Mis à jour le Jeudi, 9 Mars 2023
Modern day mental health practice could be defined as the application of the four main schools of thoughts that dominate the field of psychology in the clinical setting, by abiding to strict criteria set out by packaged behavioural sets, diagnostically defined by names and categorised depending on the core nature of their specific characteristics in terms of behaviour, aetiology and epidemiology. While these four [biological, psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioural & systemic] main schools of thought have contributed to the development and ongoing evolution of the field of psychology, they also have downsides when applied to different types of psychological cases, with some being more efficient in treating particular disorders while others being hardly efficient and questionable. Applying and integrating these four schools of thoughts with new intuitive fact-based theories to explain psychological constructs and disorders are leading to major innovations in psychology; however with each field’s limitations controversies over the validity of their interpretations and the efficiency of their applied doctrines remain a constant topic of debate among scholars and clinicians.
One of the main controversies that surround modern day mental health practice is the medicalisation of psychological disorders, a tradition influenced by the field of medicine which contradicts an important founding philosophy of psychology, which was originally initiated to study the “mind”, not the physical characteristics of the brain as an organ. Furthermore, evidence suggests that psychological problems are not caused exclusively by organic factors. In anxiety, depression and/or schizophrenia, people with genetic vulnerability to the development of those psychological disorders only do so when exposed to particular stresses in their environment (Hankin & Abele, 2005). However, on the other side of the argument, evidence has also shown that deficiencies in genetics and neurobiological anatomy are linked to psychological difficulties and disorders, and hence nowadays, integrated approaches are used in a variety of assessments when treating patients affected by psychological disorders.
On the theme of medicalization, the debate over eating disorders has led to one of the major controversies within the field between advocates of the biomedical conceptualisation of eating disorders and the feminist position (Maine & Bunnell, 2010). The former sees an individual woman as a patient with a debilitating disease, in need of a cure to her illness; while the feminist position views eating disorders as a condition that is gender specific with the woman as a victim of socio-cultural pressures generated by a male-dominated society governed by a hedonistic economic reality focused on the pursuit of the thin ideal. There is an important distinction that should be made here for the benefit of patients since the feminist view may not fully comprehend that in the case of obesity and emaciation related to eating-disorders, the patients are at severe risk of medical complications such as growth retardation, osteoporosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities and cardiac arrest [in chronic cases]. The social feminist constructivist perspective may be interpreting eating disorder as an image debate of “Fat” versus “Thin”. This may lead to the normalisation of obesity and destructive eating habits which in turn may result in further medical complications that involve surgical interventions. As for the feminists, it may be ethical to acknowledge that obesity & emaciation associated with eating disorders are major health issues that precede further complications such as diabetes, cancer and high blood pressure; and should not be confused with social stigma regarding image, but seen as a sign of poor-health and lifestyle that require attention and effort in providing patients with the medical and psychological help they need to adjust their patterns of life to a healthy one by adopting a culture synchronised with dietary & nutritional education. In an episode of the French show, Arrêt Sur Image, Sébastien Bohler, the chief editor for the magazine Cerveau & Psycho and doctor in neurology explained how in general, men tend to be attracted to females with particularly shaped hips, scientifically caracterised by the waist to hip ratio. It is a value obtained by dividing the wait circumference by the hip circumference, and the ideal waist-to-hip ratio is 0.7 in all cultures apparently (Singh and Singh, 2011) [this is not to be taken as ultimately applying to every single male because individuals with good reflective self-function, i.e. the ability to reflect on conscious and unconscious psychological states, and conflicting beliefs and desires, have the ability to rise above their basic biological instincts and change their internal working models, and consequently their behaviour].
Secondly, the medicalization of anxiety disorders as distinct medical & psychological conditions may seem less favourable to the biological model previously mentioned. A mass market of pharmacological products used in treatment has been favoured for being more convenient and less time consuming. This may lead to patients feeling disempowered and hopeless when being treated as victims of an uncontrollable illnesses requiring pharmacological treatment, while already being in a state of distress, shock, disbelief and/or confusion.
Diazepam (Valium) or other benzodiazepines that are highly addictive have also been prescribed for years to treat anxiety disorders. The long term side effects have been trivialised along with the arrogant act of medicalizing fear and courage (Breggin, 1991). Critics of the medicalization of experiences argue that if patients are helped in understanding that panic attacks develop from the misrepresentation of bodily sensations and hyperventilation, this knowledge along with their own courage may strengthen them to take control of their fear. Research has also shown how patients who are educated in cognitive-behaviour techniques learn to use problem-solving and develop other skills (e.g. social – help them build meaningful lasting relationships while letting go of psychosocial burdens) that they lack to reappraise situations that may formerly have brought distress.
The tragic death of one of the most talented vocalists on the planet, Chris Cornell, has sent a shock throughout the arts world and reports have revealed that the gifted artist was on Lorazepam [a benzodiazepine medication sold under the name Ativan used in the treatment of anxiety disorders], the substance is known to heighten the risk of suicide in those suffering from depression, while a recent investigation (Bushnell et al., 2017) has also shown no meaningful clinical benefit from the addition of benzodiazepines during treatment initiation.
To prevent such tragedies from affecting the human race, more emphasis could be placed on “the mind” with clear guidance on the “thinking styles” (cognitive scripts) to adopt in the protection of the individual organism’s own psyche (mind). Simple foundations based on psychological logic should be propagated educationally to help people understand their uniqueness as organisms while protecting their psyche [mind] from the influence/control of external environmental factors that are beyond their control [e.g. biased negativity, uninformed prejudicial comments of meaningless acquaintances, etc]; acknowledging the fact that as long as an individual organism is within the boundaries of the law, he is allowed to live the life of his choice, and external factors would only affect one’s psyche if attention is given to them; and selectively ignoring parts of the environment is also an acquired skill vital in maintaining sanity, stability and psychological health, along with the ability to select experiences that are positive & progressive to the organism [while discarding negative ones] in the context and theme of their chosen individual lifestyles.
This would also shift the focus to the individual’s mind, courage & abilities to handle the world while maintaining a stable sense of self and resilience; and not turn them into biological organisms that are having their neurochemistry savagely altered by powerful chemical substances that are known to affect individuals differently with dangerous & sometimes fatal outcomes.
« Les meilleurs meurent souvent de leur propre main juste pour s’échapper, et ceux qui restent ne peuvent jamais vraiment comprendre pourquoi quelqu’un voudrait s’éloigner d’eux. »
– Charles Bukowski
« The best often die by their own hand just to get away, and those left behind can never quite understand why anybody would ever want to get away from them. »
As mentioned above, similar therapies oriented towards changing the “thinking styles” of patients to build a resilient psyche, could also be provided to sufferers of post-traumatic stress disorder who would benefit of a non-pharmacological and empowering intervention to manage and take control of recurrent intrusive and distressing memories – it may be useful to study fear, distress and courage as normal psychological processes happening on a dimensional scale on a normal continuum from one individual to another where those on the extreme ends of the scales may be considered for psychological interventions.
Similarly, antidepressant medication used to treat depression remains controversial due to its questionable efficacy and side-effects. The high level of effectiveness of SSRIs reported in academic journals was greatly due to only trials with positive results of antidepressants being published while those where antidepressants were found to be no more effective than placebos being rejected. The effects of TCAs and SSRIs have also been found to be negligible in mild to moderate depression but effective in severe depression in meta-analyses (Fournier et al., 2010). The negative side-effects of antidepressants are known to be risky and dangerous where symptoms such as loss of sexual desire and impotence, weight gain, nausea, sedation or activation, and dizziness are known to be some of the more disturbing ones, with effects varying with types of antidepressants – for depressed pregnant women, health risks may affect their offspring. Dangerous antidepressants such as MAOIs are only prescribed to patients who can follow strict dietary patterns that exclude foods with thyramine (e.g. cheese) to prevent risks of high blood pressure and hypertensive crises. Although meta-analyses suggest benefits may outweigh the risks, an increased risk of suicide has also been noted among patients under 25 (Bridge et al., 2007).
Electroconvulsive therapy has also sparked a major controversy as a primitive, dangerous and non-scientific practice for the brevity of its effect and negative side-effects on memory (Read & Bentall, 2010). A thorough review of studies on the effectiveness of ECT and its side-effects [retrograde and anterograde amnesia] revealed it to be effective for a brief duration in treating severe depression [in cases that are unresponsive to psychological treatment] and questionably only supported by psychiatrists with a vested interest in proving ECT’s effectiveness. ECT has also been associated with a slight but significant risk of death, and a qualitative study of patients’ negative experiences concluded that for some ECT leads to fear, shame and humiliation, and reinforces experiences of worthlessness and helplessness associated with depression.
Medicalization has also led to controversy over the diagnosis of schizophrenia, a condition classified as a disease by the World Health Organization and ranked second only to cardiovascular diseases in terms of overall disease burden internationally (Murray & Lopez, 1996). Diagnosis is believed to be part of best practice in the patient’s “best” interest, however a strongly presented viewpoint by Thomas Szasz (2010) qualified diagnosis as an act of oppression as it may pave way for involuntary hospitalisation; where a deviant, maladjusted or poorly educated person may be subjected to “control” processes that they are not fully aware of – this has been proposed as a “possible” explanation for the greater rates of schizophrenia among ethnic minorities (particularly Africans in the US & those of low-SES groups). This view has also been supported by many who argue that schizophrenia as a distinct category may not be a fully valid diagnostic, but a fabrication constructed that may stigmatise disadvantaged or poorly educated people – while this may be positive in shaping “unacceptable behaviour” and protect citizens & society, some people with moderate symptoms may also be forcefully hospitalised. Thus, nowadays, schizophrenia is not a single definite disorder anymore, but one among others, as it has been revised and turned into a spectrum, known as the schizoid spectrum [with other related disorders]. In the treatment of schizophrenia, medicalisation has also led to the evaluation of psychotherapy as a possibly ineffective treatment (Lehman & Steinwachs, 1998). Freud & others in his discipline acknowledged the treatment of psychosis as problematic with psychotherapy as psychotic individuals tend not to develop transference [interpretation of their hidden feelings, defences & anxiety] to the analyst – unlike neurotic patients. For personality disorders, addictions and other severe mental health problems medicalisation has led to the development of alternative methods of treatment that unlike the traditional authoritarian & hierarchically organised inpatient mental health settings, are run in a more democratic line where service users are encouraged to take an active role in their rehabilitation rather than simply being passive recipients of treatment.
Therapeutic communities have turned out to be effective in the long-term treatment of difficult patients with severe personality disorders with the outcome being more positive with longer treatments. These therapeutic communities are believed to lead to improvements in mental health and interpersonal functioning. For drug misuse issues, the assumption that clinicians make over users attempt to quit being due to conscious guidance & coherent plans should be revised as no evidence suggests so, and more evidence argue that unconscious processes, classical and operant conditioning, erratic impulses, and highly specific environmental cues affect the development and cessation of drug use (West, 2006). According to West, interventions should not stimulate adolescents to think of what ‘stage’ they are in or be matched to a stage, but maximum tolerable pressure should be put on the young person to cease drug use – which contradicts the stages of change model (DiClemente, 2003; Prochaska et al., 1992) where 30 days are allocated to stages [pre-contemplation, contemplation, action & maintenance] based on no evidence. While concepts such as harm reduction programmes with needle exchange, safe injection sites, and the provisions of free tests of quality of MDMA sold at raves remain controversial, some believe they prevent mortality and morbidity (Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2010), while others argue they send the message that hard drug use [such as heroin] may be acceptable.
The second major controversy in modern day mental health practice remains the “Person or Context” debate where many in the field still question the validity of focusing on context as it shifts attention from the individualistic characteristics of the patient, and whether the focus should shift depending on the disorder and the patient’s age. For example in the treatment of childhood disorders, if difficulties are assumed to be individual ‘psychiatric’ illnesses the risk of focus being solely on the child and not on broader social environment may lead to medical treatments and individual therapy without addressing important risk factors for those of such young age who are influenced by their social environment, e.g. teacher, school and wider social context. This may not be the case for some adults who value a sense of autonomy more than being influenced by wider social contexts that they have no connection to, interest in or affinity for. In contrast, to the autonomic adult, treatment cases of other childhood behaviour disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorders may be particularly problematic, since the major risk factors that should be addressed are social: through interventions such as parent training, family therapy, multisystemic therapy and treatment foster care. For ADHD, the bold emphasis on medication is dangerous as the effects are limited to only 3 years (Swanson & Volkow, 2009), while growth and cardiovascular functioning may be affected that may lead to somatic complaints such as loss of appetite, headaches, insomnia and tics, which are present in 5-12% of cases (Breggin, 2001; Paykina et al., 2007; Rapport & Moffitt, 2002).
Another interesting argument comes from the Scottish psychiatrist and psychoanalyst R. D. Laing (2009) in the 1960s and 1970s who opposed the view that schizophrenia was a genetically based medical condition requiring treatment with antipsychotic medication. His dimensional approach led him to view schizophrenia as a ‘sane reaction to an insane situation’ where the contents of psychotic symptoms were simply viewed as psychological responses to complex, confusing, conflicting and powerful parental injunctions that left no scope for more rational and adaptive modes of expression. Thus, Laing proposed that the treatment involved creating a context where insight into the complex family process [e.g. poor housing, low SES, deviant parents with drug problems, over-involved family members who maintain the patient’s stress, alcohol problems, sexual deviance, incest, lack of financial stability, poor educational motivation, poor emotional education, lack of problem solving skills, lack of sophistication, poor nutrition, restricted finances, etc] of patients with schizophrenia and psychotic response to these could be facilitated. The context here seems partially important in the case where the patient’s delusions and hallucinations are linked, where their interpretation would be the client’s response to conflicting parental injunctions. The experience of psychosis and recovery was a process where the individual could emerge stronger with new and valuable insights regarding the solutions to their problems. However, this has not been supported by any evidence or subsequent research. In contrast, strong scientific evidence points to the importance of a more client-centred individual approach focussed solely on the patient with defective inherited neurobiological factors as major focus for the role they play in schizophrenia, and antipsychotic medication for the reduction of symptoms in two-thirds of psychotic patients affected (Ritsner & Gottesman, 2011; Tandon et al., 2010). Research has supported the hypothesis that suggests the family does affect the psychotic process and that psychotherapy has a place in the management of psychosis, for example personal trauma, including child abuse increases the risk of psychosis, and stressful life events including those within the family can precipitate an episode of psychosis, and high levels of family criticism, hostility and emotional over-involvement increase the risk of relapse (Bebbington & Kuipers, 2008; Hooley, 2007; Shelvin et al., 2008). So for those with a strong sense of family, and heavily involved peers, family therapy delays relapse in troubled families characterized by “extreme” levels of expressed emotion; and cognitive behaviour therapy which stresses the idea that psychotic symptoms are understandable and on a continuum with normal experience can help patients control these psychotic symptoms (Tandon et al., 2010), with solutions to rebuild their lives, their own identity and manage their social circle intelligently by differentiating types of relationship and expectations.
The third and last controversy to be addressed is the ongoing debate in clinical psychology over the categorisation of psychological disorders where many have been arguing over a dimensional outlook on psychological conditions that offers more precision in diagnosis along with a more scientific approach. In the case of childhood behaviour disorders with regard to scientific approaches, there is an ongoing debate over whether they should be viewed and classified in categorical or dimensional terms. While DSM are based on rigid categories, most empirical studies support the view of a dimensional outlook. Furthermore, factor analytic studies consistently show that common childhood difficulties belong to two dimensions of internalizing and externalizing behaviour, which are normally distributed within the population (Achenbach, 2009). Young children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder and ADHD are part of a subgroup of cases with extreme externalizing behavioural problems, while those with anxiety or depressive disorders have extreme internalizing behaviour problems (Carr, 2006a). By the same dimensional approach, children diagnosed with intellectual disability fall at the lower end of the continuum of intelligence, a trait also normally distributed within the population (Carr et al., 2007). The dimensional approach is not only more scientific, but also has a less stigmatizing and rational approach to human uniqueness. The dimensional approach has also enhanced the movement critical of qualifying psychological deficiencies as ‘real psychiatric illnesses’, conditions such as ADHD, conduct disorder and other DSM diagnoses. Questions have been raised over whether they are invalid fabrications or spurious social constructions (Kutchins & Kirk, 1999). Those who trust the evidence of the dimensionality of childhood disorders argue that they may simply be traits distributed normally among the population where some cases fall on the extreme ends of certain traits, while those who point to the interests of pharmaceutical industries’ financial motives argue that they are spurious social constructions. The latter seems unethical but is a part of the decadent and immoral economic reality that we have allowed to exist. As parents, health and educational professionals, it is clear that the pharmaceutical industry and governments may all gain from conceptualising children’s psychological difficulties as ‘real psychiatric illnesses’. Some schools or uncaring parents may prefer children to receive a diagnosis of ADHD with stimulant therapy as they may have difficulty meeting their needs for intellectual stimulation, nurturance and clear limit-setting; thus these children in their care become more aggressive and disruptive.
In the case of schizophrenia, a dimensional approach has also led to the schizotypy construct as a dimensional alternative to the prevailing categorical conceptualization of schizophrenia (Lenzenweger, 2010). In contrast to the categorical view based on Kraepelin’s (1899) work and used in the DSM which sees schizophrenia as a discrete diagnostic category, this one proposes that anomalous sensory experiences, odd beliefs and disorganized thinking exist in extreme forms of schizophrenia as hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder, but these are simply on continuum with normal experience [i.e. it is present in all ‘normal’ people but peaks in abnormal ones] – a position originally advocated by Bleuler (1911). Research measures have provided support for the dimensional construct of schizotypy (Lenzenweger, 2010) where the continuum may be composed of sub-dimensions; from normal to psychotic experiences. Schizotypy is heritable; and patients with high schizotypy scores but who are not psychotic show attentional, eye-movement and other neuropsychological abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Further, the dimensional approach has also led to the distinction between schizophrenia and split personality where 40% in the UK equated split or multiple personality with schizophrenia – as popular culture often does. It is clear that schizophrenia does not refer to such characteristics.
The closest equivalent to split personality is a condition known as dissociative identity disorder (DID), where the central feature is the apparent existence of two or more distinct personalities within the same individual, with only one being evident at a time. Each personality (or alter) is distinct with its own memories, behaviour and interpersonal style. In most cases, the host personality is unaware of the existence of alters and these vary in knowledge of each other. Evidence suggests that the capacity to dissociate is normally distributed within the population and an attribute many use to manage their own lives and network. Those with high degree of this trait may cope by dissociating their consciousness from the experience of trauma (such as child abuse, extreme graphic violence, etc) in early childhood by entering a trance-like state. This dissociative habit is negatively reinforced (strengthened) as an effective distress-reducing coping strategy over repeated traumas in early childhood as it brings relief from distress during trauma exposure. Eventually a sufficient number of experiences become dissociated to constitute a separate personality that may be activated in later life at times of stress or trauma through suggestion in hypnotic psychotherapeutic situations. Treatment often simply involves helping clients integrate the multiple personalities into a single personality and develop non-dissociative strategies for dealing with stress [e.g. argument with work colleagues, new manager, divorce, adolescents leaving home for studies, partner with alcohol problems, over-involved family members, etc] – this helps them deal with tough situations by facing them with problem-solving abilities and skills to come out with a firm resolution and have their views understood. Core symptoms of multiple personality disorder are not treated with psychotropic medication unlike schizophrenia but involves psychological education for patients to learn the skill of mentalizing [understand their own state of mind and that of others].
Finally, with personality disorders, the dimensional approach has led to the trait theory in conceptualizing important aspects of behaviour and experience from a limited number of dimensions. Any given trait is believed to be normally distributed in the population, for example, introversion – extraversion, most people show a moderate level of the trait, however those who exhibit extremely low or high levels [extremes] would have the sort of difficulties attributed in the DSM. Thus, by that logic, normal people only differ from the abnormal in the degree to which they show particular traits. The trait theory has become dominated by the five-factor theory (McCrae & Costa, 2008) in recent years. This model includes the dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. There is evidence for the heritability of all of factors within the Five Factor Model except agreeableness which seems to be predominantly determined by one’s environment (Costa & Widiger, 1994).
Thomas Widiger has proposed that the five-factor model may be used as an alternative system for describing personality disorders (Widiger & Mullins-Sweatt, 2010). Widiger also argues that trait theory offers a more scientifically useful approach to assessment with good psychometric properties embraced by its questionnaires (De Raad & Perugini, 2002) – they are reliable and valid, and have population norms. Compared to rigid categorical classification systems, trait models may offer a more parsimonious way of describing patients with rigid dysfunctional behavioural patterns which in turn offers a more parsimonious way to conceptualize the development of effective treatments. However, it is important to remember that while this approach may work on some patients, it will not work on the whole human population. Furthermore, the 5 dimensions of the Five Factor Model is far too simplistic to fully understand the sophisticated and highly complex constructions of the human psyche – it would be arrogant to try and prove the contrary. Hence, this justifies the vital importance of having different schools of thoughts in psychological philosophy along with different models in psychology to fit the individual characteristics of patients.
One of the major controversies in modern day mental health practice revolve around the precision and the validity of constructs as psychological illnesses, and since they may stigmatise those who suffer from them, the constant research into better and more modern interpretations and explanations of their characteristics and treatment seem bound to revolutionize the field of psychology as the movement takes a more dimensional and individualistic approach.
If the method of inquiry is respectful of the scientific methods, then it would simply be realistic to acknowledge the fact that its also comprises of shortcomings when applied to the field of psychology – specially in trying to capture the depth of the human psyche. By truthfully acknowledging the depth and individuality of human psychology, therapies must be individually-oriented to suit the uniqueness of each patient. It is a well-known and undeniable fact that the type of therapy that works for one patient will not work with all patients – in matters of the mind it is clearly not a scenario of “one-size fits all” as we would when dealing with socks.
Nowadays, we can see the failed promises of biopsychiatry, along with the hidden failure of the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies initiative, the UK’s government-funded basic Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) programme, which by some investigations has had a ridiculously low success rate of 9.2 % (Scott, 2018). Although this failure needs to be addressed, we still see the stubborn emergence of supposedly “precision psychiatry”, CBT chat bots, and psychotherapy based on texts [instructions to be read and applied by the patient]. All those only contribute to the trivializing of human beings with humane problems, and besides being unhelpful, that also increases the psychological and emotional suffering of everyone who can sense a lack of concern and care.
A mentally healthy society & culture is the founding stone towards excellence at every level; and to achieve this in the future, quality psychological therapies will undeniably play a huge part. Therefore, we could gain a lot of insight towards improving therapies by asking the following question: “Can a healthy and trustworthy relationship be built between a psychologist and a patient based solely on objective data, or through a form with a series of check-boxes filled within a few minutes?” [See the Essay, Psychoanalysis: History, Foundations, Legacy, Impact & Evolution]. Norcross stated that therapy research has savagely neglected the important question of studying the therapy relationship. Instead, the focus has been more on the application and mastery of a technique (not a relationship) (Norcross 2002a). It is important to also consider that one’s training in how to conduct psychoanalytic or psychodynamic psychotherapy is focused on how therapists present themselves and how patients respond to this. Such a focus automatically puts the therapeutic alliance at the heart of the matter, something that has taken on more interest over the years (Fairbairn, 1952; Greenberg, 1986, 2001a; Pine, 1998; Stolorow, Atwood & Brandchaft, 1994; Wallerstein, 2002).
The importance of individually-oriented therapies to fit the uniqueness of the patient’s characteristics cannot be escaped. It is a well known fact among psychotherapists that one of the most important factors in successful therapies is the relationship between the patient and the therapist; Wampold (2001) concluded in a meta-analysis of psychotherapy studies that the qualities of the therapist play a much stronger role in the outcome of treatment than does the treatment itself. For example, if an individual is highly educated, artistically cultured, and linguistically rich with a natural ability for expression, he would have a different type of personality; that individual aspect will bring about a feeling of being trivialized if treated with common Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) offered by mainstream psychologists. CBT treatment would come across as far too simplistic and basic to study, understand, analyse and unlock the hidden meanings and unconscious feelings within the constructed psyche of such a deep and intellectually rich individual – CBT practitioners would not be able to connect linguistically with such a patient or build any sense of trust, and the therapy would fail. Norcross also brought forward that perspective on why the Empirically supported therapy realationships (EST) literature has been so controversial; small attention has been given to the patient characteristics that affect outcome, such as comorbid conditions, capacity for insight, and a history of interpersonal relatedness (Norcross, 2002a). Therefore, with the example of the patient with the characteristics mentioned above, psychoanalytical psychotherapy would be best suited to capture the depth of his psyche [for example, Freudian, Jungian or Lacanian psychoanalytical psychotherapy].
Psychotherapy, being a medical field in constant evolution with different approaches and models, can only hope to impose itself as a respectable universal discipline with a new generation of psychologists willing to apply the rules creatively, i.e. with an open mind and a flexible outlook on different perspectives and methods customized to the individual characteristics and personality of the patient; only then can we hope to realistically transform the field of psychotherapy into a trustworthy discipline. Carl Sagan famously said: “Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge.”, and this can be a guiding force in keeping psychotherapy on a positively progressive course.
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- Swanson, J. M., & Volkow, N. D. (2009). Psychopharmacology: Concepts and opinions about the use of stimulant medications. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50 (1-2), 180-193.
- Szasz, T. (2010). Psychiatry, anti-psychiatry, critical psychiatry: What do these terms mean? Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 17, 229-232.
- Tandon, R., Nasrallah, H. A., & Keshavan, M. S. (2010). Schizophrenia, “just the facts” 5. Treatment and prevention past, present and future. Schizophrenia Research, 122, 1-23.
- Wallerstein, R.S. (2002). The growth and transformation of American ego psychology. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 50, 135-169.
- Wampold, B.E. (2001). The great psychotherapy debate: Models, methods, and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
- West, R. (2006). Theory of Addiction. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Widiger, T.A., & Mullins-Sweatt, S. N. (2010). Clinical utility of a dimensional model of personality disorder. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 488-494.
D.J. d’Purb | dpurb.com
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Clinical Psychology: Learning Disabilities, Anxiety, Depression & Schizophrenia and the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
CAMHS deal with the psychological issues of people under the age of 18. They are a non-specialist service and often refer to other more specialised departments following the initial assessment of patients. The most common cases tend to be adolescents with depression and anxiety whose manifestations are not different to those of adults and so are treated fairly similarly.
Inclusivism in Learning Disabilities
In 1969, Bengt Nirje adopted and developed the concept of normalisation in Sweden and beautifully described it as…
“making available to all mentally retarded people patterns of life and conditions of everyday living which are as close as possible to the regular circumstances and ways of life of society.”
– Nirje, 1980
Learning Disability is not just an impairment in Cognition
The social impairment of Learning Disabilities – US Statute 111 – 256: Rosa’s Law defines the factual impairment, the imposed or acquired disability and the awareness of being different.
The Normalisation Theory
This theory focuses on the mainstream social trends of social devaluation or deviancy making. Some categories of people tend to be valued negatively due to their behaviours, appearances and characteristics, and this places them at the risk of being devalued [according to the Normalisation Theory of Nirje on the societal processes he assumed] – people fulfil various social roles and stereotypes. As part of the deviancy making or social devaluation, the unsophisticated minds of the masses generally do not mean to stereotype, however they seem to do it unconsciously [the unconscious is a concept Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan acknowledged in their psychoanalytic theories of mental/psychological activity and its disorders land mental health problems linked to psychopathic tendencies in people towards others], i.e. deviant groups with social symbols or images that are at a higher risk of being devalued are the focus of the normalisation theory, which is believed to be done with the aim of providing them with the skills they need and eventually change the status of these deviant groups.
Society tends to distance itself from deviant groups without any purpose or belonging, however psychologists provide support for the social integration and valued social participation of people with learning disabilities through exercises that involve learning through imitation. This challenges stereotypes within wider society through direct experiences of spending time with people who are affected by learning disabilities.
While psychology evolves and sophisticated and modern theories about intelligence and communication such as our “Organic Theory” take shape, we hope that observations such as this one may be digested and understood by the masses, that is:
“While the communicative patterns [language] in human primates vary with socio-behavioural and geographical patterns; creativity and IQ remain constant and do not change. Intelligence and creativity cannot be stopped because of linguistic differences, since talented and gifted humans do not choose the location of their birth nor their linguistic heritage but still contribute to the enhancement of our civilisation.”
Which concludes that that the intelligence of an invidual when assessed on a range of variables [e.g. perception, fluid intelligence, reasoning, emotional intelligence, courage, etc] cannot be deduced by simply assessing their academic abilities, since human life has various sides to itself. Hence, the true worth and value of an individual may always remain a problem and a mystery to fully assess, and this seems to go in line with Jean Piaget’s deduction about the uniqueness of the human organism and mind.
Full Article: https://dpurb.com/2018/07/02/clinical-psychology-learning-disabilities-anxiety-depression-schizophrenia-and-the-effectiveness-of-psychotherapy/
Developmental Psychology: The 3 Major Theories of Childhood Development
In 1984, Nicholas Humphrey described us as “nature’s psychologists’” or homo psychologicus. What he meant was that as intelligent social beings, we tend to use our knowledge of our own thoughts and feelings – “introspection” – as a guide for understanding how others are likely to think, feel and hence, behave. He also argued that we are conscious [i.e. we have self-awareness] precisely because such an attribute is useful in the process of understanding others and having a successful social existence – consciousness is a biological adaptation that enables us to perform introspective psychology. Today, we are confident in the knowledge that the process of understanding others’ thoughts, feelings and behaviour is an ability that develops through childhood and most likely throughout our lives; and according to the greatest child psychologist of all time, Jean Piaget, a crucial phase of this process occurs in middle childhood.
Developmental psychology can be characterised as the field that attempts to understand and explain the changes that happen over time in the thought, behaviour, reasoning and functioning of a person due to biological, individual and environmental influences. Developmental psychologists study children’s development, and the development of human behaviour across the organism’s lifetime from a variety of different perspectives. Hence, if we are studying different areas of development, different theoretical perspectives will be fundamental and may influence the ways psychologists and scholars think about and study development.
Through the systematic collection of knowledge and experiments, we can develop a greater understanding and awareness of ourselves than would otherwise be possible…
Full Article: https://dpurb.com/2018/07/15/developmental-psychology-the-3-major-theories-of-development/
Listening to classical music modulates genes that are responsible for brain functions
A Finnish study group has investigated how listening to classical music affected the gene expression profiles of both musically experienced and inexperienced participants. All the participants listened to W.A. Mozart’s violin concert Nr 3, G-major, K.216 that lasts 20 minutes.
Listening to music enhanced the activity of genes involved in dopamine secretion and transport, synaptic function, learning and memory. One of the most up-regulated genes, synuclein-alpha (SNCA) is a known risk gene for Parkinson’s disease that is located in the strongest linkage region of musical aptitude. SNCA is also known to contribute to song learning in songbirds.
“The up-regulation of several genes that are known to be responsible for song learning and singing in songbirds suggest a shared evolutionary background of sound perception between vocalizing birds and humans”, says Dr. Irma Järvelä, the leader of the study.
In contrast, listening to music down-regulated genes that are associated with neurodegeneration, referring to a neuroprotective role of music.
“The effect was only detectable in musically experienced participants, suggesting the importance of familiarity and experience in mediating music-induced effects”, researchers remark.
The findings give new information about the molecular genetic background of music perception and evolution, and may give further insights about the molecular mechanisms underlying music therapy.
Kanduri, C., Raijas, P., Ahvenainen, M., Philips, A., Ukkola-Vuoti, L., Lähdesmäki, H. and Järvelä, I. (2015). The effect of listening to music on human transcriptome. PeerJ, 3, p.e830.
Study of healthy adults finds that 2 types of extroverts have more brain matter than most common brains
#Society #Neuroscience #Evolution #Science #Mind
Why Kids With High IQs Are More Likely to Take Drugs
People with high IQs are more likely to smoke marijuana and take other illegal drugs, compared with those who score lower on intelligence tests, according to a new study from the U.K.
“It’s counterintuitive,” says lead author James White of the Center for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement at Cardiff University in Wales. “It’s not what we thought we would find.”
The IQ effect was larger in women: women in the top third of the IQ range at age 5 were more than twice as likely to have taken marijuana or cocaine by age 30, compared with those scoring in the bottom third. The men with the highest IQs were nearly 50% more likely to have taken amphetamines and 65% more likely to have taken ecstasy, compared to those with lower scores.
And these results held even when researchers controlled for factors like socioeconomic status and psychological distress, which are also correlated with rates of drug use.
So why might smarter kids be more likely to try drugs? “People with high IQs are more likely to score high on personality scales of openness to experience,” says White. “They may be more willing to experiment and seek out novel experiences.”
That could potentially be linked to the boredom and social isolation experienced by many gifted children, the authors note. But since a link between IQ and drug use remains independent of psychological distress, that can’t be all that’s going on. “It rules out the argument that the only reason people take illegal drugs is to self medicate,” says White.
White, J. and Batty, G. (2011). Intelligence across childhood in relation to illegal drug use in adulthood: 1970 British Cohort Study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 66(9), pp.767-774.
Adulte Surdoué: Plus de 130 de QI, un cerveau différent? Entretien avec Monique de Kermadec
Temporal Dynamics of the Default Mode Network Characterize Meditation-Induced Alterations in Consciousness
“In this study, we analyzed the DMN microstate to understand the mechanisms of meditation-induced alterations in consciousness. By contrasting healthy controls (HCs) at rest against expert meditators at rest and during meditation, we explored both state and trait changes in DMN-microstate dynamics produced by meditation with a hypothesis that these could cause differential alterations in its duration and frequency. The state changes felt during meditation are usually described as a deep sense of calm peacefulness, cessation or slowing of mind’s internal dialog and conscious awareness merging completely with the object of meditation (Brown, 1977; Wallace, 1999). Alongside, long-term expertise in meditation also produces durable changes in neural dynamics, with improvements in mental and physical health presumably due to its trait effects (Chiesa and Serretti, 2010, 2011; Hofmann et al., 2010). Here, we describe changes in the spatial configuration of the DMN as a function of meditation, and show that state and trait influences on the temporal dynamics of the DMN microstate can indeed be dissociated…
…this reflected a trait effect of meditation, highlighting its role in producing durable changes in temporal dynamics of the DMN. Taken together, these findings shed new light on short and long-term consequences of meditation practice on this key brain network.
Panda, R., Bharath, R., Upadhyay, N., Mangalore, S., Chennu, S. and Rao, S. (2016). Temporal Dynamics of the Default Mode Network Characterize Meditation-Induced Alterations in Consciousness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10.
Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density
Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular, but to date, little is known about neural mechanisms associated with these interventions. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), one of the most widely used mindfulness training programs, has been reported to produce positive effects on psychological well-being and to ameliorate symptoms of a number of disorders.
Here, we report a controlled longitudinal study to investigate pre-post changes in brain gray matter concentration attributable to participation in an MBSR program. Anatomical MRI images from sixteen healthy, meditation-naïve participants were obtained before and after they underwent the eight-week program.
Changes in gray matter concentration were investigated using voxel-based morphometry, and compared to a wait-list control group of 17 individuals. Analyses in a priori regions of interest confirmed increases in gray matter concentration within the left hippocampus. Whole brain analyses identified increases in the posterior cingulate cortex, the temporo-parietal junction, and the cerebellum in the MBSR group compared to the controls. The results suggest that participation in MBSR is associated with changes in gray matter concentration in brain regions involved in learning and memory processes, emotion regulation, self-referential processing, and perspective taking.
Hölzel, B., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S., Gard, T. and Lazar, S. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 191(1), pp.36-43.
#Meditators hv #brains that are physically 7 yrs younger, on average, than non-meditators
Nos intelligences multiples : comment mieux intégrer les personnes autistes?
Et si l’autisme était une preuve d’intelligence à part ? Comment faire pour que cette forme d’intelligence soit respectée ? En philosophe, Josef Schovanec a accepté de nous livrer sa propre expérience de l’autisme.
Depuis les années 80, la psychologie a montré que l’intelligence n’était pas une donnée mesurable. Les autistes ont beaucoup souffert de ces tests mis en place par la société. Et si l’autisme était une preuve d’intelligence à part ? Comment faire pour que cette forme d’intelligence soit respectée ? En philosophe, Joseph Schovanec a accepté de nous livrer sa propre expérience de l’autisme.
Warm thanks: Gratitude expression facilitates social affiliation in new relationships via perceived warmth.
Recent theorizing on the nature and function of gratitude (the find-remind-and-bind theory; Algoe, 2012) stipulates that expressing gratitude should serve to alert previously unacquainted peers to the potential for a high-quality social bond (i.e., a find function). Although the logic of this premise is supported by extant research, it has not, as yet, been tested empirically. In the current study, participants received a note from a previously unacquainted peer that contained an expression of gratitude (or did not) with regard to prior benefits provided by the participant. After providing ratings of the peer and ostensibly completing the study, participants were given an opportunity to spontaneously give their contact information to the peer, which served as a behavioral measure of affiliation. In line with the proposed find function of gratitude expressions, recipients of expressions of gratitude were more likely to extend the effort to continue the relationship with the novel peer by providing that peer with a means to contact them. This experiment also provided evidence that perceptions of interpersonal warmth (e.g., friendliness, thoughtfulness) serve as the mechanism via which gratitude expressions facilitate affiliation: insofar as gratitude expressions signaled interpersonal warmth of the expresser, they prompted investment in the burgeoning social bond. As such, these findings provide the first empirical evidence regarding 1 of the 3 central premises of the find-remind-and-bind theory of gratitude (Algoe, 2012) in the context of novel relationships.
Williams, L. and Bartlett, M. (2015). Warm thanks: Gratitude expression facilitates social affiliation in new relationships via perceived warmth. Emotion, 15(1), pp.1-5.
Functional Neural Plasticity and Associated Changes in Positive Affect After Compassion Training
The development of social emotions such as compassion is crucial for successful social interactions as well as for the maintenance of mental and physical health, especially when confronted with distressing life events. Yet, the neural mechanisms supporting the training of these emotions are poorly understood. To study affective plasticity in healthy adults, we measured functional neural and subjective responses to witnessing the distress of others in a newly developed task (Socio-affective Video Task). Participants’ initial empathic responses to the task were accompanied by negative affect and activations in the anterior insula and anterior medial cingulate cortex—a core neural network underlying empathy for pain. Whereas participants reacted with negative affect before training, compassion training increased positive affective experiences, even in response to witnessing others in distress. On the neural level, we observed that, compared with a memory control group, compassion training elicited activity in a neural network including the medial orbitofrontal cortex, putamen, pallidum, and ventral tegmental area—brain regions previously associated with positive affect and affiliation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the deliberate cultivation of compassion offers a new coping strategy that fosters positive affect even when confronted with the distress of others.
Klimecki, O., Leiberg, S., Lamm, C. and Singer, T. (2012). Functional Neural Plasticity and Associated Changes in Positive Affect After Compassion Training. Cerebral Cortex, 23(7), pp.1552-1561.
“This blog presents a third example of priming known generally as the affective priming, also known as emotional priming. On page 230 of my book, Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychotherapy: Network Principles for a Unified Theory, I describe emotional priming as follows:
Emotional priming entails the repeated presentation of words that activate emotions. For example, Power et al. (1991) used sets of words to activate the following four basic emotions: (a) happiness, love, joy, pleasure; (b) sadness, grief, misery, depression; (c) anger, hate, jealousy, aggression; and (d) fear, panic, terror, anxiety…
Affective priming is a robust method for activating brain mechanisms that modify how we think and feel about a wide variety of matters…
Full Article: http://scitechconnect.elsevier.com/affective-priming/
“Progress is impossible without change, & those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.” -GB Shaw
Don’t let your mind be occupied by blame towards others. A liberated mind is a forgiving one.
“Change Your Attachment Style to Have a Better Life” by Dr. L. Firestone
“What if we could identify the filter that shapes our perception of the world and change it so as to have a better life? We are born into the social context of our families and quickly need to /develop strategies to get our needs met by our caretakers. Depending on our early emotional environment, we make the best adaptation to get our needs met by the potential caretakers we have available to us, usually our parents or other relatives. We are incredibly adaptive creatures, which is quite possibly our most unique feature as humans. Our early interactions create internal working models of how our future relationships will transpire and of how we will go about getting our needs met. Research has demonstrated that these childhood relationships shape our perceptions of others and our understanding of their minds and motives. These internal working models also influence the ways others are likely to treat us and perceive us…”
Full Article: https://www.psychalive.org/change-attachment-style-better-life/
“Savoir Aimer” courtesy of Florent Pagny // Album: Savoir Aimer (1997)
“It is the artist who tries to gradually accustom people to the possibilities of a better state of things.” ― C.A. Dawson Scott
Norms, self-sanctioning, and contributions to the public good
The relationship between norms, self-sanctioning, and people’s decisions about contributing to public goods is complex and often misunderstood in the public goods literature. We develop a model in which individuals self-sanction (e.g. feel guilty) for contributing less than a subjective norm level of contribution to a public good. From the model we derive the following testable hypotheses: an increase in one’s perception of the norm level of contribution to the public good (1) induces negative self-sanctioning and (2) will lead one to contribute more to the public good, and (3) that contributing to the public good induces positive self-sanctioning. To test these hypotheses, we elicit stated preferences for contributions to an organization which offsets carbon emissions and a proxy for self-sanctioning, respondent “self-image.” We fail to reject each hypothesis. Our results complement existing studies on how to encourage contributions to the public good.
Interis, M. and Haab, T. (2014). Norms, self-sanctioning, and contributions to the public good. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, pp.271-278.
[W.James works were influential to intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim, W. E. B. Du Bois, Edmund Husserl, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Hilary Putnam, and Richard Rorty]
1890, Principles of Psychology
“Millions of items of the outward order are present to my senses which never properly enter into my experience. Why? Because they have no interest for me. My experience is what I agree to attend to. Only those items which I notice shape my mind – without selective interest, experience is an utter chaos…”
William James 1842-1910
Effect of Music Therapy on the Anxiety Levels and Sleep Patterns of Abused Women in Shelters
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a music therapy procedure (music listening paired with progressive muscle relaxation) on the reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep patterns in abused women in shelters. Twenty-eight women residing in 2 domestic violence shelters in a Midwestern city met with the researcher on 5 consecutive days for half-hour sessions. A pretest-posttest design with control and experimental groups was used. The dependent variables included: stait anxiety measured by the STAI (Spielberger et al., 1983) before and after each music stimulus, sleep quality as measured by the PSQI (Buysse et al., 1989) on the first and last sessions, and levels of fatigue as measured by the Fatigue Scale (Lee, 1992) at waking time. The independent variable was a 20-minute recording of participant-selected music with a Progressive Muscle Relaxation script. Results indicated that music therapy constituted an effective method for reducing anxiety levels. Results also indicated a significant effect on sleep quality for the experimental group, but not for the control group. No significant relationships were found between anxiety levels and sleep quality, nor fatigue levels and sleep quality. These results seem promising in the light of domestic violence research, which has found that a greater amount of personal resources is a crucial aspect of abused women’s recovery process. Reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep quality can be considered as increased personal resources, and seem feasible through the use of music therapy.
Hernandez-Ruiz, E. (2005). Effect of Music Therapy on the Anxiety Levels and Sleep Patterns of Abused Women in Shelters. Journal of Music Therapy, 42(2), pp.140-158.
From Biochemist to Concert Guitarist
Dissecting a brain
Stress in Occupational & Organisational Psychology
(2017) Documentaire Choquant: Surpopulation Humaine [FR] | Shocking Documentary: Overpopulation
“Si la mort était la fin de tous, les méchants auraient une bonne affaire à mourir.” -Socrate
Traduction(EN):”If death was the end of all, the wicked would have a good bargain in dying.” -Socrates
“Même le roi dans ses richesses n’échappe pas à la mort.” -Aeschylus
Traduction(EN): “Even the king in his riches does not escape death.” -Aeschylus
Toutes les institutions civiles assument le même type d’homme médiocre. Il n’est donc pas surprenant de les trouver pleins de mensonges. »-Friedrich Nietzsche
Traduction(EN): “All civil institutions assume the same mediocre type of man. It is therefore not suprising when we find them full of lies.” -Friedrich Nietzsche
“Il est impossible de concevoir un système si parfait que personne ne doit être bon.”
– T.S. Eliot
Traduction(EN):“It is impossible to design a system so perfect that no-one needs to be good.”
— T.S. Eliot
Open communication and emotional closeness linked to fewer low sexual interest problems
British women living with a partner are more than twice as likely to lack interest in sex compared to men living with a partner, according to a new study published in the BMJ Open.
The nationally representative survey interviewed 6,669 women and 4,839 men aged between 16 and 74 who reported at least one sexual partner in the past year. Overall, 34 per cent of women and 15 per cent of men reported lacking interest in sex. Half of these people – 62 per cent of women and 53 per cent of men – said that they were distressed by their lack of interest in sex.
Those who found it always easy to talk about sex with their partner were less likely to report lacking interest. This was true for men as well as women.
Professor Cynthia Graham, of the Centre for Sexual Health Research at the University of Southampton and lead author on the paper, said: “Our findings show us the importance of the relational context in understanding low sexual interest in both men and women. For women in particular, the quality and length of relationship and communication with their partners are important in their experience of sexual interest. It highlights the need to assess and – if necessary – treat sexual interest problems in a holistic and relationship-, as well as gender-specific way.”
The study also revealed other things linked to low interest in sex in men and women:
Reporting an STI in the last year
Ever experiencing sex against your will
Poor mental and physical health
Not feeling emotionally close to partner during sex
It also found things linked to low interest in sex among women only:
Having three or more partners in the past year
Having children under five years old in the household
Not sharing the same sexual likes and dislikes as partner
Co-author Dr Kirstin Mitchell, at the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, commented: “The findings on the strong association between open sexual communication and a reduced likelihood of sexual interest problems emphasise the importance of providing a broad sexual and relationships education rather than limiting attention only to adverse consequences of sex and how to prevent them.”
“Oh race heureuse de mortels si vos coeurs sont gouvernés comme l’est l’univers, par l’amour.” -Boethius
Traduction(EN): “Oh happy race of mortals if your hearts are ruled as is the universe, by Love.” -Boethius
“Beaucoup de gens ont peur de la liberté. Ils sont conditionnés pour en avoir peur. “-Herbert Marcuse
Traduction(EN): “Many people are afraid of freedom. They are conditioned to be afraid of it.” -Herbert Marcuse
“Le défi de la modernité est de vivre sans illusions et sans être désillusionné.” – Antonio Gramsci
Traduction(EN): “The challenge of modernity is to live without illusions and without becoming disillusioned.” -Antonio Gramsci
“Il n’y a pas de société … Il y a des hommes et des femmes, et il y a des familles.” -Margaret Thatcher
Traduction(EN): “There is no such thing as society….There are individual men and women, and there are families.” -Margaret Thatcher
“Je ne parlerai pas de philosophie à mes collègues … Ils sont trop stupides.” -Colin McGinn
Traduction(EN): “I won’t talk to my colleagues about philosophy… They are too stupid.” -Colin McGinn
“Quand vous continuez à jouer le même rôle, vous continuez à attirer les mêmes personnes.” -Jerry Corstens
Traduction(EN): “When you keep playing the same role, you keep attracting the same people.” -Jerry Corstens
“Vous n’atteindrez jamais votre destination si vous vous arrêtez et lancez des pierres sur tous les chiens qui aboient.” – Winston S. Churchill
Traduction(EN): “You will never reach your destination if you stop and throw stones at every dog that barks.” – Winston S. Churchill
“L’éducation n’est pas une préparation à la vie; l’éducation est la vie elle-même. “-John Dewey
Traduction(EN): “Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself.” -John Dewey
“Je vous enseigne Der Übermensch (le surhomme). L’homme est quelque chose qui doit être surpassé. “-Friedrich Nietzsche
Traduction(EN): “I teach you Der Übermensch (the superman). Man is something which shall be surpassed.” -Friedrich Nietzsche
“Parlez de bon sens à un imbécile et il vous appelle stupide.” -Euripides
Traduction(EN): “Talk sense to a fool and he calls you foolish.” -Euripides
“Le bon sens est la marchandise la mieux distribuée dans le monde, car tout homme est convaincu qu’il en est bien pourvu.” -Rene Descartes
Traduction(EN): “Common sense is the best distributed commodity in the world, for every man is convinced that he is well supplied with it.” -Rene Descartes
“Même le roi dans ses richesses n’échappe pas à la mort.” -Aeschylus
Traduction(EN): “Even the king in his riches does not escape death.” -Aeschylus
“La vie non examinée ne vaut peut-être pas la peine d’être vécue, mais la vie sur-examinée n’est pas un sujet à raconter non plus.” -Daniel Dennett
Traduction(EN): “The unexamined life may not be worth living, but the over-examined life is nothing to write home about either.” -Daniel Dennett
“Il n’y a pas de grand génie sans un peu de folie.” -Seneca
Traduction(EN): “There is no great genius without some touch of madness.” -Seneca
“Vous payez un prix pour le dire simplement, à savoir qu’il est plus facile pour les professionnels de mal le comprendre.” -John Searle
Traduction(EN): “You do pay a price for stating it simply, namely it’s easier for the professionals to misunderstand it.” -John Searle
“L’homme envieux pense que si son voisin casse une jambe, il sera capable de mieux marcher lui-même.” -Helmut Schoeck
Traduction(EN): “The envious man thinks that if his neighbour breaks a leg, he will be able to walk better himself.” -Helmut Schoeck
“Toutes les institutions civiles assument le même type d’homme médiocre. Il n’est donc pas surprenant de les trouver pleins de mensonges. »-Friedrich Nietzsche
Traduction(EN): “All civil institutions assume the same mediocre type of man. It is therefore not suprising when we find them full of lies.” -Friedrich Nietzsche
“La vraie question n’est pas de savoir si les machines pensent, mais si les hommes le font …” -B.F. Skinner
Traduction(EN): “The real question is not whether machines think, but whether men do…” -B.F. Skinner
“Une courte phrase souvent contient beaucoup de sagesse.” – Sophocle
Traduction(EN): “A short saying oft contains much wisdom.” – Sophocles
“Ce que les gens disent de vous est une manifestation de leur propre pensée, elle en dit plus sur eux que sur vous.” Apprenez à ne pas le prendre personnellement. ” -Jerry Corstens
Traduction(EN): “What people say about you is a manifestation of their own thought. It says more about them than about you. Learn not to take it personally.” -Jerry Corstens
“Les maladies de l’âme sont à la fois plus dangereuses et plus nombreuses que celles du corps.” – Cicero
Traduction(EN): “Diseases of the soul are both more dangerous and more numerous than those of the body.” – Cicero
“La personne envieuse maigrit par la grosseur de leur voisin.” -Socrate
Traduction(EN): “The envious person grows lean with the fatness of their neighbour.” -Socrates
“Ce que vous ne voulez pas que les autres fassent pour vous, ne leur faites pas.” -Confucius
Traduction(EN): “What you do not wish others should do unto you, do not do unto them.” -Confucius
“Lorsque vous vous concentrez sur la correction des autres, vous ne serez pas en mesure de vous corriger.” -Jerry Corstens
Traduction(EN): “When your focus is on correcting others, you won’t be able to correct yourself.” -Jerry Corstens
“Le progrès est impossible sans changement et ceux qui ne peuvent pas changer d’avis ne peuvent rien changer. “-G.B. Shaw
Traduction(EN): “Progress is impossible without change and those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.” -G.B. Shaw
“Avec une attitude négative, vous attirez des gens négatifs, ce qui vous donne encore plus de négativité. Développez une vision positive de la vie.” -Jerry Corstens
Traduction(EN): “With a negative attitude you attract negative people, which gives you cause for even more negativity. Develop a positive outlook on life.” -Jerry Corstens
“L’esprit grandit avec de nouvelles idées, mais il devient sombre en embrassant ceux qui ne sont pas éthiques. Ouvrez votre esprit quand vous le devez et fermez-le quand il le faut.” -Jerry Corstens
Traduction(EN): “The mind grows with new ideas, but turns dark by embracing unethical ones. Open your mind when you must and close it when needed.” -Jerry Corstens
“Tout ce que vous nourrissez grandira, c’est vrai pour l’amour autant que pour la haine, pour revenir d’un état de haine, cultivez l’amour.” -Jerry Corstens
Traduction(EN): “Everything you feed will grow. This is true for love as much as it is for hate. To come back from a state of hate, cultivate love.” -Jerry Corstens
“La négativité amortit nos esprits, la positivité les soulève. Cherchez toujours des pensées inspirantes dans n’importe quelle situation.” -Jerry Corstens
Traduction(EN): “Negativity dampens our spirits. Positivity lifts them up. Always look for uplifting thoughts in any situation.” -Jerry Corstens
“Ce sont ceux qui savent peu, et pas ceux qui en savent beaucoup, qui affirment si positivement que tel ou tel problème ne sera jamais résolu par la science.” -Charles Darwin
Traduction(EN): “It is those who know little, and not those who know much, who so positively assert that this or that problem will never be solved by science.” -Charles Darwin
«Les membres de certaines nations intelligentes qui ont adopté la tradition des lumières s’aiment, se poussent et s’encouragent mutuellement pour aller de l’avant. Ils se voient comme des frères et sœurs et membres d’une communauté unie avec les mêmes chances de réussir dans la vie. Mais plus important encore, ils respectent réellement ceux qu’ils savent qu’ils ne pourront jamais égaler en termes de capacités et de compétences; ils les appellent même véritablement et affectueusement «master», ou «maître», comme un geste d’honnêteté et d’encouragement. Le fait est que la plupart des gens veulent être reconnus, mais ne semblent jamais vouloir reconnaître les autres. Eh bien, si nous voulons de la croissance et un changement de notre statut dans la société par les fruits et la sueur de notre travail, nous devons d’abord reconnaître le fait que le statut existe et que les individus ne sont pas égaux en fonction de leurs compétences acquises,capacités individuelles, éducation, présentation, développement, appartenance culturelle, langage et vocabulaire. N’oubliez jamais le terme ‘singularité’!” -Danny J. D’Purb
Traduction(EN):”Members of some enlightened & intelligent nations actually love, push and encourage each other to move forward. They see each other as brothers/sisters & a member of a united community with the same chances of succeeding in life. But more importantly, they actually respect those they know they will never be able to match in terms of abilities & skills; they even genuinely & lovingly call them “master”, or “maître”, as a gesture of honesty and encouragement. The point is, most people want to be recognised, but never seem to be willing to recognise others. Well, if we want growth along with a change to our status in society through the fruits and sweat of our hard work, then we should first acknowledge the fact that ‘status’ actually exists, and individuals are not equal in regards to their acquired skills, individual abilities, education, presentation, development, cultural belonging, language and vocabulary. Never forget the term singularity!” -Danny J. D’Purb
«Oui … les hommes et les femmes qui en font le choix et qui ont l’éducation et l’intelligence nécessaires pour les guider, se construisent et modifient leurs registres d’identification culturelle / nationale lorsqu’ils ont la capacité de développement, l’héritage linguistique et les gènes de l’intellect avec une maîtrise de l’expression et de la parole. Ce n’est qu’alors qu’ils parviennent à représenter une nation ou un empire [ou deux?]. En 2018, en ce qui concerne ‘La Théorie Organique’ [qui met l’accent sur la singularité de l’organisme individuel], il n’y a pas de débat entre intellectuels en psychologie, mais simplement la découverte des nouvelles perspectives mécaniques / scientifiques qu’elle introduit pour expliquer la conception psychologique et philosophique de l’individu – comme l’a dit Carl Sagan: «La science est une façon de penser beaucoup plus qu’un corpus de connaissances. Donc, la construction [formation], qui «peut être» mécanique et structuré dans son application [p. Ex. apprentissage à distance par texte / vidéo / audio], se développe indirectement pour créer et donner une dimension socioculturelle à l’individu une fois que les compétences souhaitées ont été pleinement adoptées, maîtrisées et déployées dans la vie. Le terme «social» est également beaucoup trop vague pour être important en tant que tel… le terme «social» peut simplement être défini comme des interactions [de tous types] entre des organismes. Ainsi, le terme «social» n’est pas vraiment valable scientifiquement et manque de précision, car il peut faire référence à un large éventail de variables. Il ne nous reste alors que les choix, les langues et les capacités de développement personnel de l’individu [par exemple. de synthèse culturelle et psycholinguistique]: les principaux facteurs observables dans l’explication psychologique et philosophique de sa conception singulière [à noter que chaque conception est unique pour l’organisme humain individuel tel que ses empreintes digitales, la forme de son crâne ou la structure de son corps: singularité]. Ainsi: formation, méritocratie, ordre et amour! Simple… en théorie!» – Danny J. D’Purb
Traduction (EN): « Yes… men and women who make the choice and who have the necessary education and intelligence to guide them, build themselves and change cultural / national identification registers when they have the capacity for development, the linguistic heritage and the genetics of intellect with a mastery of expression and speech. It is only then that they manage to represent a nation or an empire [or two?]. In 2018, as far as ‘The Organic Theory’ [which focuses on the singularity of the individual organism] is concerned, there is no debate between intellectuals in psychology, but simply the discovery of the new mechanical / scientific perspectives that it introduces to explain the psychological and philosophical conception of the individual – as Carl Sagan phrased it, ‘Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge’. Construction [training], which ‘can be’ mechanical and structured in its application [e.g. distance learning by text / video / audio], develops indirectly to create and give a socio-cultural dimension to the individual once the desired skills have been fully adopted, mastered, and deployed in life. The term ‘social’ is also far too vague to be important as such… the term ‘social’ can simply be defined as the interaction [of all types] between organisms. So the term ‘social’ is not really valid scientifically and it lacks precision itself since it may refer to a wide range of variables. What we are left with then is only the individual’s choices, language(s) & abilities of personal development [e.g. cultural & psycholinguistic synthesis]: the major observable factors in the psychological & philosophical explanation of his/her singular conception [to note that each conception is unique to the individual human organism such as his/her fingerprints, skull shape, or body structure: singularity]. Thus: training, meritocracy, order and love! Simple… in theory! » -Danny J. D’Purb
“D’une composition organique supérieure… un bijou de l’évolution par ses formations, son individualité et ses capacités intellectuels.” -Danny J. D’Purb
Traduction(EN): “Of a superior organic composition… a jewel of evolution through the training, individuality and intellectual abilities.” -Danny J. D’Purb
«Avez-vous généralisé en pensant que si vos conditions vous ont placés au bas de l’échelle, cela devrait aussi placer tous les autres comme vous dans la même catégorie? Eh bien, ce n’est pas une façon valide de penser en science, en philosophie ou en psychologie. Rappelez-vous que ce sont vos insécurités, et ils n’affectent que vous, pas le monde entier!» -Danny J. D’Purb
Traduction(EN): “Have you generalised, thinking that if your conditions have placed you at the bottom of the ladder, it should also place all others like you in the same category? Well, it’s not a valid way of thinking in science, philosophy or psychology. Remember that these are your insecurities, and they only affect you, not the whole world!” -Danny J. D’Purb
«J’étudie le cerveau, la psychologie, la littérature, l’art, le développement, la singularité, le langage et la conception … vous croyez en quoi?» -Danny J. D’Purb
Traduction(EN): “I study brains, psychology, literature, art, development, singularity, language & conception… you believe in what?” -Danny J. D’Purb
“Argumenter avec une personne qui a renoncé à l’usage de la raison, c’est comme administrer des médicaments a un mort.” -Thomas Paine
Traduction(EN): “To argue with a person who has renounced the use of reason is like administering medicine to the dead.” -Thomas Paine
“Dans les questions de science, l’autorité de mille ne vaut pas l’humble raisonnement d’un seul individu.” -Galilée
Traduction(EN): ““In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual.” -Galileo Galilei”
“La vraie question n’est pas de savoir si les machines pensent mais si les hommes le font. Le mystère qui entoure une machine à penser entoure déjà un homme pensant.” -B.F. Skinner
Traduction(EN): “The real question is not whether machines think but whether men do. The mystery which surrounds a thinking machine already surrounds a thinking man.” -B.F. Skinner
«De nos jours, les gens connaissent le prix de tout et la valeur de rien.» ― Oscar Wilde
Traduction(EN): “Nowadays people know the price of everything and the value of nothing.” ― Oscar Wilde
Philosophie, Science et Société: https://philosciences.com/Pss/
Jacques Lacan, La Psychanalyse Réinventée (2001)
“Est-ce que vous ne pouvez pas comprendre? Ou vous ne voulez pas comprendre? C’est une question que j’ai toujours trouvée intéressante en face de la stupidité, la frustration et le mal.” -Danny J. D’Purb
Traduction(EN): “Can not you understand? Or do not you want to understand? It’s a question I’ve always found interesting in the face of stupidity, frustration and evil. “-Danny J. D’Purb
“Il est impossible de concevoir un système si parfait que personne ne doit être bon.”
– T.S. Eliot
Traduction(EN):“It is impossible to design a system so perfect that no-one needs to be good.”
— T.S. Eliot
“La plus haute étape possible dans la culture morale est quand nous reconnaissons que nous devons contrôler nos pensées.” – Charles Darwin
Traduction(EN): “”The highest possible stage in moral culture is when we recognize that we ought to control our thoughts.”—Charles Darwin
“Savoir ou écouter ceux qui savent.” – Baltasar Gracian
Traduction(EN): “Know or listen to those who know.” – Baltasar Gracian
Scientists discover 1,000 new “intelligence genes”
Intelligence is associated with important economic and health-related life outcomes1. Despite intelligence having substantial heritability2 (0.54) and a confirmed polygenic nature, initial genetic studies were mostly underpowered3,4,5. Here we report a meta-analysis for intelligence of 78,308 individuals. We identify 336 associated SNPs (METAL P < 5 × 10−8) in 18 genomic loci, of which 15 are new. Around half of the SNPs are located inside a gene, implicating 22 genes, of which 11 are new findings. Gene-based analyses identified an additional 30 genes (MAGMA P < 2.73 × 10−6), of which all but one had not been implicated previously. We show that the identified genes are predominantly expressed in brain tissue, and pathway analysis indicates the involvement of genes regulating cell development (MAGMA competitive P = 3.5 × 10−6). Despite the well-known difference in twin-based heritability2 for intelligence in childhood (0.45) and adulthood (0.80), we show substantial genetic correlation (rg = 0.89, LD score regression P = 5.4 × 10−29). These findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of intelligence.
Sniekers, S., Stringer, S., Watanabe, K., Jansen, P., Coleman, J., Krapohl, E., Taskesen, E., Hammerschlag, A., Okbay, A., Zabaneh, D., Amin, N., Breen, G., Cesarini, D., Chabris, C., Iacono, W., Ikram, M., Johannesson, M., Koellinger, P., Lee, J., Magnusson, P., McGue, M., Miller, M., Ollier, W., Payton, A., Pendleton, N., Plomin, R., Rietveld, C., Tiemeier, H., van Duijn, C. and Posthuma, D. (2017). Genome-wide association meta-analysis of 78,308 individuals identifies new loci and genes influencing human intelligence. Nature Genetics, 49(7), pp.1107-1112.