Essay // The «FRANÇAIS»: Verbs & Tenses for Advanced English Learners of French

La France En Soi

PRESENT TENSES (EN) > (FR)

Simple Present

E.g. 1. Danny D’Purb’s « Organic Theory » is a psychological theory of the 21st century inspired by the French school of thought and the theory of evolution that is meant to change individuals’ conception and perception of themselves and the world around them and it has begun to influence and inspire minds all around the globe, smashing through cultural barriers.

[FR] (Indicatif) Présent Simple – Ex.1. La « Théorie organique » de Danny D’Purb est une théorie psychologique du 21ème siècle inspirée de l’école de pensée française et de la théorie de l’évolution qui est destinée à changer la conception et la perception que les individus ont d’eux-mêmes et du monde qui les entoure et qui a commencé à influencer et inspirer les esprits du monde entier, brisant des barrières culturelles.

La Théorie Grise

E.g. 2. They walk home.

[FR] (Indicatif) Présent Simple – Ex.2. Ils rentrent chez eux.

E.g. 3. I live in England.

[FR] (Indicatif) Présent Simple – Ex.3. Je vis en Angleterre.

E.g.4. Luxury is only a matter of money, but elegance is a matter of personality and intelligence.

[FR] (Indicatif) Présent Simple – Ex.4. Le luxe n’est qu’une question d’argent, mais l’élégance est une question de personnalité et d’intelligence.

What is up there?

E.g.5. The Republic is secular, France is Christian.

[FR] (Indicatif) Présent Simple – Ex.4. La République est laïque, la France est chrétienne.

 

Present Continuous Tense

E.g.1. They are studying to improve their French in order to be part of a sophisticated society and not be treated like outcasts.

[FR] Présent Continu – Ex.1. Ils sont en train d’étudier pour améliorer leur français afin de faire partie d’une société sophistiquée et de ne pas être traités comme des exclus.

Doublage Vocal

E.g.2. He is working on the dubbing in the studio for the french audience to give those foreign characters a french presence, voice and we could say a french « soul », and with his unbelievable flexibility and almost divine vocal talent – which allows him to recreate any sound coming from human vocal chords – he has been the speaking and singing voice of many in the french realm.

[FR] Présent Continu – Ex.2. Il est en train de travailler sur le doublage en studio pour l’audience française afin de donner à ces personnages étrangers une présence, une voix et on pourrait dire une « âme » française, et avec son incroyable flexibilité et son talent vocal presque divin – qui lui permet de recréer tous les sons issus des cordes vocales humaines – il a été la voix parlante et chantante de beaucoup dans le monde français.

E.g.3. They are walking home.

[FR] Présent Continu – Ex.3. Ils sont en train de rentrer chez eux.

 

Present Perfect Tense

E.g. 1. I have lived in England since 1987 and may soon look to periodically alternate with the south-east of France.

[FR] (Indicatif) Passé Composé – Ex.1. J’ai vécu en Angleterre depuis 1987 et j’envisage bientôt d’alterner périodiquement avec le sud-est de la France.

E.g. 2. The lady next door has always been obese, shabbily dressed, savagely cultured, grostesque without any style, fairly ugly, argumentative, repulsive and loud with a masculine voice.

[FR] (Indicatif) Passé Composé – Ex.2. La dame d’à côté a toujours été obèse, minablement habillée, sauvagement cultivée, grotesque sans aucun style, assez laide, argumentative, répulsive et forte avec une voix masculine.

E.g.3. The lack of dietary education along with the over consumption of carbohydrate-based foods including sugar and fried mass-produced fatty junk food have been two of the main causes of obesity and overweight people globally; ruining the silhouette of mankind.

[FR] (Indicatif) Passé Composé – Ex.3. L’absence d’éducation alimentaire et la surconsommation d’aliments à base de glucides, dont le sucre et la malbouffe grasse frite, ont été deux des principales causes de l’obésité et du surpoids globalement, ruinant la silhouette de l’humanité.

uomo vitruviano - da vinci (1490) d'purb site

«L’Uomo vitruviano» ou «L’Homme de Vitruve» par Léonard de Vinci (1490)

E.g.4. Bill Gates’s vision has given the world a platform and a set of tools that empowers individuals with the ability to educate themselves and express themselves, while also exploring and unleashing their own creativity to achieve their goals.

[FR] (Indicatif) Passé Composé – Ex.4. La vision de Bill Gates a donné au monde une plate-forme et un ensemble d’outils qui donnent aux individus la capacité de s’éduquer et de s’exprimer, tout en explorant et en libérant leur propre créativité pour atteindre leurs objectifs.

E.g.5.  Public trust in mass media has reached a historic low due to lies, biased and exagerrated perspectives and the distortion of information by immoral and corrupt media executives over the years.

[FR] (Indicatif) Passé Composé – Ex.5. La confiance du public dans les médias de masse a atteint un creux historique en raison des mensonges, des perspectives biaisées et exagérées et de la déformation de l’information par les dirigeants immoraux et corrompus des médias au fil des ans.

E.g.6. The obesity epidemic has blighted England for decades and the authorities’ efforts to address this serious health issue are insufficient, being the most obese country in Western Europe.

[FR] (Indicatif) Passé Composé – Ex.6. L’épidémie d’obésité a fait des ravages en Angleterre depuis des décennies et les efforts des autorités pour s’attaquer à ce grave problème de santé sont insuffisants, étant le pays le plus obèse d’Europe de l’ouest.

 

Present Perfect Continuous

E.g.1. I have been living here for years.

[FR]: No such tense in French, we use 2 tenses instead, to translate the Present Perfect Continuous we use the “Passé Composé”

Ex.1. J’ai vécu ici pendant des années. (Indicatif / Passé Composé)

Le Roi Lion au Royaume Sauvage

Image: Le Roi Lion (1994)

E.g.2. The Lion King is an animation about love between wild animals in a savage kingdom that has been capturing the attention of children since its release in 1994.

Ex.2. Le Roi Lion est une animation sur l’amour entre animaux sauvages dans un royaume sauvage qui a attiré l’attention des enfants depuis sa sortie en 1994. (Indicatif / Passé Composé)

E.g.3. The authority meant to protect scholars from the bad management of atavistic universities has always been acting as nothing more than a repugnant lickspittle towards the institutions it was meant to scrutinise.

Ex.3. L’autorité destinée à protéger les chercheurs de la mauvaise gestion des universités ataviques n’a toujours été qu’un répugnant lèche-botte à l’égard des institutions qu’elle devait scruter. (Indicatif / Passé Composé)

________________________

On Parle Français

PAST TENSES (EN) > (FR)

Simple Past Tense

E.g. 1. Malcolm de Chazal lived in Vacoas-Phoenix in 1905.

[FR] (Indicatif) Passé Simple – Ex. Malcolm de Chazal vécut à Vacoas-Phoenix en 1905.

E.g. 2. Comics gradually became a respected form of litterature as the quality of writing evolved over the years because of writers such as Hergé.

[FR] (Indicatif) Passé Simple – Ex. 2. Les bandes dessinées devinrent progressivement une forme de littérature respectée à mesure que la qualité de l’écriture évoluait au fil des ans grâce à des écrivains comme Hergé.

On Achève Bien Les Cons

Image: Phil Castaza © On Achève Bien Les Cons (2003)

E.g. 4. As Pierre Manent said, « The people who govern us do not represent us anymore, they monitor us. »

FR] (Indicatif) Passé Simple – Ex. 4. Comme dit Pierre Manent : «Les gouvernants ne nous représentent plus, ils nous surveillent.»

E.g.5. The genius Nikola Tesla died alone and in poverty.

[FR] (Indicatif) Passé Simple – Ex. 5. Le génie Nikola Tesla mourut seul et dans la pauvreté.

Le desir qui me guide - Tesla

Nikola Tesla (1856 – 1943) / Traduction (EN): Citation 1: « If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration. » | Citation 2: « The desire that guides me in all I do is the desire to harness the forces of nature to the service of mankind. »

E.g.6. Their love was a display of some form of eternal youth of the soul, sincerity, honesty, purity of the heart, boiling passion and powerful instinctive attraction; that set an example of the kind of love that had not been known for generations and made millions dream and envious all over the world.

[FR] (Indicatif) Passé Simple – Ex. 6. Leur amour était une forme de jeunesse éternelle de l’âme, de sincérité, d’honnêteté, de pureté du cœur, de passion bouillante et de puissante attirance instinctive ; cela donnait un exemple du genre d’amour qui n’avait pas été connu depuis des générations et faisait rêver et envier des millions de personnes dans le monde entier.

Past Continuous Tense

E.g.1. I was reading when she arrived.

[FR] (Indicatif) Imparfait – Ex.1 Je lisais quand elle est arrivée.

E.g.2. Picasso was working in his studio in 1932.

[FR] (Indicatif) Imparfait – Ex.3. Picasso travaillait dans son atelier en 1932.

Picasse en Studio

Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973)

 

Past Perfect Tense

E.g.1. I had felt her warmth and modesty before our engagement.

[FR] (Indicatif) Plus-que-parfait – Ex.1. J’avais ressenti sa chaleur et sa modestie avant nos fiançailles.

E.g.2. The father is a charitable man who treats his workers with dignity and had devoted a lot of his time to the betterment of people’s lives.

[FR] (Indicatif) Plus-que-parfait – Ex.2. Le père est un homme charitable qui traite ses travailleurs avec dignité et avait consacré beaucoup de son temps à l’amélioration de la vie des gens.

E.g.3. Besides creating skilled individuals in empirical, scientific and financial fields, the great majority of people from the industrialised and mechanical societies of the anglosphere had always suffered from a lack of human dignity, and had never grasped or felt the values and philosophies that guide and unite the soul and collective mind of the French civilisation.

[FR] (Indicatif) Plus-que-parfait – Ex.3. À part de créer des personnes qualifiées dans les domaines empirique, scientifique et financier, la grande majorité des gens des sociétés industrialisées et mécaniques du monde anglo-saxon avait toujours souffert d’un manque de dignité humaine et n’avait jamais compris ni ressenti les valeurs et les philosophies qui guident et unissent l’âme et l’esprit collective de la civilisation française.

Les-trois-mousquetaires-Le-classique-d-Alexandre-Dumas-version-Audiard

« Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno » or « Un pour tous, tous pour un » / Image: André Hunebelle (1953) / « Les Trois Mousquetaires » écrit par Alexandre Dumas en 1844

Past Perfect Continuous

E.g.1. Having an exceptional and unique personality, I had been watching her for some time before she turned around and smiled.

[FR] (Indicatif) Imparfait – Ex.1. Ayant une personnalité exceptionnelle et unique, je la surveillais depuis un certain temps avant qu’elle ne se retourne et sourit.

E.g.2. I had been listening to the song titled « Automne » by Francis Cabrel when the inspiration came to lighten the gloom, and the poem dedicated to her materialised.

[FR] (Indicatif) Imparfait – Ex.2. J’écoutais la chanson « Automne » de Francis Cabrel quand l’inspiration est venue éclaircir l’obscurité, et le poème qui lui est dédié s’est matérialisé.

Francis Cabrel d'purb website dpurb.com

E.g.3. I had been thinking of doing it as a gesture of appreciation, for the honour of one of greats who marked and shaped a generation.

[FR] (Indicatif) Imparfait – Ex.3. Je pensais le faire comme un geste d’appréciation, pour l’honneur d’un des grands qui a marqué et façonné une génération.

________________________

 

FUTURE TENSES (EN) > (FR)

Simple Future Tense

E.g. 1. In the endless clash between nonsensical & childish gossip and the organic theory based on psychological science and philosophy, there is no doubt that the latter argument will always win, no matter the size of the nonsense.

[FR] (Indicatif) Futur Simple – Ex.1. Dans le conflit sans fin entre les ragots insensés et enfantins et la théorie organique basée sur la science psychologique et la philosophie, il ne fait aucun doute que ce dernier argument l’emportera toujours, peu importe l’ampleur de l’absurdité.

E.g. 2. After my books are published, I will visit Africa and Asia and hopefully go through Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Russia, Japan and maybe a few more countries.

[FR] (Indicatif) Passé Simple – Ex. 3. Après la publication de mes livres, je visiterai l’Afrique et l’Asie et j’espère traverser le Maroc, l’Algérie, l’Égypte, Israël, le Bangladesh, le Pakistan, l’Inde, la Russie, le Japon et peut-être quelques autres pays.

Morocco and Bangladesh

Image: Les foules du Maroc et du Bangladesh

E.g. 3. The career path of a consultant, requires a person who will be flexible in dealing with members of the public all around the world from all walks of life, from lawyers to peasants, intellectuals to soldiers, public figures to accountants, business owners to domestics, producers to actors, composers to third world crowds, and philosophers to railway engineers.

[FR] (Indicatif) Futur Simple – Ex.3. Le parcours d’un consultant exige une personne qui saura faire preuve de souplesse dans ses rapports avec le public du monde entier de tous les horizons, qu’il s’agisse d’avocats, de paysans, d’intellectuels ou de soldats, de personnalités publiques ou de comptables, de chefs d’entreprise ou de domestiques, de producteurs ou d’acteurs, de compositeurs ou de gens du tiers monde, de philosophes ou de techniciens ferroviaires.

E.g. 4.will take the plane and go to meet her in a few years.

[FR] (Indicatif) Futur Simple – Ex.4. Je prendrai l’avion et j’irai la rencontrer dans quelques années.

 

Future Continuous Tense

E.g.1. We will be travelling by boat.

[FR] (Indicatif) Futur Simple – Ex.1 Nous voyagerons en bateau.

E.g.2. We will be transforming the globe for the betterment of our civilisation and a better future for our children.

[FR] (Indicatif) Futur Simple – Ex.2. Nous transformerons le monde pour le progrés de notre civilisation et un avenir meilleur pour nos enfants.

Passeport Pour Le Monde

 

Future Perfect Tense

E.g. 1. We will have conquered continents by the time you understand the political atavism & archaic social structure.

[FR] (Indicatif) Futur Antérieur – Ex 1. Nous aurons conquis des continents au moment où vous comprenez l’atavisme politique et la structure sociale archaïque.

E.g. 2. When your tenancy ends, you will have realised that the minds of the majority reflect the same metathesiophobic traits of the regime that brainwashed and imposed a captive and uncreative mindstate on them.

[FR] (Indicatif) Futur Antérieur – Ex. 2. Lorsque votre location [OU: ta location / Less Formal] prendra fin, vous aurez réalisé [OU: Tu auras realisé / Less Formal] que les esprits de la majorité reflètent les mêmes traits métathésiophobes du régime qui leur a fait subir un lavage de cerveau et leur a imposé un état d’esprit captif et non créatif.

E.g. 3. By the end of the day, you will have understood, that the old woman was nostalgic and refused to believe in science and live in the present.

[FR] (Indicatif) Futur Antérieur – Ex. 3. À la fin de la journée, vous aurez compris que la vieille femme était nostalgique et refusait de croire en la science et de vivre dans le présent.

Arthur Helman Roach (19th Century) British. Portrait of an Old Woman holding a Stick wearing a White Bonnet

Arthur Helman Roach (XIXe siècle) Peintre anglais. Portrait d’une vieille femme tenant un bâton avec un bonnet blanc

E.g. 4. By the end of the riots, we hope that the politicians will have understood that the educated world has had enough of the corrupt and outdated system where the people’s wellbeing is not a priority.

Ex. 4. À la fin des émeutes, nous espérons que les politiciens auront compris que le monde éduqué en a assez du système corrompu et dépassé où le bien-être de la population n’est pas une priorité.

 

Future Perfect Continuous

E.g. 1. By the end of your courses, you will have been studying for 12 years.

[FR] (Indicatif) Futur Antérieur – Ex. 1. À la fin de vos cours, vous aurez étudié pendant 12 ans.

Le Cri Du Peuple

Image: Les Français protestant contre le système politique corrompu, insensible et dépassé

E.g. 2. By the time of his [or her] death, they will have been enduring his [or her] grotesque habits, lack of civility and sophistication, inability to change and resolve issues through dialogue, unwillingness to understand others perspectives, inability to deal with, accept and rectify mistakes, selfish behaviour, procrastinations and lack of organisation and lack of urgency for about 70 years.

[FR] (Indicatif) Futur Antérieur – Ex. 2. Au moment de sa mort, ils auront enduré ses habitudes grotesques, son manque de civilité et de sophistication, son incapacité à changer et à résoudre les problèmes par le dialogue, son refus de comprendre les points de vue des autres, son incapacité à gérer, accepter et corriger les erreurs, son comportement égoïste, ses procrastinations et son manque d’organisation et d’urgence pendant environ 70 ans.

Ossements humains

Image: Un archéologue analysant les ossements d’un homme ou d’une femme

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CONDITINAL TENSES (EN) > (FR)

Zero Conditional Tense

E.g. If ice gets hot it melts.

[FR] Translation: Si la glace devient chaude, elle fond.

 

First Conditional Tense

E.g. [1] If the experiment involving the freezing of monkey testicle tissue is successful, the researchers will be reavealing a new way to fight infertility in prepubescent boys who undergo radiation or chemotherapy for cancer to the public.

[FR] Translation: Ex. [1] Si l’expérience de congélation du tissu testiculaire du singe est couronnée de succès, les chercheurs trouveront une nouvelle façon de lutter contre l’infertilité chez les garçons prépubères qui subissent une radiothérapie ou une chimiothérapie pour le cancer et la rendront publique.

Baby rhesus macaque Grady

Image: Le macaque rhésus Grady, montré ici lors de son examen de deux semaines, a été conçu par fécondation in vitro à partir du sperme d’un échantillon de tissu testiculaire congelé et immature qui a été greffé sur le singe donneur. Grady, qui a connu un développement normal, fêtera son premier anniversaire le 16 avril prochain. / Source: Science News

[OR]

If the villagers are late, we will be taking off without them.

[FR] Translation: Ex. [1] Si les villageois sont en retard, nous décollerons sans eux.

E.g. [2] If your director finds out about this, you are in serious trouble, since he lacks the sophistication to manage, listen to or consider constructive criticism from people who are smarter or more creative than him in some aspects of the job.

[FR] Translation: Ex. [2] Si votre directeur l’apprend, vous aurez de sérieux problèmes, car il n’a pas la sophistication nécessaire pour gérer, écouter ou prendre en considération les critiques constructives de personnes qui sont plus intelligentes ou plus créatives que lui dans certains aspects du travail.

E.g. [3] If I have enough support, I will change the political and educational system globally.

[FR] Translation: Ex. [3] Si j’ai suffisamment de soutien, je changerai le système politique et éducatif à l’échelle mondiale.

 

Second Conditional Tense

E.g. [1] If she was in Nigeria, she would be getting up now.

[FR] Translation: Ex. [1] Si elle était au Nigeria, elle se lèverait. [Indicatif Imparfait + Conditionnel Présent]

Nigeria Culture and History

Image: Les traditions culturelles au Nigeria

E.g. [2] If I knew his political agenda, I would tell you and that could enlighten you.

[FR] Translation: Ex. [2] Si je connaissais son programme politique, je vous le dirais et cela pourrait vous éclairer.  [Indicatif Imparfait + Conditionnel Présent]

E.g. [3] If I had enough support, I would change the political and educational system globally.

[FR] Translation: Ex.[3] Si j’avais assez de soutien, je changerais le système politique et éducatif à l’échelle mondiale. [Indicatif Imparfait + Conditionnel Présent]

 

Third Conditional Tense

E.g. [1] If Ilia Ivanov had understood genetics, genes and organic evolution in 1927, he would not have inseminated two female chimpanzees with human sperm or tried to inseminate african women with monkey sperm without their consent.

[FR] Translation : Si Ilia Ivanov avait compris la génétique, les gènes et l’évolution organique en 1927, il n’aura pas inséminé deux chimpanzés femelles avec du sperme humain, ni tenté d’inséminer des femmes africaines avec du sperme de singe sans leur consentement. [Indicatif Plus-que-parfait + Indicatif Future Antérieur]

Ilya Ivanov, Human Sperm & Female Chimpanzees 1927

Image: Vassili Egorov/TASS / Source: Russia Beyond

OR

If you had told me, I would have spoken about that incident to the shareholders.

[FR] Translation : Si vous m’aviez dit, j’aurais parlé de cet incident aux actionnaires. [Indicatif Plus-que-parfait + Indicatif Future Antérieur]

E.g. [2] If she had had time, she would have visited me.

[FR] Translation: E.x. [2] Si elle avait eu le temps, elle m’aurait visité. [Indicatif Plus-que-parfait + Indicatif Future Antérieur]

E.g. [3] If I had had enough support, I would have changed the political and educational system globally.

[FR] Translation: E.x. [3] Si j’avais eu assez de soutien, j’aurais changé le système politique et éducatif à l’échelle mondiale. [Indicatif Plus-que-parfait + Indicatif Future Antérieur]

 

Mixed Conditional Tense

E.g. [1] I would be playing chess if I had not (or hadn’t) had a headache

[FR] Translation: E.g. [1] Je jouerais aux échecs si je n’avais pas eu mal à la tête. [Conditionnel Présent + Indicatif Plus-que-parfait]

E.g. [2] If this thing had occurred that thing would happen.

[FR] Translation: E.g. [2] Si cette chose s’était produite, cette chose arriverait. [Indicatif Plus-que-parfait + Conditionnel Présent]

E.g. [3] If you had worked harder at school, you would have a better profession now [OR] You would have a better profession now if you had worked harder at school.

[FR] Translation: E.g. [3] Si vous aviez travaillé plus dur à l’école, vous auriez une meilleure profession maintenant [Indicatif Plus-que-parfait + Conditionnel Présent] [OR] Vous auriez une meilleure profession maintenant si vous aviez travaillé plus dur à l’école.

L'Artiste dpurb.com d'purb

E.g. [4] If you had caught that plane you would be dead now [OR] You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.

[FR] Translation: E.g. [4] Si vous aviez pris cet avion, vous seriez mort. [Indicatif Plus-que-parfait + Conditionnel Présent] [OR] Vous seriez mort si vous aviez pris cet avion. [Conditionnel Présent + Indicatif Plus-que-parfait]

E.g. [5] If you had spent all your money, you would not buy these cufflinks.

[FR] Translation: E.g. [5] Si vous aviez dépensé tout votre argent, vous n’achèteriez pas ces boutons de manchette. [Indicatif Plus-que-parfait + Conditionnel Présent]

E.g. [6]. I would be a multimillionaire now if I had invested in fried chicken in London.

[FR] Translation: E.g. [6]. Je serais multimillionnaire maintenant si j’avais investi dans du poulet frit à Londres. [Conditionnel Présent + Indicatif Plus-que-parfait]

Poulet Frit A Londres Chicken Shop Nation England

Image: Femme mangeant de la malbouffe dans une rue de Londres

 

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EXEMPLES DE CONJUGAISON [INDICATIF, SUBJONCTIF, CONDITIONNEL, IMPÉRATIF, INFINITIF, PARTICIPE (Présent et Passé)]

Les verbes qu’on va utiliser comme exemples sont « Apprendre, Changer et Conquérir »

INDICATIF

Utilisation de l’indicatif

Le mode indicatif s’utilise partout où on peut exprimer le réel. Il n’y a pas de place au doute ou à l’incertitude. Pour cela, on préfère utiliser le conditionnel ou le subjonctif.

On a 4 temps simples à l’indicatif (le présent, l’imparfait, le passé simple et le futur simple) et 4 temps composés (passé composé, plus-que-parfait, le passé antérieur et le futur antérieur) qui permettent d’exprimer les actions présentes, les actions passées ou les actions à venir.

L’indicatif est le temps qui permet de saisir les faits, les actes, les opinions ou les pensées dans leur réalisation. Il s’agit de loin du mode le plus utilisé dans les besoins de la conversation courante. Il est également le mode des phrases négatives et interrogatives.

Même dans une proposition subordonnée après « que », on peut retrouver l’indicatif s’il s’agit d’une action certaine. Dès qu’on introduit le doute ou la notion de probabilité, on utilise le subjonctif. L’exemple suivant illustre ceci :

il est probable qu’il viendra. (indicatif)

il est possible qu’il vienne. (subjonctif)

On remarquera cependant que dans la langue parlée, on utilise de plus en plus le subjonctif après le « après que » ce qui n’est pas forcément juste puisque l’action est déjà terminée donc réelle.

On peut également noter que lorsqu’une proposition est complètement fausse ou irréelle et que cela ne laisse plus aucun doute, on utilise l’indicatif à nouveau pour exprimer une réalité :

Il s’est mis en tête qu’elle viendra le voir.

Inconscient du manque de profondeur et de finesse dans leur pensée, les soldats ennemis pensent qu’ils gagneront cette bataille tactique.

Toy Soldiers

Image: Soldats miniatures

 

Exemples de conjugaison [INDICATIF]:

Présent

j’apprends
tu apprends
il apprend
nous apprenons
vous apprenez
ils apprennent

je change
tu changes
il change
nous changeons
vous changez
ils changent

je conquiers
tu conquiers
il conquiert
nous conquérons
vous conquérez
ils conquièrent

 

Passé Simple

j’appris
tu appris
il apprit
nous apprîmes
vous apprîtes
ils apprirent

je changeai
tu changeas
il changea
nous changeâmes
vous changeâtes
ils changèrent

je conquis
tu conquis
il conquit
nous conquîmes
vous conquîtes
ils conquirent

 

Passé Composé [Present Perfect en Anglais]

j’ai appris
tu as appris
il a appris
nous avons appris
vous avez appris
ils ont appris

j’ai changé
tu as changé
il a changé
nous avons changé
vous avez changé
ils ont changé

j’ai conquis
tu as conquis
il a conquis
nous avons conquis
vous avez conquis
ils ont conquis

 

Passé antérieur

j’eus appris
tu eus appris
il eut appris
nous eûmes appris
vous eûtes appris
ils eurent appris

j’eus changé
tu eus changé
il eut changé
nous eûmes changé
vous eûtes changé
ils eurent changé

j’eus conquis
tu eus conquis
il eut conquis
nous eûmes conquis
vous eûtes conquis
ils eurent conquis

 

Imparfait [Past Continuous & Past Perfect Continuous en Anglais]

j’apprenais
tu apprenais
il apprenait
nous apprenions
vous appreniez
ils apprenaient

je changeais
tu changeais
il changeait
nous changions
vous changiez
ils changeaient

je conquérais
tu conquérais
il conquérait
nous conquérions
vous conquériez
ils conquéraient

 

Futur simple

j’apprendrai
tu apprendras
il apprendra
nous apprendrons
vous apprendrez
ils apprendront

je changerai
tu changeras
il changera
nous changerons
vous changerez
ils changeront

je conquerrai
tu conquerras
il conquerra
nous conquerrons
vous conquerrez
ils conquerront

 

Plus-que-parfait [Past Perfect en Anglais]

j’avais appris
tu avais appris
il avait appris
nous avions appris
vous aviez appris
ils avaient appris

j’avais changé
tu avais changé
il avait changé
nous avions changé
vous aviez changé
ils avaient changé

j’avais conquis
tu avais conquis
il avait conquis
nous avions conquis
vous aviez conquis
ils avaient conquis

 

Futur antérieur

j’aurai appris
tu auras appris
il aura appris
nous aurons appris
vous aurez appris
ils auront appris

j’aurai changé
tu auras changé
il aura changé
nous aurons changé
vous aurez changé
ils auront changé

j’aurai conquis
tu auras conquis
il aura conquis
nous aurons conquis
vous aurez conquis
ils auront conquis

________________________

 

SUBJONCTIF

Utilisation du subjonctif

Le subjonctif est le temps du doute, de l’incertitude et de l’éventuel. Le subjonctif a quatre temps mais l’imparfait et le plus-que-parfait sont d’un usage relativement rare surtout à l’oral. Contrairement à l’indicatif, le temps du subjonctif ne permet pas vraiment de situer l’action sur la ligne du temps. On met le temps plus pour respecter la concordance des temps et ainsi reproduire le temps de la proposition principale. Même le présent et le passé du subjonctif ont plutôt un sens qui permet de savoir si on parle d’une révolue ou non plus que d’une pure notion temporelle. Regardez ces deux phrases. On voit clairement que dans la seconde, on parle d’action achevée plus que de temporalité.

Je veux qu’il voie le résultat aujourd’hui.

Je veux qu’il ait vu le résultat aujourd’hui.

Lorsque la proposition principale exprime un sentiment, un désir, un souhait, un ordre ou une attente, on utilise également le subjonctif car on ne peut jamais savoir si cela va se réaliser.

Je souhaite qu’ils s’en aillent.

Je souhaite qu’il joue du Florent Pagny.

Florent Pagny La Beauté du Doute dpurb.com d'purb site

Image: Florent Pagny / La Beauté du Doute (2017)

On notera que dans certaines conditions, on peut utiliser indifféremment l’indicatif et le subjonctif. C’est le cas après des verbes tels que admettre, comprendre, expliquer, supposer ou encore les verbes d’opinion de façon négative.

Je pense que nous pouvons le faire. (indicatif)

Je ne pense pas qu’ils puissent le faire. (subjonctif)

Je ne pense pas qu’ils peuvent le faire. (indicatif)

 

Exemples de conjugaison [SUBJONCTIF]:

Présent

que j’apprenne
que tu apprennes
qu’il apprenne
que nous apprenions
que vous appreniez
qu’ils apprennent

que je change
que tu changes
qu’il change
que nous changions
que vous changiez
qu’ils changent

que je conquière
que tu conquières
qu’il conquière
que nous conquérions
que vous conquériez
qu’ils conquièrent

 

Passé

que j’aie appris
que tu aies appris
qu’il ait appris
que nous ayons appris
que vous ayez appris
qu’ils aient appris

que j’aie changé
que tu aies changé
qu’il ait changé
que nous ayons changé
que vous ayez changé
qu’ils aient changé

que j’aie conquis
que tu aies conquis
qu’il ait conquis
que nous ayons conquis
que vous ayez conquis
qu’ils aient conquis

 

Imparfait

que j’apprisse
que tu apprisses
qu’il apprît
que nous apprissions
que vous apprissiez
qu’ils apprissent

que je changeasse
que tu changeasses
qu’il changeât
que nous changeassions
que vous changeassiez
qu’ils changeassent

que je conquisse
que tu conquisses
qu’il conquît
que nous conquissions
que vous conquissiez
qu’ils conquissent

 

Plus-que-parfait

que j’eusse appris
que tu eusses appris
qu’il eût appris
que nous eussions appris
que vous eussiez appris
qu’ils eussent appris

que j’eusse changé
que tu eusses changé
qu’il eût changé
que nous eussions changé
que vous eussiez changé
qu’ils eussent changé

que j’eusse conquis
que tu eusses conquis
qu’il eût conquis
que nous eussions conquis
que vous eussiez conquis
qu’ils eussent conquis

________________________

 

CONDITIONNEL

Utilisation du conditionnel

Le conditionnel existe sous trois temps : le présent, le passé première forme et le passé deuxième forme.

Commençons par le conditionnel présent. Il peut servir à :

.      Donner une information incertaine, non confirmée.

Ex. D’après moi, il serait sur le point de repartir pour l’Afrique, le continent qui lui convient, près de son peuple.

Negro Society Africa Rebirth

Image: Un orateur nègre s’adressant à son peuple en Afrique

.      Exprimer un futur dans le passé

Il dit (présent) qu’il ne reviendra (futur) pas avec nous.

Il a déclaré (passé) qu’il ne reviendrait (conditionnel) pas avec nous.

.      Faire des hypothèses, exprimer une éventualité

Travailler dans le secteur médical lui conviendrait.

Penser pour la société, le futur, le peuple, le développement et la sophistication est une lourde responsabilité morale qui fait de l’intellectuel un travailleur sans vacances, mais qui pour lui serait naturel à cause de son talent.

La demoiselle me semble disciplinée dans son régime alimentaire et je pense qu’elle s’en passerait des têtes de nègre pour le dessert et prendrait  plutôt une bonne tasse de café.

Têtes de Negre -Tunnocks Teacakes

Image: Une tête-de-nègre (ou tête au chocolat) est une pâtisserie constituée de deux meringues entre lesquelles repose de la crème au beurre, le tout est enrobé de chocolat. [Tunnocks teacakes en anglais]

.      Demander poliment, proposer, exprimer un souhait, conseiller

Pourriez-vous m’indiquer l’heure, s’il vous plaît.

J’aimerais beaucoup faire du cheval.

 

Quant au conditionnel passé, il peut servir à :

.      Donner une information incertaine, non confirmée.

Il aurait demandé à changer de classe.

.      Exprimer l’irréel du passé (le regret)

Il aurait dû travailler davantage pour réussir ses examens brillament et décrocher une bourse.

.      Evoquer une action antérieure à une autre action au conditionnel présent.

Il a dit qu’il viendrait (conditionnel) dès qu’il aurait terminé (conditionnel passé 1re forme) ses projets d’écriture.

La Plume Parlante de Danny SfP II

Image: Danny D’Purb et sa plume parlante (2019)

On remarquera que sur les deux formes du conditionnel passé, le conditionnel passé première forme est de loin le plus utilisé. La deuxième forme du passé est utilisée pour marquer un langage soutenu surtout à l’écrit. Il est d’une utilisation beaucoup plus rare.

 

Exemples de conjugaison [CONDITIONNEL]:

Présent

j’apprendrais
tu apprendrais
il apprendrait
nous apprendrions
vous apprendriez
ils apprendraient

je changerais
tu changerais
il changerait
nous changerions
vous changeriez
ils changeraient

je conquerrais
tu conquerrais
il conquerrait
nous conquerrions
vous conquerriez
ils conquerraient

 

Passé 1re forme

j’aurais appris
tu aurais appris
il aurait appris
nous aurions appris
vous auriez appris
ils auraient appris

j’aurais changé
tu aurais changé
il aurait changé
nous aurions changé
vous auriez changé
ils auraient changé

j’aurais conquis
tu aurais conquis
il aurait conquis
nous aurions conquis
vous auriez conquis
ils auraient conquis

 

Passé 2e forme

j’eusse appris
tu eusses appris
il eût appris
nous eussions appris
vous eussiez appris
ils eussent appris

j’eusse changé
tu eusses changé
il eût changé
nous eussions changé
vous eussiez changé
ils eussent changé

j’eusse conquis
tu eusses conquis
il eût conquis
nous eussions conquis
vous eussiez conquis
ils eussent conquis

________________________

 

IMPÉRATIF

Utilisation de l’impératif

L’impératif est le mode par excellence pour exprimer un ordre à la forme positive ou une défense à la forme négative. L’impératif peut également s’utiliser pour donner un conseil ou faire une suggestion sous couvert d’un ordre.

Viens me consulter ! (impératif d’ordre) Ne viens pas chez moi sans rendez-vous ! (impératif de défense)

À l’écrit, l’ordre est exprimé à partir de l’infinitif. Ceci permet d’adoucir un petit peu la notion d’ordre. Un exemple simple est de prendre un manuel d’automobile : Faire vérifier l’huile du moteur périodiquement est mieux que Faites vérifier l’huile du moteur périodiquement.

L’impératif passé est relativement rare mais il permet d’exprimer une notion d’antériorité par rapport à une autre action :

Ayez fini d’organiser votre bureau à mon retour.

L’impératif n’est pas le seul à permettre d’exprimer l’ordre. Pour des raisons de politesse, on préfère exprimer un ordre de manière indirecte souvent par une question :

Pouvez-vous ne pas ajouter de sel SVP ? [SVP = S’il vout plait / Equivalent of « Please » in French]

Pourriez-vous venir un instant SVP ?

Pourriez-vous demander à l’actrice d’enfiler son costume pour la scène romantique?

P & D en mode moyen age dpurb.com d'purb website

 

Exemples de conjugaison [IMPÉRATIF]:

Présent

apprends
apprenons
apprenez

Change
changeons
changez

Conquiers
conquérons
conquérez

 

Passé

aie appris
ayons appris
ayez appris

aie changé
ayons changé
ayez changé

aie conquis
ayons conquis
ayez conquis

________________________

 

INFINITIF

Choisir entre l’infinitif ou l’impératif

Autant le dire tout de suite, pour donner des instructions ou des consignes, l’infinitif « choisir une option » ou l’impératif « choisissez une option » sont tous les deux corrects. La différence entre les deux vient de la nuance que cela amène. Par contre, dans un même texte, il faut veiller à l’uniformité en employant le même mode partout.

Choisir un infinitif permet de s’adresser de manière plus générale à un groupe de personnes sans viser quelqu’un de particulier. Il a un rôle plus neutre et distant. On utilise alors la troisième personne et on peut faire précéder la phrase par une formule de politesse comme « prière de » ou « veuillez » ou tout simplement « s’il vous plaît ».

L’impératif au contraire permet de cibler une personne en particulier et est beaucoup plus direct par la notion d’ordre qu’il introduit. On utilise alors la deuxième personne et on place la marque de politesse en fin de phrase.

Par exemple, « déposer votre demande » est une remarque générale au contraire de « déposez votre demande » qui est beaucoup plus direct pour une personne., et dans ce deuxième exemple, il serait plus convenable d’ajouter « s’il vous plaît » à la fin de la phrase.

 

L’infinitif convient aux instructions courtes comme :

les consignes (ex : prière de garer la voiture)

les guides d’instructions (ex: commencer à traire la vache après avoir bien attaché les gobelets trayeur)

les marches à suivre (comme pour les appareils électriques)

les indications techniques (par exemple, en informatique, ex. utiliser les combinaisons CTRL+S périodiquement pour sauvegarder votre travail)

les règles de sécurité (par exemple, prière de porter votre casque sur le chantier)

Construction Site Men

Image: Hommes travaillant sur un chantier de construction

les modes d’emploi (ex : appuyer sur le bouton OFF pour éteindre l’appareil)

les recettes (ex : ajouter les amandes organiques tendrement moulues /OU/ ajouter de l’huile d’olive aux pommes de terre écrasées /OU/ ajouter du vinaigre blanc /OU/ poudrer légèrement de sel, etc)

les panneaux (ex : défense de stationner)

 

L’impératif convient généralement bien pour :

dans les demandes d’emploi (ex : commencez par décrire votre parcours universitaire)

dans certains formulaires (ex : faites parvenir ce formulaire par fax)

pour les affiches de sécurité où l’on veut viser directement le public cible (ex : respectez le calme des résidents SVP ! /OU/ Évitez les attroupements)

Concerts

Image: Des spectateurs à un concert

 

Exemples de conjugaison [INFINITIF]:

Présent

apprendre

changer

conquérir

 

 

 

Passé

avoir appris

avoir changé

avoir conquis

________________________

 

PARTICIPE [Présent et Passé]

Utilisation du Participe Présent

  1. Emploi

On emploie le participe présent pour apporter une caractéristique. Il est surtout utilisé à l’écrit et il remplace une relative.

Exemples :

– Nous cherchons une secrétaire parlant le japonais, l’allemand, le français et l’anglais couramment. (= qui parle)

– Je choisirai les personnes ayant obtenu un baccalauréat scientifique. (= qui ont obtenu)

– Le réalisateur voulait un film faisant rire les petits et les grands. (=qui fait)

Le Grand Bain

Image: Gilles Lellouche / Le Grand Bain (2018)

 

Attention !

Le participe présent est invariable.

Exemple :

-Les documents concernant la nouvelle réforme sont sur le bureau de Pierre. (=qui concernent)

-Les pommades repoussant les moustiques sont conseillées dans les pays chauds. (=qui repoussent)

-Les vivres nourrissant les enfants victimes de la guerre en Syrie ont vite été distribués. (=qui nourrissent)

Les Enfants de la guerre en Syrie

Image: Les enfants de la Syrie

  1. Formation

On forme le participe présent à partir du radical de la première personne du pluriel auquel on ajoute la terminaison -ant.

Exemples :

– offrir : nous offrons = offrant

– donner : nous donnons = donnant

– guider : nous guidons = guidant

– éduquer : nous éduquons = éduquant

– chanter : nous chantons = chantant

« Mir » par A Riot in Heaven, un groupe non signé franco-britannique formé à l’Île Maurice basé à Londres et a Paris (Pas de violation des droits d’auteur prévu. Tous droits réservés aux artistes et affiliés.)

– innover : nous innovons = innovant

– sophistiquer: nous sophistiquons = sophistiquant

– évoluer : nous évoluons = évoluant

– aimer: nous aimons = aimant

 

Attention!

Trois verbes font exception.

– être = étant

– avoir = ayant

– savoir = sachant

Exemples :

– Le politicien, le rédacteur en chef et le journaliste sans pudeur du petit journal étant responsables des campagnes de diffamation, ont été attachés, torturés et finalement poignardés à mort.

Zone Interdite Un Imbécile vient de crever

Image: Une scène de crime

– Les médiocrités ayant compris le niveau, la formation, le développement, l’influence et la réputation d’élite internationale du consultant, acceptèrent leur infériorité intellectuelle et décidèrent de s’écarter de son chemin.

– Nous sommes en train de former une équipe avec des membres sachant respecter les choix et la vie privée des individus tout en les inspirant à dépasser leurs limites.

 

Utilisation du Participe Passé

Le participe passé est employé comme un verbe ou comme un adjectif qualificatif.

Participe Passé comme un Verbe :

Comme un verbe, le participe passé peut être employé seul, avec les auxiliaires, dans la subordonnée participiale et dans une forme composée.

  1. Employé seul :

Employé seul, le participe passé se rapporte à un nom ou pronom.

Par ex.

Détesté par une grande majorité des héritiers de la langue française, le président sauvage a finalement compris qu’il n’a jamais eu et n’aura aucune influence sur l’opinion publique et que ses tournées avec les petits élus des communes de France ne changeront rien. (participe passé du verbe detester se rapporte à son nom – le président sauvage)

Trump le clown avec Macron la marionnette au carnaval de Nice

« Complice du pire » / Trump le clown et Macron la marionnette au carnaval de Nice, 2019 / Source: 20minutes

Delphine a trouvé une lettre écrite par son ami sur son bureau. (participe passé du verbe écrire se rapporte à son nom – lettre)

Interloquée par une telle beauté, elle ne savait pas quoi dire. (participe passé du verbe interloquer se rapporte à son nom – elle)

Devenue un lourd fardeau pour sa famille à cause de ses troubles de personnalité et d’apprentissage sévères, elle eut le courage d’aller se faire euthanasier. (participe passé du verbe devenir se rapporte à son nom – elle)

Confirmé, par les résultats d’une l’étude longitudinale, un quotient intellectuel plus élevé à l’adolescence est lié à un âge subjectif plus jeune plus tard dans la vie. (participe passé du verbe confirmer se rapporte à son nom – un quotient intellectuel)

Fortement implantés en Israel, les Haredim sont des juifs ayant une pratique religieuse forte et qui croient dans la supériorité de leur culture et de l’infériorité de tout les non-juifs qu’ils qualifient de « Goys » comparables à des serviteurs ou des animaux jetables comme le dicte leur texte religieux, le Torah. (participe passé du verbe implanter se rapporte à son nom – les Haredim)

Haredim Israel

Image: Les juifs Haredim d’Israel

Évoqué dès 1959, le départ des Américains est officialisé en 1966. Le général de Gaulle voulait que la France recouvre l’entier exercice de sa souveraineté en quittant l’Otan. (participe passé du verbe évoquer se rapporte à son nom – le départ)

Charles De Gaulle

Charles de Gaulle (1890 – 1970)

  1. Avec l’auxiliare avoir :

Employé avec l’auxiliaire avoir, le participe passé sert a former les temps composés.

Par ex.

Nous avons fini le cours anglais. (avoir + participe passé de finir)

Le fils du fermier a persuadé ce dernier que le cochon était trop vieux pour être abattu, ce qui a bien plu aux enfants de son village. (avoir + participe passé de persuader)

Fermier Anglais nourissant ses moutons

Image: Fermier anglais nourissant ses moutons

 

  1. Avec l’auxiliaire être :

Employé avec l’auxiliaire être, le participe passé sert a former les temps composés et la voix passive

Exemples:

Le premier ministre s’est ridiculisé par sa manque de maîtrise linguistique devant les étudiants de littérature. (temps composés)

L’année dernière, je suis allé au Venezuela, au Mexique et en Argentine avant de visiter le Cuba. (temps composés)

Le grand manoir a été vendu aux enchères. (voix passive)

Le vieille chienne blanche a été écrasée par un cheval sur une île. (voix passive)

La légende de Napoléon a été immortalisée sous le dôme des Invalides en décembre 1840, et reste la preuve que la royauté et la noblesse d’esprit peuvent naître dans le coeur de n’importe quel homme, quoique la France demeure la seule civilisation chrétienne croyant en l’homme supérieur venant du peuple, tout comme le fils de dieu. (voix passive)

Napoléon Bonaparte: Consul de la République

Un Vrai Chapeau de Napoleon mis aux enchères à Lyon

Un vrai chapeau de Napoléon mis aux enchères à Lyon / Source: Le Parisien

  1. Dans une Subordonnée Participiale :

Employé dans une subordonnée participiale, le participe passé exprime une cause ou un temps.- une fonction de complément circonstanciel (CC).

Par ex.

La pluie ayant tombé sans cesse depuis des jours, il y avait une mare de boue. (cause)

(comme il pleuvait sans cesse depuis des jours, il y avait une une mare de boue.)

 

Le printemps venu, les arbres fleurissent. (temps)

Observez que dans ce cas, l’auxiliaire être est omis. (quand le printemps est venu, les arbres fleurissent)

 

  1. A la Forme Composée :

Il existe une forme composée du participe qui s’utilise uniquement en cas d’antériorité.

Être ou Avoir au Participe Présent + Participe Passé du Verbe

Par ex. Étant sortie de la gare, Flora téléphone son copain.

Du même : étant devenu, ayant obtenu, s’étant envolé

La Langue Française

La «Langue» Française

Dans certains cas, l’auxiliaire être est omis.

Par ex. Restée inhabitée depuis des années, la maison enfin a été vendue.

(étant restée inhabitée… la maison a été vendue.)

OU

Prouvé par ses capacités intellectuelles, ses idées, son incroyable maîtrise du français et de l’anglais, ses réalisations, ses écrits et son expérience à un si jeune âge dans son domaine, la société l’a finalement reconnu comme le type d’homme emblématique qui apparaît une fois par siècle et comme celui qui a gagné sa place et son respect parmi les meilleurs de sa génération.

(étant prouvé… comme le type d’homme emblématique qui apparaît une fois par siècle et comme celui qui a gagné sa place et son respect parmi les meilleurs de sa génération.)

 

Participe Passé comme un Adjectif qualificatif

De nombreux participes passés sont devenus des adjectifs qualificatifs.
Employé sans auxiliaire, le participe passé fonctionne comme un adjectif qualificatif.
Comme adjectif, le participe présent s’accorde selon les mêmes règles et exerce les mêmes fonctions.

Par ex: Les grands magasins décorés pour Noël attiraient l’attention.

Du même : des vins rafraîchis ; des magasin ouverts, une porte fermée, des boissons glacées, des livres avancés, une création sophistiquée, une vision raffinée, un public exalté, une équipe cultivée

Le French Touch c'est un coeur Francais

CODE GRIS : Broly (from DBS:Broly, 2018 by A.Toriyama), Johnny Depp, Chris Cornell, Bill Gates, Hironobu Sakaguchi, Elon Musk, Dr. Valter Longo, Prof. Aurélien Barrau, James Cameron, Arjun Rampal, Eddie Vedder, Sylvester Stallone, Robert Downey Jr., Anthony Kiedis, Jonathan Davis, Marshall Mathers, Jason Momoa, Charles Dance, Benedict Cumberbatch, Thom Yorke, Hans Zimmer, Zlatan Ibrahimovic, Ludovico Einaudi, Gilles Lellouche, Bertrand Cantat, Jean-Baptiste Boursier, Eric Cantona, Nicolas Devort, Jean-Jacques Goldman, Alain Souchon, Francis Cabrel, Julien Cigana, Florent Pagny, Richard Clayderman, Alexandre Prevert, Renaud Séchan, Alexandre Tharaud, Jean-Efflam Bavouzet, Nathanaël Delphin et Stéphane de Freitas… pour en nommer quelque uns]

Les Ballerins Français - Academie de Danse

Image: Les Ballerins Français

Exemples de conjugaison [PARTICIPE]:

 

Présent

apprenant

changeant

conquérant

 

 

Passé

appris

changé

conquis

L'homme et sa liberté d'être

Image: Phil Castaza © Nos vies prisonnières (2019)

René Char - Les Mots qui vont Surgir dpurb d'purb.com

Traduction (EN): « The words that will come up know things about us that we ignore about them. » -René Char

*****

 

References

  1. Bescherelle
  2. L’Obs – La Conjugaison
  3. Larousse
  4. Le Figaro – La Conjugaison
  5. Le Robert
  6. Les Verbes [Un conjugateur en ligne très pratique pour verifier ses conjugaisons quand on connaît le temps]
  7. Oxford Dictionary
  8. Syvum France [E-Learning et Éducation interactive]

 

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Essay // Philosophy Review: “The World as Will and Idea”, by Arthur Schopenhauer (1818)

Schopenhauer et Nietzsche

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 – 1860) & Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 – 1900)

Schopenhauer, a pessimistic philosopher, focused on the dark side of life and mental evils and cruelty, which he considered inevitable and that we as psychologists, intellectuals and masters of the mind view as mental disorders that have a negative effect on both the character of the affected and the human environment at large exposed to the vile side of human nature.

This negative view of man’s behaviour and role in life was a sharp contrast to the other more euphoric philosophers who marked the spirits of the generation before him, and who embraced a more idealistic and perhaps a slightly exaggerated euphoric side of man’s mind and character. Though Schopenhauer’s work originally gained little attention at the time it was published [perhaps being too avant-garde for the atavistic institutions of his time], he expressed an interpretation of the world that was dragging and opposed the great ideal of who went before him, such as Victor Schelling and Hegel on some very important points but did not deny expressions of art such as the romantic movement in its various forms.

Schopenhauer who never refrained from publicly criticising people and ideas he disliked was very vocal in his complete contempt for these men, and regarded himself as their great opponent in the ring of the leaders delivering the “Real truth” to mankind and civilisation. Schopenhauer’s work in many ways could be viewed as an extension of another famous German philosopher, namely Immanuel Kant, who preceded him by one generation, delivering his major philosophical work, “a critique of pure reason”. Schopenhauer worked out a system in which reality is known inwardly by a kind of feeling where intellect is only an instrument of the will: the biological will to live and where process rather than result is ultimate.

Schopenhauer’s pessimism lies in his very strong rejection of life. In fact, this rejection is so strong that he even had to address the question of suicide as a solution to life. He fortunately also rejected this “solution” to life, this rejection to life reflected influences with roots in Eastern philosophy, particularly Buddhism, and it is one of the most significant aspects of his work that he was the first Western philosopher to integrate Buddhist thought into Western philosophy. His preoccupation with the evil of the world and the tragedy of life was also somewhat reminiscent of ancient Hindu philosophies. His writings helped to stimulate in Germany an interest in Oriental thought and religion, which can also be seen in the work of many later German philosophers.

In “The World as Will and Idea”, Schopenhauer also considered the important question of the function of art. The value of arts to human life in far more depth than any of his predecessors, and even graded each of the arts, such as music, poetry, architecture [etc], from most important to least important. For that reason, his book had not only a profound effect on future philosophers, but also artists, particularly poets and composers, such as the enigmatic Wagner, who felt indebted to him and sent him a letter of gratitude when he was first introduced to Schopenhauer’s work.

Tristan und Isolde (John Duncan 1912 Symbolism)

Image: Tristan and Isolde (1912) by John Duncan

It is believed that Wagner’s popular opera “Tristan und Isolde” in particular, shows Schopenhauer’s influence as a philosopher who believed that music was the highest form of art, an idea that of course, Wagner found pleasing and so the composer began to think of himself as a prime example of Schopenhauer concept of a genius. People in other fields of the arts were also influenced by Schopenhauer, including the novelist Thomas Mann. Schopenhauer’s ideas had the unique ability to influence not only philosophy but many other fields of human endeavour and expression. Within philosophy itself, Schopenhauer never founded a school of thought “per se”, but his influence instead was in stimulating other philosophers towards a particular line of thought, which varied with the individual and his or her response to Schopenhauer’s writing. His writing had a major impact on the German philosopher Nietzsche, who was also a friend of Schopenhauer’s admirer, Richard Wagner. Nietzsche shared the idea that life is tragic and terrible but can sometimes be transformed through art. Nietzsche was also the man famous,for his concept of the Ubermensch “Superman”, which later helped to inspire the German National Socialist movement and eventually the founding pillars of the Third Reich of Adolf Hitler.

The Apollo Belvedere (Ancient Sculpture) - Vatican Museum - Roma

Image: Apollo Belvedere (Sculpture Ancienne), Musée du Vatican, Rome

So, these three names Schopenhauer, Wagner and Nietzsche are often linked and are also associated at times, through no fault of the men themselves with a dark period of human history.

“The world is Will and Idea” begins with the famous line, “The world is my idea” when Schopenhauer says the world is his idea, he is referring to the relationship between an “object” and “the subject” [i.e. The person who sees or senses the object]. As an example, he did not mean that an apple is identical with your abstract concept of an Apple, he means that the apple as perceived by you exist only in relation to you as a person or “the subject” who perceives it. Its reality is only in what you perceive, it is what you perceive it to be so.

So, the world is my idea means that a whole visible world and its sum of total experience is “object” for a “subject”, its reality consists in appearing to be perceived by a subject. This theory of the world of idea was taken and developed from Kant’s philosophy, but the second part of Schopenhauer’s philosophy “The World as Will” is completely his own and expresses his very unique interpretation of human life. Briefly, this interpretation says that the will, « the will to survive and live » is the strongest force in man and everything else is subordinate to it. His conception of the supreme wisdom of life is one of resignation to the power this “will” has and the tragic results of it.

Arthur Schopenhauer was born on February 22nd of 1788 in Danzig, Germany. His father was a wealthy merchant and banker who hoped his son would follow in his steps. He was also an independent minded man who moved his family from the city of Danzig when it was taken over by Prussia in 1793. The new family home was in Hamburg. Schopenhauer left to visit England and other countries, on the understanding that when he completed his tour, he would begin work in a business. Schopenhauer, then 16 years old, kept his promise but he had no attraction to business and when his father died, he got consent from his mother to continue his studies. In 1809, he entered the University of Göttingen to study medicine, but he changed to philosophy in his second year, as he put it “life is a problem and he decided to spend his life contemplating it”. He also studied at Weimar where he lived with his mother until he became estranged from her.

Schopenhauer had a moody, irritable temperament and could be violent in his passion. At the university, Schopenhauer developed an affection for Plato and visited Berlin to hear the lectures of contemporary philosophers Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762 – 1814) and Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768 – 1834). Fichte was the first transcendentalist idealist and Schleiermacher was a founder of modern Protestant theology. Schopenhauer found Fichte’s comment, “No one could be a true philosopher without being religious” absurd and retorted that no man who was religious turns to philosophy since they have no need for it [a questionable statement when religion (e.g. Christianity) does not cover all the aspects of the experience of life in detail, or study God’s works methodically through the lens of science and rationality, to understand the further implications in the betterment of the human world].

Rodin - Hands (Musee Rodin, Paris)

Image: « Les Mains » par Auguste Rodin

Schopenhauer left Berlin when Prussia rebelled against Napoleon. He never developed strong German patriotic values and sentiments [perhaps never given a chance or a reason or support to do so at the time], and always regarded himself more as a cosmopolitan without any strong national affiliation. He went into retirement to write his first dissertation called “On the fourfold route of the principle of sufficient reason”, which was published in 1813 and earned him a doctorate at Vienna. The poet Goethe congratulated Schopenhauer, and in return he wrote an essay called « On Vision and Colours » which supported Goethe in his stand against Isaac Newton. But the dissertation, although it won the admiration of Goethe, went practically unnoticed. The author however always considered it the groundwork and essential introduction to his philosophy. Shortly after he published his dissertation, Schopenhauer met an Oriental scholar, Friedrich Majer (1771 – 1818), who introduced him to Indian philosophy and literature. He maintained an interest in Indian philosophy throughout his life, and as an old man, he meditated on the Upanishad, part of the Vedas [the sacred script of the Hindus]. He would later associate his theory of the world of ideas with the Indian doctrine of Maya [to the Indians, Maya is illusion or the world as an illusion]. To Schopenhauer, this meant that the individual subject and object he wrote were “Maya”, all at the end.

For 4 years between 1814 and 1818, Schopenhauer lived in Dresden, which is where he wrote his masterpiece “The World as Will and Idea”. He sent the manuscript to his publishers and left for an art tour of Italy. The book was published the following year in 1819, and although it received attention from some philosophers, it sold very few copies. This was a disappointment to the author who felt sure it contains the secret of the universe.

This failure did not kill his eagerness however, so he returned to Berlin and started lecturing. By now he was 32 years old. He deliberately scheduled his lectures for the hour at which the philosopher Hegel was also accustomed to lecture – planning to compete with the master. But his lecturing career was a failure and Schopenhauer gave it up after only one semester. His ideas seemed at odds with the dominant spirit of the time.

Dolly_the_Sheep

Schopenhauer roamed around a bit and then settled in Frankfurt in 1833, he read European literature and scientific books and journals looking for illustrations or confirmations of his theories. He frequented the theatre and also continued writing, publishing on the Will of nature and winning a Norwegian prize for an essay on freedom. He failed to win a similar prize from the Royal Danish Academy of the Sciences for a separate essay on ethics. The Academy disapproved of his disparaging remarks about other philosophers. These two essays were later published together in 1841, under the title “The two fundamental problems of Ethics”.

In 1844, Schopenhauer published a second edition of “The world as Will and Idea”, which contained 50 new chapters. In the Preface, he took the opportunity to make a strong statement of his views about university professors of philosophy, which were of course not admiring. In 1848 there was an unsuccessful revolution in Germany. A revolution from which Schopenhauer had no sympathy whatsoever. But after the failure of this revolt, people were more willing to consider a philosophy which emphasised the evil in the world in which preached the rejection of life for the route of contemplation. Schopenhauer’s popularity was on the rise. In 1851, he published a collection of essays that dealt with a wide variety of topics, and finally in 1859, he published third edition of the “World as Will and Idea” with more supplements. In the last decade of his life, the author finally became a famous man, all kinds of visitors with all kinds of philosophies came to see him and to enjoy his brilliant conversations. Lectures were given on his system at the University, the very university he has attacked, a sure indication that he had finally achieved success. Schopenhauer has spent a long, lonely life of reflection and only after his works were ignored for many years that he attained fame and reputation. He died in September 1860, at the age of 72.

Schopenhauer by Mitch Francis

Image: Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 – 1860) by Mitch Francis

As a man, Schopenhauer was cultured, broadly educated, eloquent and articulate, witty and conversational, and a very talented writer, but he was also opinionated, egotistical, and often quarrelsome. His remarks about other philosophers were assaulted and his remarks about women in general were so scathing that they had to be deleted from his book by his editor. He was obsessed with the suffering of humanity, but did nothing to alleviate it. He himself made the comment that it is no more necessary for a philosopher to be a saint than it is for a saint to be a philosopher, and he never tried to prove otherwise. But, in the final analysis he was exactly the man he needed to be to write what he wrote. His pessimistic and grim interpretation of life are not very likely to have come from a man of infallible kindness or tolerance, and that interpretation of life played a significant role in the development of human thought and philosophy by inspiring both similar and opposing viewpoints which forced humanity to re-examine itself yet again.

 

Now is a summary of the text of “The World as Will and Idea

The world is my idea. This truth applies to everything that lives and knows, but only man can reflect on it and bring his abstract consciousness to it. It becomes clear to him when he looks at the sun that what he knows is not a sun, but an eye that sees the sun, not a nurse but a hand that feels the earth. This truth is by no means new, it was a fundamental text of the Vedanta philosophy of the Hindus, it was also part of the reflections of the French philosopher René Descartes and finally it was also clarified by the philosopher George Berkeley – although neglected by Kant. But this view of the world as idea is one-sided and must be balanced by another one which is the impressive and awful truth that the world is my “Will”. The world has necessary hands, the subject and object. The object and the subject that perceives it operate together. If one were to disappear, then the whole world would cease to exist. All objects have universal forms and either space, time and causality or the relation of cause and effect as Kant has demonstrated, they may be discovered and known apart from the objects in which they appear, as an expression of reason or the principle of sufficient reason. But what if our whole life is but a dream, or how do we distinguish between dream and reality? Kant tried to answer this question by stating that the connection of ideas, according to the law of causality, constitute the difference between them. But the long life dream in distinction from our short dreams has always had complete connection, according to the principle of sufficient reason. We are such stuff as dreams are made on and our little life is rounded with a sleep.

Life and dreams are leaves of the same book, the book we read through and the one whose leaves we turn idly to read a page here and there. Any system of philosophy that starts with the object has to deal with the whole world of perception, the most consistent form of these philosophies is simple materialism. It regards time and space and matter as existing absolutely. It ignores the relationship to the subject in whom these ideas exist, then it takes a law of causality as its guiding principle: causality exists by understanding alone. Materialism seeks the most simple states of matter and then tries to develop all other states from it. It ascends from mere mechanism and chemistry: the chemical properties and attractions of objects. It ascends to vegetable and animal life, to sensibility and thought. But, the thoughts and knowledge reached through materialism in a long, laborious process, assumed from its starting point that there was a subject or perceived matter: eyes that side, hands that felt it and understanding that knew it.

This system of philosophy which opposes this materialism is idealism, which instead starts with the subject and then tries to derive or reach the object from the subject, but it overlooked the fact that there can be no subject without an object, like materialism this idealism begins by assuming what it is supposed to prove later. The method of Schopenhauer’s system is different from both of these, for it starts from neither object nor subject, it starts from the idea. The idea is the first form of consciousness and its essential form is the antithesis or opposite of subject and object. For each one of us it is our own body that is the starting point in our perception of the world and we consider it like all other real object simply as an idea, the understanding which develops ideas could never come into being if there were no simple bodily sensations from which to start. If the thinker were no more than a pure knowing subject without a body like a winged cherub that is all spirit, he would not be able to know the nature of the world. He would be like a man going around a castle getting to its façade and trying in vain to enter it, all reality would be a riddle, but because the subject of knowledge is also an individual with a body and a bodily nature, the world becomes revealed, it is revealed in the will. Every true act of the will is a movement of the body for the action of the body is nothing but will express through an object. The body is the object, my body and my will are one. The double knowledge which each one has of his body out of idea and inner will becomes the key to the nature of the world. Phenomenal existence, the existence we perceive with our senses, is an idea and nothing more. Real existence or the thing in itself is will.

die welt als wille und vorstellung

Will is a term that applies to both the highest and lowest in man’s nature, it is that which drives us to pursue the light of knowledge and it’s also that which in nature strives blindly and dumbly to survive. Both come under the common name of will, just as the first dim light of dawn in the rays of the full midday are both called sunlight. If we consider the impulse with which waters hurries to the ocean, or the way in which a magnet turns to the North Pole, or the eagerness with which electric poles seek to be united or the way a Crystal takes form, we can recognise our own nature, for the name will describes the inner nature of everything that is in the world. The world as will is one, it knows nothing of the multiplicity of things in the outer world: the world of perception, the world of time and space. Notions like more or less, don’t exist to it, it knows nothing of quantities or qualities. For this reason, it cannot be said that there is a small part of the will in a stone or a large part of the will in a man. Relations like this between part and whole belong to the idea of space which does not apply to the will. In reality, the will is present in its entirety and undivided in every object of nature and in every living thing. Yet in terms of its objectification, that is, its external expression, it has different grades in inorganic matter, in vegetation, in animals and in man. The lowest of these appear in the most universal forces of nature, in the form of gravity, rigidity, elasticity, electricity and the like, which are in themselves manifestations of the will, just as much as human actions are. The higher grades are seen in man where the will takes the form of individuality and consciousness. It is here that the will shows its second side. For in the human brain lies the potential of comprehending the will, so that as it is kindled by a spark it brings the whole world as idea into existence. In this manner, knowledge proceeds from the will, knowledge that is either from the senses or is rational and is destined to serve the will in its aim of expressing itself. In all beasts and in most men, knowledge remains in subjugation to the will, yet in certain individual men, knowledge can free itself from this bondage so the subject of knowledge exists for itself as a pure mirror of the world. As a rule, knowledge remains subordinate to the will and grows on the will [so to speak] as a head on the body. In the case of the beast, the head is directed towards the Earth where the objects of its will are. But in the case of man, the head is elevated and set freely upon the body as in the Apollo Belvedere where the head of the guard stands so freely on his shoulders that it seems delivered of the body and no longer subject to it.

The transition from the individual’s knowledge of particular things to the knowledge of the idea takes place suddenly. It happens when the knowledge of the will changes someone into a pure will-less subject of knowledge, contemplating things as they are in themselves. If raised by the power of the mind, a man leaves the common way of looking at things behind and forgets both his individuality and his will, then he becomes a pure “without will” timeless and painless subject of knowledge – this appears in the genius. For when Genius appears in a man a far larger amount of the power of knowledge comes to him than is necessary for the service of his will. This extra knowledge is free and purified from will: a clear mirror of the inner nature of the world. All willing arises from want. The satisfaction of a desire ends it, but for one wish that is satisfied, there remain 10 which are denied. No attained object of desire can give lasting satisfaction, for it is likely alms thrown to a beggar that keep him alive today that misery may be prolonged tomorrow.

Attending to the demands of the will, continually occupies and influences our consciousness. But when we are lifted out of the endless stream of willing, we can comprehend things free from their relation to our will without any personal interest or subjective opinions, and then the peace we have been seeking comes of our own accord. For we are, at least for the moment, set free from the miserable striving of the will – the wheel stands still. There is no more slavery to the will. It is the function of the fine arts to express this freedom from will or the different grades along the way. Matter as such cannot be an expression of the idea but when it is express through an art like architecture, its characteristics of gravity, cohesion and hardness, the universal qualities of stone appear as a direct but low grade of the objectified or expressed will. In the building nature reveals itself a conflict between the gravity of the building and the rigidity of the structure of the support, as in the simplest form of a column. The problem of architecture, apart from practical utility, is to make this conflict appear in a distinct way so that the building material instead of a mere heap of matter bound to the earth is raised above it, so that the roof example is realised only by the means of the columns or arches which support it. The pleasure that comes from looking at a beautiful building lies in the fact that the viewer is set free from the knowledge which serves the will and is raised to the kind of knowledge which comes from contemplation that has no will.

Woman and Man Roman Sculpture

The highest grade of the expression of the will is found in anything that reflects human beauty in a way which reveals the idea of man. No object transports us so quickly into will-less contemplation as the most beautiful human form. We know human beauty when we see it, but true artists can express it so clearly that it surpasses even what we have seen. In the genius of a sculptor, we find a representation of what nature intended to express, so that if you were to present his statue to nature, he would say “This is what you wanted to say!”

danaide-le-baiser-par-auguste-rodin

Image: « Danaide » & « Le Baiser » par Auguste Rodin

Painting as an art has character as well as beauty and grace for its object, for it attempts to represent the will of the highest grade in the idea of humanity. This, however, can be an abstract form of the concept known as the picture attempt [as it does at times an allegorical painting] to represent something other than what is perceived. In poetry the relationship is reversed, for here what is given directly in words is the concept that leads readers away to the object of perception, this is done through metaphors, similes, parables, allegories and the like. The aim of all poetry is the representation of man. When it is a representation of the poet himself, we have the lyric. The lyric poet reveals himself in joy or more often grief as the subject of his own will, but along with this as the sight of nature impresses him, there is the awareness of himself as the subject of pure will-less knowing, and his joy now appears as a contrast to the stress of desire: desire imposed on him by his will. Epic poetry portrays man in a more historical context in connection with significant situations in human life. Drama in the form of tragedy is not only the best of poetic art, but the most significant in terms of this system of philosophy because it is the strife of the will represented at its highest grade of objectivity, it becomes visible in human suffering that is brought about by fate or error or wickedness, in which the will lives on while people fight against and destroy one another. The tragic effect in poetry may be produced by means of a character of extraordinary evil such as Iago in Othello or Creon in Antigone or by blind fate is in the Oedipus Rex of Sophocles or by circumstance and the situation in which the character finds himself such as Hamlet. In the tragic character we can observe how the noblest of men – after a long personal conflict and inward suffering – come at last to renounce the pleasures of life and the particular goals once so keenly fought for, instead the character joyfully surrenders to life itself. It is in this sense that Hamlet renounces life for himself but askes Horatio to remain a while and to – in this harsh world – draw his breath in pain to tell Hamlet’s story and clear his name.

Shakespeare's Hamlet Tragedy

Beginning with architecture in which gravity and rigidity reveal the lowest grade of the conflict of the will with itself and ending with tragedy where this conflict reaches its highest grade, we have considered the arts and how they represent the will and the idea, but music stands quite alone, cut off from all the other arts, since it’s not a mere copy of any idea of existence in the world. Music is as direct an expression of the whole will as the world itself is. Nature and music are two different expressions of the same thing, and so music speaks a universal language. In the deepest tones of harmony in the bass we recognise the lowest grades of the will, for bass is in harmony with the crudest matter on which all things rest and from which they originate. The higher complimental parts of music are parallel with animal life and in the melody of high voice singing we recognise the high grade of the will in the effort and intellectual life of man. The pleasure we received from beauty, the consolation we get from art and the enthusiasm of the artist, rest on the fact that whereas existence in the world is something sorrowful and terrible, the contemplation of the world as idea is both soothing and significant. But in the case of the artist, the contemplation of beauty doesn’t quiet the will and it doesn’t provide a pathway out of life as does the resignation of the saint. The deliverance from the will only occurs when – tired of the game – one renounces life and gets a grasp on what is real. When the will – this blind and incessant impulse of nature – becomes conscious in man, it is recognised as the will to live. Man may affirm or deny it. He affirms the will to live when – having seen it as that which has produced nature and his own life – he then adds his own desires to it. The denial of the will to live occurs when the awareness or consciousness of it means the end of desire. The phenomena of the world – that what we see and perceive – no longer motivates the will, for the comprehension of the world as idea has freed the will and allowed it to be silent. It the essential nature of the will – nowhere free and everywhere powerful – to strive endlessly towards satisfaction that it is incapable of getting. Just as in nature, gravitation is the ceaseless striving towards a mathematical centre and this striving will not stop even if the whole universe were rolled into a single ball. In the same way the solid will become a fluid, the fluid will become a gas, and the plant – restless and unsatisfied – will strive through ascending forms until it goes to seed where it finds a new starting point.

All nature is a struggle in which war is waged that is deadly to both sides. All striving is in vain, and yet it cannot be abandoned and all this is identical to what appears in us. In us, the blind striving of nature becomes the will to live, but it is self-conscious will: we are aware of it! The fate of this will is in keeping with its striving nature in the face of constant obstacles and hindrances, and anyone who will consider the character and destiny of the will to live, will be convinced that suffering is essential to all life.

Ad Augusta Per Angusta

Translation (EN): « Has grandiose results by narrow lanes » / Source: Le Petit Larousse 2018 / Les locutions étrangères gravées dans nos mémoires ont la magie des formules oubliées dont le charme va croissant lorsque l’alchimie des mots nous est plus mystérieuses. Elles ont l’autorité de la chose écrite. / Mot de passe des conjurés au quatrième acte d’Hernani, de Victor Hugo. On n’arrive au triomphe qu’en surmontant maintes épreuves.

From where then did Dante take the materials for his hell? From the world! And when it came to describing the delights of heaven he had an insurmountable task, for the world could offer him no proper material. The fatal assertion of the will to live has produced man’s body and the desire to preserve and perpetuate it. So the assertion of the will is really the assertion of the body. In such assertion, we find the source of all egoism and all wrongdoing, but such selfhood is really an illusion due to a false philosophy in which the individual imagines he lives to himself alone. He is really only a product of the one will to live. Just as a sailor sitting in a boat trusting to his frail barque in a stormy sea, so it is that in the world of sorrows man sits quietly, trusting to the principle of individualisation and separateness, in which he only knows things superficially or as they appear to him, but when he comes to understand that the one will to live exists in all men alike, he realises that the difference between those that inflict suffering and those that bare it is only a perceived difference that is not real. In truth, the evil man is like a wild beast, who frenzied and excited, unintentionally buries its teeth in its own flesh, injuring itself as it tries to injure another. But no matter how veiled and evil man is by illusion, he still feels the sting of conscience, which creates a sense that the gulf which seems to separate him from others isn’t real. As all hatred and wickedness rely upon egoism and as egoism rest on the assertion of the will to live, so do all goodness and virtue spring from the denial of the will to live. The will turns around and no longer asserts itself but denies its own nature instead. Man then denies his own nature as expressed in his body and no longer desires sensual gratification under any condition. Voluntary and complete chastity is the first step in the denial of the will to live. But then the human race would die out, and with it the mind in which the world is reflected, and without a subject of knowledge, there would be no object, there would be no world. To those in whom the will to live has turned and denied itself, this world of ours with all its sun and milky ways is nothing [dead inside].

 

These are some of the ideas and the basic themes presented in Schopenhauer’s “The world as Will and Idea”, a very lengthy work that of course includes many other ideas and elaborations of the ones we have mentioned. But the essence of Schopenhauer’s philosophy can be found in a few basic point.

 

To begin with, he sees the will of man, and specifically the will to survive as the dominant force in the universe and slavery to this will is the root of all evil. Man and all other creatures are subservient to their will to live. In exercising his will, man inflicts all kinds of cruelties and evil. Schopenhauer first examined these cruelties in the world of nature, spending a lot of time on the way in which animals of one species prey on those of another. Then he moved onto man and says, “the chief source of the most serious evils which afflict man is man himself”. Whoever keeps this last fact clearly in view sees the world as a hell which surpasses that of Dante, through the fact that one man must be the devil of another. Schopenhauer uses war and various other cruelties such as industrial exploitation, bravery and social abuses to back up his claim. Schopenhauer had no sympathy for the revolution of his time because he felt the state was justified, exactly because of the cruelty of man. It existed to make the world a little more bearable than it would otherwise be. He did not consider the state government divine, but he considered it necessary [a view he may have been willing to revise had he been alive in 2018 with democracy falling apart and not being properly applied, leading to evil, unethical, unscrupulous and unskilled street politicians getting into positions above their understanding].

Schopenhauer believed we can do something to alleviate suffering but it is pointless to think that we can change the fundamental character of the world or of human life. If war was abolished for instance and if all of men’s material needs were met, they would eventually still resort to conflict – “it is their nature”. He is quick to condemn the optimism or idealism of other philosophers who disregard the dark side of human existence, or who try to justify it as rational. To Schopenhauer these dark aspects of life were not secondary feature, they were the most significant aspects of human life in history. On this basis, he created his theory of The Blind and Striving Impulse, he called the Will. Then, he looked around and found support for his theory in the inorganic, organic and human phenomena of life.

Unquestionably, Schopenhauer held a one-sided vision of the world, but because of its one-sidedness and exaggeration it served as a counterbalance to philosophers like Hagel who focused attention on the glorious triumph of reason throughout history and he tended to dismiss evil and suffering with elaborate, evasive, phrasing. Schopenhauer did offer 2 ways of escape from the slavery to the will. One was the path of contemplation, which is the way of art and the other was the path of asceticism, of renouncing the world in one’s personal desires or will. He did believe that the human mind could develop beyond what was required just to satisfy his physical and material needs, it could develop a surplus of energy over and above what was needed to fulfil its biological function. When that happened, man can use the extra energy to escape the life of desire and striving, of assertion of the ego, of conflict, none of which brings him satisfaction anyway. In transcending the Will through art [expressing it with insight], Schopenhauer was very specific about which art forms served what purpose, and in defining which were superior to others. Not surprisingly, the the supreme poetic art is tragedy, for tragedy reveals the real character of human life expressed in dramatic form or as he said the unspeakable pain: the wail of humanity, the triumph of evil, the mocking mastery of chance and the irretrievable fall of the just and innocent. But art and contemplation, besides reflecting on the evil of life, can also open a door that becomes perhaps the only hopeful point in Schopenhauer’s entire book. This door is opened when man can see through the veil of Maya. Maya, being the Hindu concept for the illusionary nature of the world and life. It is Maya that causes to see separateness and division where there is none, but Schopenhauer also believed that man had the intellectual capacity to develop gradually a site that penetrated Maya, and raised some questions that made even a glimmer of hope seem a little bright. What is the purpose of achieving such virtue? What happens afterward?

To start with, the man who denies the Will treats the world as nothing, for the world is just the appearance of the will, which he denied. So it is true that when the will denies itself, our world with all its sun and Milky ways is nothing as Schopenhauer said, then what happens at death? Schopenhauer is convinced of the finality of death. “Before us”, he says “there is indeed only nothingness”. Death or the withdrawal from the world means the extinction of consciousness, In life, he reduces existence to thin thread, and at death, it is finally destroyed. The man who denies his will to live reaches the final goal, which is to not live. Schopenhauer does leave one last hope beyond the grim disappearance of consciousness and of the world, admitting that it is possible that ultimate reality, which he called the thing in itself may possess attributes that we do not know about and that we cannot know. This reality would not be a state of knowledge since there would not be a subject and an object, that phenomenal and illusionary relationship that is required for knowledge, but it might resemble some experience that cannot be communicated and to which mystics refer to, but only in obscure vague ways. So, in the end like all great philosophers must, Arthur Schopenhauer admitted that he did not have all the answers but he thought he had some, and ultimately it is the questions his answers posed to others that became his most significant contribution, for the role of the philosopher and of philosophy itself is not only to solve our problems, but also to express points of views that stimulate us to further thought and consideration on human nature and the meaning of life, in that, he was incredibly successful.

Schopenhauer sur Le Style

« Style is the physiognomy of the mind. It is a more reliable key to character than the physiognomy of the body. » – Arthur Schopenhauer

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24.08.2018 | Danny J. D’Purb | DPURB.com

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