pp.767-774.

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    Clinical Psychology: Learning Disabilities, Anxiety, Depression & Schizophrenia and the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

    CAMHS deal with the psychological issues of people under the age of 18. They are a non-specialist service and often refer to other more specialised departments following the initial assessment of patients. The most common cases tend to be adolescents with depression and anxiety whose manifestations are not different to those of adults and so are treated fairly similarly.

    Inclusivism in Learning Disabilities

    In 1969, Bengt Nirje adopted and developed the concept of normalisation in Sweden and beautifully described it as…
    “making available to all mentally retarded people patterns of life and conditions of everyday living which are as close as possible to the regular circumstances and ways of life of society.”

    – Nirje, 1980

    Learning Disability is not just an impairment in Cognition

    The social impairment of Learning Disabilities – US Statute 111 – 256: Rosa’s Law defines the factual impairment, the imposed or acquired disability and the awareness of being different.

    The Normalisation Theory

    This theory focuses on the mainstream social trends of social devaluation or deviancy making. Some categories of people tend to be valued negatively due to their behaviours, appearances and characteristics, and this places them at the risk of being devalued [according to the Normalisation Theory of Nirje on the societal processes he assumed] – people fulfil various social roles and stereotypes. As part of the deviancy making or social devaluation, the unsophisticated minds of the masses generally do not mean to stereotype, however they seem to do it unconsciously [the unconscious is a concept Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan acknowledged in their psychoanalytic theories of mental/psychological activity and its disorders land mental health problems linked to psychopathic tendencies in people towards others], i.e. deviant groups with social symbols or images that are at a higher risk of being devalued are the focus of the normalisation theory, which is believed to be done with the aim of providing them with the skills they need and eventually change the status of these deviant groups.

    Society tends to distance itself from deviant groups without any purpose or belonging, however psychologists provide support for the social integration and valued social participation of people with learning disabilities through exercises that involve learning through imitation. This challenges stereotypes within wider society through direct experiences of spending time with people who are affected by learning disabilities.

    While psychology evolves and sophisticated and modern theories about intelligence and communication such as our « Organic Theory » take shape, we hope that observations such as this one may be digested and understood by the masses, that is:

    « While the communicative patterns [language] in human primates vary with socio-behavioural and geographical patterns; creativity and IQ remain constant and do not change. Intelligence and creativity cannot be stopped because of linguistic differences, since talented and gifted humans do not choose the location of their birth nor their linguistic heritage but still contribute to the enhancement of our civilisation. »

    Which concludes that that the intelligence of an invidual when assessed on a range of variables [e.g. perception, fluid intelligence, reasoning, emotional intelligence, courage, etc] cannot be deduced by simply assessing their academic abilities, since human life has various sides to itself. Hence, the true worth and value of an individual may always remain a problem and a mystery to fully assess, and this seems to go in line with Jean Piaget’s deduction about the uniqueness of the human organism and mind.

    Full Article: https://dpurb.com/2018/07/02/clinical-psychology-learning-disabilities-anxiety-depression-schizophrenia-and-the-effectiveness-of-psychotherapy/

  2. Passion Of The Christ (2004) Extract / For Educational Purposes Only

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    Les Murs Porteurs

    « Des promesses la main sur le cœur
    Plus fort que d’être le meilleur
    Perdu dans le collimateur
    Qu’on soit soldat ou déserteur… »

    Traduction(EN):

    « Promises hand on the heart
    Stronger than being the best
    Lost in the collimator
    Whether soldier or deserter… »

    Florent Pagny, 2013, Vieillir Avec Toi

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    Selective forgetting of unreliable information can have the positive side effect of reducing mental clutter

    Forgetting is often considered to be bad, but selective forgetting of unreliable information can have the positive side effect of reducing mental clutter, thereby making it easier to access our most important memories. Prior studies of forgetting have focused on passive mechanisms (decay, interference) or on effortful inhibition by cognitive control. Here we report the discovery of an active mechanism for forgetting that weakens memories selectively and without burdening the conscious mind. Specifically, we show that the brain automatically generates predictions about which items should appear in familiar contexts; if these items fail to appear, their memories are weakened. This process is adaptive, because such memories may have been encoded incorrectly or may represent unstable aspects of the world.

    Kim, G., Lewis-Peacock, J., Norman, K. and Turk-Browne, N. (2013). Pruning of visual memories based on contextual prediction error. Journal of Vision, 13(9), pp.930-930.

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    Les Chiens du Monde, Les Boeufs, Les Sauvages, La Psychologie, La Théorie et Moi

    « J’ai vu un chien, avec 3 autres chiens des amériques et un indien… trop d’alcool, des égos qui surpassaient leurs personalités aux valeurs d’insect…

    Le chien voulait être guide de France et aussi ambassadeur culturel. Et moi je me demaindais s’il allait emmener ses invités des Amériques rencontrer ses camarades d’écoles, Pierrot, Marcel [le beau] et Didier. Alors, gentiment je les ai tous fait comprendre que s’ils ne voulaient pas se faire écrabouiller trop tôt, ils devraient aller jouer très [très] loin de moi, parce que je n’ai jamais eu de la patience pour les bals de sauvages et surtout pas de temps pour y consacrer!

    D’ailleurs concernant le chien, je ne pouvais pas savoir à quel moment de sa vie d’asticot et d’animal qu’il a pu développer l’idée que ses pulsions et ses fantasmes pouvaient définir le monde et les gens qui y habitent comme vous et moi ; comme Dieu qui marche et qui décore comme il le plait.

    Pour la dernière fois alors je leurs ai dit que je suis un homme pensant comme Descartes, et comme je pense, donc je suis, j’existe, je me construis, je me définis, j’absorbe la connaissance que je choisis et je me transforme et évolue avec… libre comme l’esprit des lumières et l’air, et non pas votre esclave!

    Alors, continuant mon discours adressé à ces imbéciles répugnants et répulsifs, j’ai ressenti le besoin d’ajouter qu’ils devraient parler et s’exprimer comme des hommes nobles, aussitôt qu’ils apprennent à utiliser les outils de la langue et de l’expression. Que les conversations inutiles avec des insinuations stupides et sans impactes tout comme les années à écouter leurs plaintes misérables jamais poursuivis par des actions concrètes, ne nous conduirons qu’a un monde statique, insipide, vulgaire et emmerdant, où les esprits sauvages oublient ou ne savent toujours pas que les individus ont et font des choix dans la vie, et que ces choix les conduisent à des résultats fort différents d’un individu à l’autre.

    Et là, j’ai soudainement pensé que, ça faisait un bail que j’avais été à la réception des pires banalités de sauvages de la part de ces certains cochons de la presse juive, de la crasse politique de gauche, du grand roi des porcs américains qui était aussi devenu l’amant de l’enfant à l’égo démesurée à l’Elysée, et aussi des bœufs frustrés et laids de France, alors je ressenti cette vague qui remonta jusqu’à mon cerveau, qui me poussait à en finir pour de bon avec ces sauvages et de aussi finaliser les termes qui vont avec les choix de l’individu [et oui moi ici], la connaissance et le talent.

    Alors, je leurs ai dit calmement que l’empire Français et son héritage ne leur appartenait pas, et que j’en suis aussi l’héritier et aussi un meilleur ambassadeur que les médiocrités dégradant à la France qu’ils sont, et aussi que leurs consentements ou leurs commentaires de sauvages mal-éduqués n’étaient pas requises pour le droit d’exister et de s’orienter dans la vie.

    Je suis toujours choqué par le fait que ces bouffons ont pu croire et se convaincre qu’un permis d’eux et leur bande d’animaux était requis pour exister en tant que français ou se définir dans une classe linguistique que seul l’intellectuel talentueux peut atteindre. Alors je leurs ai dit avec colère de fermer leurs gueules de chiens et d’arrêter de rêver.

    D’ailleurs les chiens, et les vieux chevaux fous, frustrés et impotents devraient lire et relire mes écrits sur la psychologie, les neurosciences et le langage dans la conception de soi, jusqu’à ce qu’ils n’ont plus de questions stupides et jusqu’à ce qu’ils comprennent et apprennent eux-mêmes à se cultiver, parce qu’il n’y a pas d’argument, il n’y en a plus, mais leurs actions nous démontrent, nous les hommes de la culture, des sciences et de la connaissance, leurs stupidités qui révèlent une haine primitive et biensûr la jalousie des chiens blancs frustrés. » -Danny D’Purb

    Traduction(EN) :

    “I saw a dog, with 3 other dogs from the Americas and an Indian… too much alcohol, egos that surpassed their personalities of insect values…

    The dog wanted to be a guide of France and also a cultural ambassador. And I was asking myself if he was going to take his guests from the Americas to meet his classmates, Pierrot, Marcel [pretty boy] and Didier. So, kindly I made them all understand that if they did not want to get squashed too early, they should go play very [very] far from me, because I have never had patience for the balls of savages and especially no time to devote to them!

    Besides, regarding the dog, I could guess at what point in his maggot and animal life that he could have developped the idea that his impulses and his fantasies could define the world and the people who live in it [like you and I]; Like God who walks and decorates as he pleases.

    For the last time I told them I’m a thinking man like Descartes, and as I think, so I am, I exist, I build myself, I define myself, I absorb the knowledge that I choose and I transform and evolve with it… I am free like the spirit of the enlightenment and air, and not your slave!

    So, continuing my speech to these disgusting and repellent imbeciles, I felt the need to add that they should speak and express themselves as noble men, as soon as they learn to use the tools of language and expression. That useless conversations with stupid insinuations and without impact just as the years of listening to their miserable complaints never pursued by concrete actions, will only lead us to a static, insipid, vulgar and boring world; where savage minds forget or still do not know that individuals have and make choices in life, and that these choices lead them to very different results from one individual to another.

    And then I suddenly thought that, it’s been a while since I have been at the receiving end of the worst banalities of savages from some pigs of the Jewish press, the political grime of the left, the great king of American pigs who had also become the lover of The child with the disproportionate ego at the Elysée, and also of the frustrated and ugly oxen of France, then I felt this wave that went up to my brain, which pushed me to end this for good with these savages and also finalise the terms that go with the choices of the individual [And yes me here], knowledge and talent.

    So I told them calmly that the French Empire and its inheritance did not belong to them, and that I am also the heir and also a better ambassador than the degrading mediocrities that they are to France, and also that the consents or comments of ill-educated savages were not required for the right to exist and to orient ourselves in life.

    I am still shocked by the fact that these buffoons were able to believe and convince themselves that a permit from them and their flock of animals was required to exist as a Frenchman or to be defined in a linguistic class that only the talented intellectual can achieve. So I told them angrily to shut their dog-mouths and stop dreaming.

    Besides dogs and frustrated and impotent crazy old horses should read and re-read my writings on psychology, neuroscience and language on self-conception until they no longer have stupid questions, and until they understand and learn to cultivate themselves, because there is no argument, there are no more, but their actions only show us, men of culture, science and knowledge, their stupidity which reveals a primitive hatred and of course the Jealousy of frustrated white dogs.” –Danny J. D’Purb

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    « Et pour la dernière fois, un théoricien psychologique qui traite le comportement et la sculpture du cerveau au niveau granulaire n’écoutera pas les histoires de Mandy. Même si le papa de Mandy peut payer chaque annonceur dans le monde pour le publier sur du papier toilette aux arrêts d’autobus. Nous sommes au-dessus de ça! Chaque fois qu’un éditeur drogué d’un coin obscur d’Internet crée un titre avec une image qu’il considère comme dégradant, cela n’a aucun effet sur nous, aucun, zéro. Avec ses doigts moites et collants claquant sur un clavier crasseux au 10ème étage d’un vieux bâtiment dans un coin entassé d’une jungle urbaine polluée. Nous sommes au-dessus de ces petites campagnes de diffamation organisées par les chiens politiques et les médias Juifs qu’ils aiment tant. Essayez de grandir! Il n’y a personne au monde d’intelligent qui se fait définir par vos pulsions… vous êtes pires ques des enfants. Les gens se définissent eux-mêmes… simple… vos opinions, ce ne sont que des simples opinions. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN): « And for the last time, a psychological theorist who deals behaviour & brain sculpting at granular level will not listen to Mandy’s stories. Even if Mandy’s daddy can pay every single advertiser in the world to publish it on toilet paper to bus stops. We are above this! Whenever some cracked out editor from some scummy corner of the internet creates a headline with an image he deems to be degrading, it has no effect on us, none, zero. With his sweaty sticky fingers slapping on a grimy keyboard on the 10th floor of an old building in a crammed corner of a polluted urban jungle. We are above these petty vilification campaigns arranged by the political dogs and the media Jews they love so much. Grow up! There is no one in the world of intelligence who is defined by your urges … you are worse than children. People define themselves … simple … your opinions are just simple opinions. » -Danny J. D’Purb

  3. «Ma Liberté de Penser» par Florent Pagny / Album: Ailleurs Land (2003)

    « Requiem Pour Un C*n » par Florent Pagny / Album: RéCréation (1999)

    25 Octobre 732 : La bataille de Poitiers, Charles Martel à la tête d’une coalition des peuples de la Gaule, écrase les envahisseurs musulmans.

    Traduction(EN): The battle of Poitiers, Charles Martel at the head of a coalition of the peoples of Gaul, crushes the Muslim invaders.

    Read More: http://resistancerepublicaine.eu/2017/10/25/25-octobre-732-charles-martel-nous-sauvait-de-la-barbarie-islamique/

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    18 Décembre 1118 : Libération de Saragosse de l’occupation musulmane par Alphonse Ier le Batailleur, roi d’Aragon.

    Traduction(EN): Liberation of Saragossa from the Moslem occupation by Alfonso I the Battler, king of Aragon.

    Read More: http://www.lhistoire.fr/chr%C3%A9tiens-juifs-et-musulmans-en-espagne-le-mythe-de-la-tol%C3%A9rance-religieuse-viiie-xve-si%C3%A8cle

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    5 Février 1917 : Naissance de Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, terroriste Algérien, un des fondateurs de l’organisation criminelle dite « Front de libération nationale » en 1954 ; commandant de la zone Aurès, liquidé par l’armée française le 22 mars 1956.

    Traduction (EN): Birth of Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Algerian terrorist, one of the founders of the criminal organization known as « National Liberation Front » in 1954; commander of the Aurès zone, killed by the French army on March 22, 1956.

    Read More: http://lequotidienalgerie.org/2010/05/29/mostefa-benboulaid-le-pur-dentre-les-purs/

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    30 Octobre 1806 : Capitulation de la ville de Stettin Szczecin face aux Français du général Lassalle.

    Traduction(EN): Capitulation of the city of Stettin Szczecin against the French of General Lassalle.

    Article: http://www.musee-armee.fr/collections/base-de-donnees-des-collections/objet/le-general-antoine-de-lasalle-recevant-la-capitulation-de-la-garnison-de-stettin-le-30-octobre-18-1.html

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    14 Octobre 1806 : Bataille d’Auerstaedt, le 3° Corps du maréchal Davout défait les Prussiens plus de 2 fois supérieurs en nombre

    Traduction(EN): Battle of Auerstaedt, the 3rd Corps of Marshal Davout defeats the Prussians more than twice as many in number

    Article: https://www.napoleon.org/histoire-des-2-empires/articles/la-gloire-du-3e-corps-darmee-de-davout-dans-la-campagne-de-prusse-de-1806-1807/

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    27 Octobre 1662 : Louis XIV rachète Dunkerque à l’Angleterre, la ville devient définitivement Française.

    Traduction(EN): Louis XIV bought Dunkerque from England, the city became definitely French.

    Article: http://histoiresdunord.blogspot.com/2010/03/dunkerque-un-vieil-enjeu-europeen.html

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    15/16 octobre 1793 : Wattignies – Les Français de Jourdan & Lazare Carnot battent les Anglo-Autrichiens du prince Frédéric de Saxe-Cobourg.

    Traduction(EN): Wattignies – The Frenchmen of Jourdan & Lazare Carnot beat the Anglo-Austrians of Prince Frederick of Saxe-Cobourg.

    Article: http://villesetvillagesdelavesnois.org/musees/museewattignieslavictoire/museedewattignieslavictoire.htm

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    14 octobre 1066 : Bataille d’Hastings, les Normands de Guillaume le Conquérant battent les troupes Anglo-Saxonnes du roi Harold.

    Traduction(EN): Battle of Hastings, the Normans of William the Conqueror defeat the Anglo-Saxon troops of King Harold.

    14 octobre 1066: Harold II, roi d’Angleterre est tué au cours de la bataille d’Hastings face Guillaume le Bâtard, duc de Normandie (°1022)

    Traduction(EN): Harold II, King of England is killed during the Battle of Hastings facing William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy (° 1022)

    Article: http://www.etaletaculture.fr/histoire/guillaume-le-conquerant-la-conquete-de-l-angleterre/

    Livre: Guillaume le conquérant, pour l’honneur du bâtard / Lien: https://livre.fnac.com/a1923246/Bouteville-Guillaume-le-conquerant-pour-l-honneur-du-batard

    _________________________________________________________________

    Le Tombeau de Napoléon, l’immortel: La Méditation des Grands Hommes (2013)

    Napoleon Total War Complete Soundtrack

    12 Mars 1938 : Profitant de l’impuissance [et de l’impotence (métaphoriquement)] des régimes parlementaires français et anglais et de leur structure peu pratique qui détruit la liberté dans la créativité politique [par exemple expansion impériale], l’armée allemande du Troisième Reich d’Adolf Hitler envahit l’Autriche et le Fuhrer devint conquérant en étendant l’empire de son peuple sans tirer une seule balle.

    Traduction (EN): 12 March 1938 : Taking advantage of the incapability [and impotence (metaphorically)] of the French and English parliamentary regimes and their impractical structure that destroys freedom in political creativity [e.g. imperial expansion], the German army of Adolf Hitler Third Reich invaded Austria, and the Fuhrer became conqueror by extending the empire of his people without firing a single bullet.

    Documentaire(FR): L’Allemagne selon Joseph Goebbels (2004) / Education Histoire

    ________

    « Sur la question du patrimoine comme de l’histoire, je sens que beaucoup d’idiots comprennent toujours mal les termes. L’histoire est un parcours écrit des événements de l’héritage humain et de son évolution et doit être continuellement travaillé et écrit dans le présent, pas simplement une reconstitution théâtrale du passé pour rester son prisonnier, mais plutôt suivre le cours des multiples facettes du processus d’évolution. En ce qui concerne le patrimoine, c’est le système cognitif ancré par l’environnement [avec des influences neuro-génétiques possibles] chez l’individu sous forme de langage, de philosophie, de parole, d’éducation, d’art et d’expression. Je trouve cela étrange en 2018 quand des imbéciles ignorants et déconnectés semblent toujours incertains par l’innovation de la théorie organique dans la psycholinguistique, la science psychologique, la culture [schémas comportementaux géo-environnementaux] et la philosophie liée à l’organisme individuel lorsque le patrimoine en question est complètement synchronisé avec les piliers fondateurs de l’environnement lui-même; dans mon cas, un héritage franco-britannique originaire de l’europe de l’ouest. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN): « On the question of heritage like history, I feel that many idiots still misunderstand the terms. History is a written parcours of events in human legacy and its evolution and is to be continuously worked on and written in the present, not simply a theatrical recreation of the past to remain its prisoner, but rather to follow the course of the multi-faceted process of evolution.. As for heritage, it is the cognitive system embedded environmentally [with possible neuro-genetic influences] in the individual in the form of language, philosophy, speech, education, arts and expression. I find it strange in 2018 when some ignorant unexposed imbeciles still seem baffled by the Organic’s theory’s innovation in psycho-linguistics, psychological science, culture [geo-environmental behavioural patterns] and philosophy related to the individual organism when the heritage in question is completely synchronised with the founding pillars of the environment itself; in my case a Franco-British heritage of Western European origin. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    ________

    « L’un des principaux objectifs de la théorie organique est de souligner toutes les choses que vous faites mal depuis le début des temps; comment le manque de développement philosophique et de gestion de l’ego mènera à la fin de l’humanité: une espèce qui ne peut pas encore gérer sa propre existence, n’ayant toujours pas compris les lois fondamentaux de l’évolution environnementale. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN): « One of the main objectives of the Organic theory, is to point out all the things you have been doing wrong since the beginning of time. How the lack of philosophical development & ego management will lead to the end of humanity: a species that cannot manage its own existence yet, having not yet understood the fundamental laws of environmental evolution. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    ________

    “Le language, la seule capacité sophistiquée qui sépare les hommes des animaux. Sans la philosophie et la profondeur linguistique, vous restez un animal … peut-être bien formé, ou techniquement doué avec un bon salaire, mais un animal néanmoins. Le discours ne devrait pas être une horreur pour les tympans occidentaux, c’est ce qu’on appelle un usage grammaticalement incorrect du langage. Pour que le langage soit considéré comme correct grammaticalement, il devrait être parlé de la façon dont il était censé être parlé. Et, John B. Thompson est un sociolinguiste de Cambridge, et Pierre Bourdieu un sociolinguiste de Paris … mais vous, qui et quoi exactement êtes-vous? Diplomatie? J’apprécie … mais comment vont parler vos légions à la fin? Avec des signes et des dessins? D’ailleurs, en tant qu’homme de lettres et de mots, je pensais qu’ils auraient déjà compris que la communication [l’héritage vocale et écrite] est vitale pour les vraies relations humaines pour moi [le psychologue] et aussi dans la création d’un environnement harmonieux pour un groupe harmonieux.” -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN): “Language, the only sophisticated ability that separates men from animals. Without philosophy & linguistic depth, you remain an animal… maybe well trained, or technically gifted with a good salary, but an animal nonetheless. Speech should not be a horror to Western eardrums, this is what is called as grammatically incorrect usage of language. For language to be considered correct grammatically, it should be spoken in the way it was meant to be spoken. And, John B. Thompson is a sociolinguist from Cambridge, and Pierre Bourdieu a sociolinguist from Paris… but you, who & what exactly are you? Diplomacy? I appreciate … but how will your legions talk in the end? With signs and drawings? Besides, as a man of letters and words, I thought that they would already have understood that communication [vocal & written heritage] is vital in regards to true human relations for me [the psychologist] but also in the creation of a harmonious environment for a harmonious group.” -Danny J. D’Purb

    ________

    «Les membres de certaines nations intelligentes qui ont adopté la tradition des lumières s’aiment, se poussent et s’encouragent mutuellement pour aller de l’avant. Ils se voient comme des frères et sœurs et membres d’une communauté unie avec les mêmes chances de réussir dans la vie. Mais plus important encore, ils respectent réellement ceux qu’ils savent qu’ils ne pourront jamais égaler en termes de capacités et de compétences; ils les appellent même véritablement et affectueusement «master», ou «maître», comme un geste d’honnêteté et d’encouragement. Le fait est que la plupart des gens veulent être reconnus, mais ne semblent jamais vouloir reconnaître les autres. Eh bien, si nous voulons de la croissance et un changement de notre statut dans la société par les fruits et la sueur de notre travail, nous devons d’abord reconnaître le fait que le statut existe et que les individus ne sont pas égaux en fonction de leurs compétences acquises,capacités individuelles, éducation, présentation, développement, appartenance culturelle, langage et vocabulaire. N’oubliez jamais le terme ‘singularité’!” -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN):”Members of some enlightened & intelligent nations actually love, push and encourage each other to move forward. They see each other as brothers/sisters & a member of a united community with the same chances of succeeding in life. But more importantly, they actually respect those they know they will never be able to match in terms of abilities & skills; they even genuinely & lovingly call them “master”, or “maître”, as a gesture of honesty and encouragement. The point is, most people want to be recognised, but never seem to be willing to recognise others. Well, if we want growth along with a change to our status in society through the fruits and sweat of our hard work, then we should first acknowledge the fact that ‘status’ actually exists, and individuals are not equal in regards to their acquired skills, individual abilities, education, presentation, development, cultural belonging, language and vocabulary. Never forget the term singularity!” -Danny J. D’Purb

    ________

    « Qui suis je? Pour qui je parle? Je parle pour ma géographie, pour son patrimoine et pour son peuple, en tant qu’un Européen de l’Ouest Franco-Britannique fier, avec des racines bien plantés en Europe de l’Ouest, avec son sang qui traverse un cerveau d’héritage 100% Franco-Britannique, par sa formation, son évolution, son développement , ses langages, ses désirs, sa perception, sa vision et sa passion – beaucoup de choses peuvent être révélées sur les gens par qui et à quoi ils se comparent. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN): « Who am I? Who do I speak for? I speak for my geography, its heritage & people, as a proud Franco-British European, with roots well planted in Western Europe, with blood rushing through a brain that is of 100% Franco-British heritage, by its education, evolution, development, languages, desires, perception, vision & passion – much can be revealed about people by who & what they compare themselves to. » -Danny J. D’Purb

  4. « Il nous faut des réformes à la politique parce en ce moment c’est une route trop facile au pouvoir pour les animaux sans pudeur, sans valeur et sans grandeur d’esprit. C’est une des raisons de la destruction de la civilisation aujourd’hui.; des animaux sauvages aux contrôles. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN): « We need reforms to politics because at the moment it is a road too easy to power for animals without shame, without value and without greatness of mind. This is one of the reasons for the destruction of civilisation today; wild animals at the controls. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Hitler VS Jew World Order: In Search of Honour, Dignity, Truth & Perspectives

    ________

    « Nous avons permis aux étrangers de s’installer, maintenant ils ralentissent la civilisation en raison de handicaps adaptatifs. La pauvreté dans le monde est en baisse, la relocalisation a du sens. Le progrès et le développement à l’échelle mondiale signifie que la relocalisation basée sur des politiques socio-économiques, linguistiques, et culturelles devrait être mise en œuvre à l’avenir si les gouvernements sont réalistes sur la paix mondiale et la compréhension de la science de l’évolution et son application à l’humanité. Nous avons suffisamment de preuves pour considérer l’opération de relocalisation et le traité diplomatique pour travailler sur une séparation complète des civilisations pour la paix avec des liens dans les affaires et l’éducation si nécessaire. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN): « We’ve allowed aliens to settle, now they slow civilisation down due to adaptative handicaps. World poverty is down, relocation makes sense. Progress & development globally means relocation based on socio-economic,linguistic and cultural policies should be implemented in the future if governments are realistic about world peace and the understanding of the science of evolution and its application to humanity. We have enough evidence to consider the relocation operation & the diplomatic treaty to work on a complete separation of civilisations for peace with links in business and education if necessary. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    ________

    « C’est ce en quoi je crois, non seulement pour moi mais pour ma génération et pour la future génération de mes enfants à naître. Donc, je ne peux pas m’asseoir paisiblement et regarder Londres ou Paris se transformer en un zoo, un espace d’extraterrestres, le bordel de Jacob, le royaume d’Al-kebab ou la ville de Bongo. Pourquoi? Parce que cela irait non seulement contre les lois divines de l’évolution environnementale et de la science pour un groupe harmonieux, mais cela détruirait aussi l’atmosphère et les traditions artistiques que beaucoup d’Européens de l’Ouest comme moi ont l’intention de transmettre à leurs enfants … de transmettre l’héritage Occidental, pas des traditions extraterrestres / étrangères. Les gens ne sont pas égaux, de même que les aliments, les fruits, les peintures, la culture, l’éducation, la beauté, l’économie, le patrimoine, l’art et les marchés. Les humains sont physiologiquement semblables, mais pas égaux! Je répète, similaire pas égal! Nous devons cesser de faire circuler ces mensonges atroces sur l’égalité parce que ces imbéciles de globalistes communistes détourne l’argument encore plus et pensent qu’en mélangeant les médiocrités étrangères avec les meilleurs de l’Ouest, ça devrait donner une image de l’égalité: c’est un mensonge! L’Europe de l’Ouest doit réaffirmer ses règles, ses priorités, son peuple, son authenticité, son histoire, sa culture et ses normes – notation scientifique et raisonnement! Nous vivons à une époque où la destruction de l’Europe de l’Ouest approche et où les mensonges des «Droits de l’Homme» doivent être décomposés et analysés. Les globalistes ont dupé des politiciens pathétiques, stupides et corrompus de l’Ouest pour signer une loi sur les droits de l’homme, pour ensuite lâcher des milliers de mendiants du tier-monde sur notre territoire, qui ensuite deviennent notre responsabilité légale, ce n’est pas de l’éthique mais une tactique manipulatrice pour surcharger l’Europe de l’Ouest. Être capable de justifier et d’expliquer notre «aversion» pour des groupes d’organismes ou de modes de vie étrangers lorsqu’il s’agit de destruction culturelle est vital – avec toutes sortes d’histoires pathétiques créées par les médias juifs traditionnels, les mondialistes et les communistes pour détruire le concept scientifiquement puissant de l’évolution (culturel, linguistique & génétique). Que savez vous? Qui êtes vous? Que savez vous de mon quotidien ou de l’histoire des lettres, du langage, de la connaissance, de l’art et de la science? » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN): « That is what I believe in, not only for myself but for my generation, and the future generation of my unborn children. So, I could not sit down peacefully and watch London or Paris turn into a zoo, an alien space, the brothel of Jacob, Al-kebab kingdom or Bongo City. Why? Because it would not only go against god’s laws of environmental evolution and science for a harmonious group, but it would also destroy the atmosphere and artistic traditions that many Western Europeans like myself intend to pass down to their children… and yes, they intend to pass down Western legacy, not alien/foreign traditions. People are not equal, similarly neither are foods, fruits, paintings, culture, education, beauty, economy, heritage, art & markets. Humans are similar physiologically, but not equal! I repeat, similar NOT equal! We need to stop circulating these atrocious lies about equality because these global communist imbeciles divert the argument even further and think that by mixing foreign mediocrities with the best of the West, it should give an image of ‘equality: it’s a lie! Western Europe needs to re-assert its rules, priorities, people, authenticity, history, culture & standards – scientific grading & reasoning! We are living in times where the destruction of Western Europe is looming & the lies of « Human Rights » need to be broken down & analysed. Globalists have fooled pathetic, stupid and corrupt Western politicians to sign human rights act, to then drop thousands of 3rd world beggars on our territory that then suddenly become our legal responsibility, this is not ethical but manipulative to overload the West with undesirable liabilities. Being able to justify & explain our « dislike » for groups of foreign organisms or lifestyles when it concerns cultural destruction is vital. Instead however, we are bombarded with all sorts of pathetic stories created by the mainstream Jewish media, the globalists and the communists to destroy the scientifically powerful concept of evolution (cultural, linguistic & genetic). What do you know? Who are you? What do you know about my daily life? Or the history of words, language, knowledge, art and science? » -Danny J. D’Purb

    ________

    « En parlant des meilleurs, c’est clair non pas seulement pour les grands intellectuels de notre ère mais aussi pour une section du publique cultivé, que les médias aujourd’hui préfèrent la médiocrité conformiste en masse, plutôt que d’inviter les élites ou les meilleurs de notre temps. Ils préfèrent ces médiocrités dégueulasses qu’ils nous forcent à consumer sur leurs médias juives, mensongères, ataviques et corrompus; des débats vides, des opinions d’animaux sans crédibilité qu’ils déguisent en James Bond de Pacotille. C’est l’heure d’une grande révolte citoyenne pour un nouveau système où la démocratie n’est pas appliqué d’une façon qui permet aux sauvages des communes d’accéder au pouvoir et de détruire la civilisation moderne. Nous avons besoin d’un nouveau système avec une constitution écrite et des conseils [et des académies indépendants] qui mettent l’accent sur ses propres organismes [ceux qui s’identifient complètement à la nation], sa stabilité, son expansion et sa longévité. La démocratie ne devrait être utilisée que pour sélectionner des représentants régionaux et ne pas les transformer en chefs de département, qui seraient convertis en conseils indépendants pleinement fonctionnels et maintenus par l’Etat lui-même. Parce ce que aujourd’hui avec les sauvages des communes qu’on pousse dans des positions de pouvoir au delà de leurs comprehension, on se retrouve en tant que citoyens honnêtes avec nos vies privées violées et ces sauvages n’ont pas de grandeur d’esprit, de morales, ou de philosophie pour leur rappeler que leur devoir c’est de prioriser la population et le pays. Le moment du grand changement et de la grande révolution approche, et j’ai l’intention de la guider pour une civilisation digne de coloniser l’univers. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN): « Speaking of the best, it is clear not only for the great intellectuals of our era but also for the cultured section of the public, that the media today prefers mass conformist mediocrity, rather than to invite elites or the greatest figures of our time. They prefer these disgusting mediocrities that they force us to consume on their Jewish media outlets that are untrue, atavistic and corrupt, full of empty debates with animals without credibility that they disguise as cheap James Bond giving their opinions. It is time for a great citizen revolt for a new system where democracy is not applied in a way that allows the savages of the Commons to gain power and destroy modern civilisation. We need a new system with a written constitution and boards [and independent academies] that focuses on its own organisms [those who fully identify to the nation], stability, expansion and longevity. Democracy should only be used to select regional representatives and not turn them into heads of department, which would be converted into fully functioning independent boards and maintained by the state itself. Because today with the savages of the Commons that we push in positions of power beyond their understanding, we find ourselves as honest citizens with our private lives violated and these savages have no greatness of spirit, morals, or philosophy to remind them that their duty is to prioritise the population and the country. The moment of great change and the great revolution is approaching, and I intend to guide it for a civilisation worthy of colonising the universe » -Danny J. D’Purb

    ________

    Comment j’ai cessé d’être juif

    « Supportant mal que les lois israéliennes m’imposent l’appartenance à une ethnie fictive, supportant encore plus mal d’apparaître auprès du reste du monde comme membre d’un club d’élus, je souhaite démissionner et cesser de me considérer comme juif ». Shlomo Sand

    Article: https://www.franceculture.fr/conferences/iremmo/comment-jai-cesse-detre-juif

    ________

    « Aux personnes frustrées et intellectuellement désespérant, qui ne savent toujours pas pourquoi ils se lèvent chaque matin et quel héritage ils ont l’intention de quitter lorsqu’ils meurent:

    « Vous devez apprendre l’art de vous taire quand il n’y a rien à dire, surtout devant un être supérieur intellectuellement. Il faut comprendre que les individus ne sont pas et n’ont jamais été égaux en matière de compétences. Pensez à retourner à l’école et quand vous le faites, apprenez l’art de poser les bonnes questions. Parce que la façon dont vous voyez les choses n’est pas la façon dont le monde fonctionne, en d’autres termes, ce que vous voyez n’est pas ce que vous obtenez. » – Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN): « To the frustrated and intellectually hopeless people who still do not know why they wake up every morning and what legacy they intend to leave when they die:

    « You have to learn the art of silence when there is nothing to say, especially in front of individuals who are superior intellectually. It must be understood that individuals are not and have never been equal in terms of skills. Go back to school and when you do, learn the art of asking the right questions. Because the way you see things is not the way the world works, in other words, what you see is not what you get. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    ________

    « Beaucoup de choses peuvent être révélées sur une personne par qui et à quoi elles se comparent. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN): « Much can be revealed about a person by who & what they compare themselves to. » -Danny J. D’Purb

    ________

    «Eh oui… les hommes qui en font le choix et qui ont l’éducation nécessaire pour les orienter, se construisent eux-mêmes et changent de registres d’identification culturelle/nationale quand ils ont la capacité de développement, le patrimoine linguistique et les gènes intellectuels avec la maîtrise de l’expression et du discours. C’est alors qu’ils arrivent à changer de registre d’identification et représentent une nation ou un empire [ou deux?] – ne faites plus d’erreurs! En 2018, en ce qui concerne la Théorie Organique [qui met l’accent sur la singularité de l’organisme individuel], il n’y a pas vraiment de débat entre intellectuels dans la psychologie, mais simplement la découverte des nouvelles perspectives mécaniques/scientifiques qu’elle introduit pour expliquer la conception psychologique et philosophique de l’individu – comme l’a formulé Carl Sagan, «la science est une façon de penser bien plus qu’un corps de savoir». Donc la construction [formation], qui peut être « mécanique » et structurée dans son application [par ex. apprentissage à distance par texte / vidéo / audio], se développe indirectement pour créer et donner une dimension socioculturelle à l’individu une fois que les compétences désirées ont été pleinement adoptées, maîtrisées et déployées dans la vie. Le terme «social» est aussi trop vague pour être important en tant que tel … le terme «social» peut simplement être défini comme l’interaction [de tous les types] entre les organismes. Donc, le terme «social» n’est pas vraiment valide scientifiquement puisqu’il manque de précision lui-même et peut se référer à un large éventail de variables. Ce qu’il nous reste alors, c’est seulement l’individu, ses choix, sa (ses) langue(s), ses capacités (par ex. de synthèse culturelle] et son développement: les principaux facteurs observables / analysables dans l’explication scientifique, psychologique et philosophique de sa conception singulière [à noter que chaque conception est unique à l’organisme humain individuel comme les empreintes digitales, la forme du crâne, ou la structure du corps: singularité]. Par conséquent: formation, méritocratie, ordre et amour… simple!»-Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction (EN): « Yes … men who make the choice and who have the necessary education to guide them, build themselves and change cultural / national identification registers when they have the capacity for development, the linguistic heritage and the genetics of intellect with a mastery of expression and speech. That is when they manage to change their registry of identification and represent a nation or an empire [or two?] – make no [stupid] mistakes! In 2018, as far as ‘The Organic Theory’ [which focuses on the singularity of individual organism] is concerned, there is no debate between intellectuals in psychology, but simply the discovery of the new mechanical / scientific perspectives that it introduces to explain the psychological and philosophical conception of the individual – as Carl Sagan phrased it, ‘Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge’. So construction [training], which ‘can be’ mechanical and structured in its application [e.g. distance learning by text / video / audio], develops indirectly to create and give a socio-cultural dimension to the individual once the desired skills have been fully adopted, mastered, and deployed in life. The term ‘social’ is also far too vague to be important as such… the term ‘social’ can simply be defined as the interaction [of all types] between organisms. So the term ‘social’ is not really valid scientifically and it lacks precision itself since it may refer to a wide range of variables. What we are left with then is only the individual, his/her choices, language(s), abilities [e.g. of cultural synthesis] and development: the major observable/analysable factors in the scientific, psychological & philosophical explanation of his/her singular conception [to note that each conception is unique to the individual human organism such as his/her fingerprints, skull shape, or body structure: singularity]. Hence: training, meritocracy, order and love … simple! » -Danny J. D’Purb

    ________

    «J’étudie le cerveau, la psychologie, la littérature, l’art, le développement, la singularité, le langage et la conception … vous croyez en quoi?» -Danny J. D’Purb

    Traduction(EN): “I study brains, psychology, literature, art, development, singularity, language & conception… you believe in what?” -Danny J. D’Purb

    ________

    « La nécessité de formuler un système est une sorte de dépravation, un désir stupide d’être un tyran ». -Friedrich Nietzsche

    Traduction (EN): « The need to formulate a system is a kind of depravity, a stupid desire to be a tyrant. » -Friedrich Nietzsche

    ________

    “Argumenter avec une personne qui a renoncé à l’usage de la raison, c’est comme administrer des médicaments a un mort.” -Thomas Paine

    Traduction(EN): “To argue with a person who has renounced the use of reason is like administering medicine to the dead.” -Thomas Paine

    ________

    « La vraie question n’est pas de savoir si les machines pensent mais si les hommes le font. Le mystère qui entoure une machine à penser entoure déjà un homme pensant. » -B.F. Skinner

    Traduction(EN): « The real question is not whether machines think but whether men do. The mystery which surrounds a thinking machine already surrounds a thinking man.” -B.F. Skinner

    Design, Selection & Stress in Occupational & Organisational Psychology

  5. ________

    Scientists discover 1,000 new “intelligence genes”

    Intelligence is associated with important economic and health-related life outcomes1. Despite intelligence having substantial heritability2 (0.54) and a confirmed polygenic nature, initial genetic studies were mostly underpowered3,4,5. Here we report a meta-analysis for intelligence of 78,308 individuals. We identify 336 associated SNPs (METAL P < 5 × 10−8) in 18 genomic loci, of which 15 are new. Around half of the SNPs are located inside a gene, implicating 22 genes, of which 11 are new findings. Gene-based analyses identified an additional 30 genes (MAGMA P < 2.73 × 10−6), of which all but one had not been implicated previously. We show that the identified genes are predominantly expressed in brain tissue, and pathway analysis indicates the involvement of genes regulating cell development (MAGMA competitive P = 3.5 × 10−6). Despite the well-known difference in twin-based heritability2 for intelligence in childhood (0.45) and adulthood (0.80), we show substantial genetic correlation (rg = 0.89, LD score regression P = 5.4 × 10−29). These findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of intelligence.

    Sniekers, S., Stringer, S., Watanabe, K., Jansen, P., Coleman, J., Krapohl, E., Taskesen, E., Hammerschlag, A., Okbay, A., Zabaneh, D., Amin, N., Breen, G., Cesarini, D., Chabris, C., Iacono, W., Ikram, M., Johannesson, M., Koellinger, P., Lee, J., Magnusson, P., McGue, M., Miller, M., Ollier, W., Payton, A., Pendleton, N., Plomin, R., Rietveld, C., Tiemeier, H., van Duijn, C. and Posthuma, D. (2017). Genome-wide association meta-analysis of 78,308 individuals identifies new loci and genes influencing human intelligence. Nature Genetics, 49(7), pp.1107-1112.

    « N’ayez pas peur de la grandeur: certains hommes naissent grands, certains atteignent la grandeur et certains ont la grandeur poussée sur eux. » -William Shakespeare

    Traduction(EN): « Be not afraid of greatness: some men are born great, some achieve greatness and some have greatness thrust upon them. » -William Shakespeare

    Napoleon sauve la République de la Démocratie du Gouvernement Pourri

    Napoléon Bonaparte: La Légende [Quelques extraits du film d’Yves Simoneau / 2002]

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