Essay // Psychological Explanations of Prejudice & Discrimination


Prejudice and discrimination are usually classified as behavioural attitudes towards a certain group or individual based on a multitude of reasons [according to different psychological theories]. The main reasons for prejudice are believed to be rooted in individual psychological processes related to groups, social influence and/or upbringing.

Authoritarian Personality

One plausible explanation for prejudice is the authoritarian personality, which suggests that those belonging in the category are concerned with status and upholding conventions, are very conformist and tend to be obsequious to those they see as holding a higher status – while treating those ‘below’ with contemp. Authoritarian personality is believed to be the result of strict and punitive upbringing which later leads to hostility being directed towards disliked [justified or unjustified] groups through the process of “displacement”. Adorno et al (1950) found strong and positive correlations between respondents’ scores on the F-Scale and scores on other measures intended to assess anti-semitism (AS scale) and ethnocentrism (E scale). However, the PEC-scale (Political and economic conservatism) was not strongly related, which only led to the conclusion of how people who are anti-Semitic are also “likely” to be hostile towards most “out-groups”.

The Adorno et al (1950) test only consisted of agreement that could only be geared towards anti-Semitism, ethnocentrism and fascism, which might have led to the problem of acquiescent response. The fact that the interviewer knew the interviewee’s F-score might have also led to experimenter bias; and the theory also falls short in the explanation of mass changes in behaviour: “Antisemitism in Nazi Germany grew during a decade or so, which is much too short a time for a whole generation of German families to have adopted new forms of childrearing practices giving rise to authoritarian and prejudiced children (Brown, 1988)” [not plausible]. The reality is that anti-Semitism may have been the result of a more sinister social and economic problem caused, inflicted by or related to the jews powerful Zionist business associations on the German economy at a time where the country was suffering [people, heritage, identity, economy…].


Social Roles

Individual identity differs according to heritage, education, language(s), individual choices, profession and social roles

Another form of prejudice is stereotyping, which plays a major part in the process of inter-cultural [note: culture may refer to groups defined by language, geography, religion, and other common similarities] prejudice where the root of its cause has proven to be fairly ambiguous in explanation.

Art - D'Purb Website

Groups founded and united based on the behavioural patterns of a particular geography [usually] tend to stereotype others negatively [i.e. out-group(s): the other group(s) with petty differences in the way they go by their daily activities as all human primates on this planet – as the chart below suggests].

Development Era_The World as One Consuming Unit

Where Do We Buy What? (Source: Statista)

It is believed that the process of stereotyping is the result of minimising mental effortreminiscent of Carl Jung‘s quote:

“Thinking is difficult, that is why most people judge.”


Stereotyping is linked to psychological processes within the individual and is assumed to be connected to environmental influences that lead to a prejudiced mind; where out-groups and there members are defined unrealistically by single characteristics (negative usually). Stereotyping can sometimes [at least when dealing with members of the public who may not be deemed as “intelligent or smart”, even bordering on plain “stupid”] play a role in the legitimisation of prejudiced and discriminatory treatment of other individuals who simply [consciously or unconsciously] made the choice to live by different modes of group-oriented behavioural patterns (culture).

Rational reasoning and the humane ability to understand each group’s choices while also respecting each group’s boundaries [geographical, social, economic, psychosocial, linguistic, etc] are surprisingly never considered by individuals and authorities in the quest to correct the mistakes of a world designed on outdated ideologies [e.g. the scientifically poor logic of global communism] to design a new one based on creative scientific reasoning, evolutionary logic, design & progressive innovation.

Bloomsbury 113 D'Purb Website

Another reason why some individuals resort to stereotyping others may be insecurity. That is, some individuals may be frustrated at their inability to conquer other(s) who are above their league in terms of abilities and achievements, and may stereotype these individuals in their quest to compensate for their own lack of abilities and feeling of inferiority when faced with these individuals who are more talented than them. Arguably, it may also be that these petty common brains who stereotype, simply fear that their competitors may be able to excel and deliver a similar or even superior performance/output than them if not distracted and slowed by insignificant and childish acts of stereotyped behaviour.


Traduction(EN): “Thinking is difficult, that is why most people judge.” -Carl G. Jung

Prejudice as an Illusionary Cure to Low Self-Esteem/Insecurity

The Social Learning Theory, on the other hand, assumes prejudice as the result of maintaining self-esteem of both the individual and the in-group (individuals with the same behavioural patterns as the individual/tribe) members – where one tends to be biased towards glorifying the group whilst also paying particular attention to criteria that make the group look better. This is related to our sense of identity being determined by the groups we belong to and thus tend to be biased towards favouring them. Tajfel et al (1982) showed how schoolboys chose the strategy to allocate more points to their own group at the expense of getting least overall – showing bias in the absence of competition. The two main problems however are the fact that [1] the tendency for favouritism might be group-oriented and not universal (Wetherall, 1982), and also how [2] most studies show bias towards in-group (which could not only be prejudice but stereotyping or other influences).

Unrealistic Conflict? Competition for the same Resource(s) while presuming in-group members to be “unconditional benefactors”

Finally, the realistic conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises when two or more groups compete for the same resource which in turn leads to a tendency to favour in-group members, while being hostile and denying resources to out-groups. This was proven in Sherif et al (1961) where the artificially stimulated competitive conflict lead to negative stereotyping towards out-group which persisted even after the competition. However, the validity was questioned over the artificiality of the situation and the samples (US American boys only?); as Tyerman & Spencer also showed how competition does not always cause prejudice – where UK scouts co-operated instead. Furthermore, individuals with different upbringing and philosophical orientations had not been considered, which in turn affects the ecological validity of the finding where inferences from generalisation would likely lack precision – with a world in constant social evolution with more psychological research being constantly published to guide society towards a more harmonious design.


Reflection & Conclusion: Relocation, Adaptation, Design & Assimilation

Together, the theories seem to offer a plausible explanation for prejudice but cannot be ranked; as they compensate each other’s weak points. A sensible application of each theory – depending on the situation – seems like the rational method forward, since factors such as group-based behavioural patterns (culture), present situation/environment and norms/values remain vital considerations when researching about prejudice, its causes & a more direct approach to solutions.

Furthermore, the world has made such leap socially with the technological era, and people have been inclined towards knowledge, discoveries and innovation with social media contributing towards a more educated humanity [i.e. a civilisation with its different societies that come with their own values, philosophy, feelings and behavioural and communicative patterns, that are the main seperators and organising factors in each group’s identity].


A new and strong global inclination towards a realistic synchronised unity [where the world’s population can live harmoniously in their own geographical location with their chosen units, laws and lifestyle], may shape intellectual thought in the decades to come now that the experience learnt from psychosocial disasters due to badly managed population shifts [that turned out to be destructive to the safety of Western European nations] could be considered in future policies. [Visit the website of the Banque Mondiale for more precise population statistics].

Unbelievable African Population Growth

Source: UN via The Guardian

Negro Population Counter

The current population of Africa is 1,300,976,080 as of Wednesday, December 5, 2018, based on the latest United Nations estimates. / Source: Worldometers (Click to see a live count of the majorly negro population of Africa)

S’installer en Afrique: les clés pour réussir ses projets sur le continent (2018)
La Taille Du Continent Africain

The Size of the African Continent: With the speed of progress and the development brought by the digital era, an increasing number of Negro people nowadays, with their global population rising at a rate faster than any other group, are considering a relocation to their homelands in Africa

Organisms who do not want to/cannot assimilate, should consider a relocation to an environment that is adjusted and more suited to their evolutionary needs, as this seems like the most rational solution, such as the growing number of sensible Negro people nowadays who are gradually shifting back to their homelands in Africa to help it grow economically and culturally with the world developing at a speed never seen before in this era partly accelerated with modern technology.

Africa Unite - Negro People

A great example of environmental and socio-psychological synchronisation is India, with 94% of Hindus being the native Hindi-speaking population of India who also live there, although Hinduism and its various branches of philosophy [explored by one of the most influential Western philosopher, Arthur Schopenhauer, and also many others such as Aldous Huxley, Alfred North Whitehead, Arnold Toynbee, François Voltaire, Rudolf Steiner, Wilhelm von Humbolt & Will Durant] – as other major religious cultures such as Christianity – also spread in influence globally.

India United

Hinduism, Hindus and India

Like Christianity & the other major religions, Hinduism and its philosophy also gradually spread in influence across the globe. However, 94% of people who practice Hinduism  are the native Hindi-speaking population of India

The Climate Collapse disaster has also made Civilization aware of the importance of “synchronised unity” in matters of global human advancement –  future research surrounding prejudice and discrimination would likely benefit the human world more if applied in intra-group scenarios – should the world’s population be managed and geographically engineered according to each group’s evolutionary logic [to fit their respective psycholinguistic, cultural and organic environments to further refine group evolution and guide society towards a harmonious pattern of living] for each group by their respective identities, collective beliefs, values & vision.

Chart of the Year - Global Poverty

A Visual History of Global Poverty from 1820 – 2015 / Source: Our World In Data

Infant Mortality 1950 - 2015

Infant Mortality, 1950 to 2015 / Source: Our World in Data

Global Income Inequality is Falling 1820 - 2000

Global Income Inequality is falling, 1820 – 2000

As World poverty is down, solving matters of the 3rd world on location along with a systematic and diplomatic relocation of culturally alien migrant crowds seems rational. Progress & development globally means relocation should be considered in the future if human beings are realistic about world peace, and the understanding of evolutionary science and its application to humanity.

World Charity by Country

Charitable giving by country / Source: Guardian DataBlog

libray users cite impacts from personal learning d'purb dpurb website

Library users and Learning / Source: Pew Research Centre (Internet & Technology)

In the 21st century, there are associations in the UK affiliated to the Indian, Chinese and Muslim communities that have started working in collaboration with the Home Office and are offering members of their respective communities an easy voluntary return to their country of origin without any use of force along with a financial help of about £ 2000 to find a job or start a business in their home country, this service is also open to the Jewish and Negro communities and all other unassimilated individuals. In France, many unassimilated Jews have begun to move back to their communities in Israel and in doing so are setting a positive example and encouraging the rest; the government of Israel is also supporting the return of Jews to their homeland and helping them adjust to their language and community.

Video: Quitter La France Pour Israel : Le Défi De l’Intégration des Juifs

We, as Western Europeans should consider a diplomatic process for relocating incompatible populations [who struggle to and/or cannot adjust to assimilate] according to their respective societies and cultural identity for peace; with links and cooperation in business and education if necessary to support the sophistication and the continuous linguistic and cultural development of human societies on Planet Earth.

Geographical management towards synchronisation and stability by exploring the logic of the « Organic theory » involves prioritizing one’s “own organisms” [i.e. organisms that are part of or have become part of one’s own society through complete assimilation] for psycholinguistic, cultural, social & genetic chemistry, evolution and enhancement.


For example, if I myself were a retrograde and atavistic burden to Western Europe or France because of my religious beliefs, maladaptive needs, genes, intelligence [lack of], organic composition, fitness/health, education, philosophical perspectives, traditions, psycholinguistic heritage and national outlook, then I would change geographical location to one that is more suited to myself to be able to live much more comfortably. But since, I am of 100% Franco-British heritage and would not feel at “home” in a different environment other than Western Europe, I have fully assimilated and live here, thus, the concept of « Geographical Management », which is simply the process of keeping together organisms sharing similar beliefs, philosophy, culture, vision, perception, goals, intellect, language(s) and identity for chemistry, stability and mutual understanding: a synchronised and functional society founded on modern evolutionary science & humanistic philosophy.

We need to understand the identity of a society in terms of linguistic, cultural [mostly behavioural and perceptive patterns], and genetic authenticity but also consider and follow the progressive course of evolution as modern and sophisticated beings to include evolved organisms that assimilate, enhance, stabilise, and strengthen the group with superior or gifted genes that also care about, have a sense of belonging, take pride, interact, speak for and identify with the culture and nation. All humans are similar yes, but not equal … similar physiologically [blood, bone, organs, etc] but not equal in any case [culture, philosophy, language(s), IQ, genetics, fitness/health, intelligence, vocabulary, sensibility, skills, etc].


Hence to foster evolution in a stable society that is also progressive, we should aim to create the consent of the masses as Walter Lippmann suggested in his theoretical essays; by all forms of communication possible [as a therapeutic form of expression to save ourselves as a species on planet Earth and learn to develop a sophisticated outlook of our planet] because scientifically there is no such thing as a pure race [all of us human primates on earth are the product of migration, breeding and evolution], and as Darwin’s theory of evolution revealed, there is no eternal essence, and any idea of an exceptionally pure entity that would be beyond evolution does not exist – everything is in a constant state of flux [so from a scientific, evolutionary and organic standpoint, racism is a totally archaic absurdity since we are all simply organic matter on a small blue planet in the vast universe being recycled, recreated and reshaped in a continuous process]. The philosopher Barbara Stiegler wisely suggested that the task of creating the consent of the masses should be left in the hands of experts in psychology [i.e. those who understand the psychic structure and philosophies of how humans and societies operate, develop and evolve].


For cases of exceptional organisms who have moved to a new locations [geography] to create themselves and build their lives, it would certainly be helpful for them to see themselves as individual with the power to reshape their whole being if they intend to be able to live a life that is not restrictive and is in complete synchronisation with the new society and people they choose to be a part of; thus assimilation seems to be the only reasonable and humane option.

It is fundamental for all to understand that geographical groups have evolved and have gained and maintained a structured organisation because each region on planet Earth and its respective organisms [of a particular type of organic composition – what some refer to as “race”] have created societies and behavioural patterns that led to a group with some form of synchronisation and organisation.

Human evolution

But, it is also very important to consider that from the perspective of the universality of life on Planet Earth, any human organism of whatsoever type of organic composition can procreate with one another. This simple but fundamental scientific observation means that if the laws of evolution and nature that contain and govern all life on this planet had different intentions, then organisms of different organic compositions would not be able to create new life.

This does not mean that countries should be encouraging uncontrolled and savage communist/zionist mass invasion policies in terms of migration to disrupt their own stability, since preserving a sense of synchronisation and organisation for all groups involves promoting agendas with organisms that have evolved in their environment and have the characteristics to support the continuity and  productivity of their group & societyYet, it is vital to understand that when Charles Darwin formulated his theory of evolution he changed life forever as we knew it – perhaps this is why he built the reputation of a rockstar of science and biology – because he cancelled this once believed fallacy of the stable and permanent concept, but revealed that everything continues to evolve from here onHence, it is of vital and fundamental importance for all groups [around the world] to consider the never-ending and ongoing process of evolution and natural selection, a process that affects all organisms on planet Earth similarly and also the singular adaptive evolution of some superior and genetically gifted organisms [See: [I] Psychology: The Concept of Self, [II] How our Neurons work, [III] The Temporal Lobes: Vision, Sound & Awareness and [IV] The 3 Major Theories of Childhood Development]

Darwin sur l'adaptation environmentale Oxford University Press Quote D'Purb dpurb site web

Traduction(EN): Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882), best known for his theory on evolution by natural selection, demonstrated that all species have developed over time from common ancestors and that individuals with characteristics most suited to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.

Putz_Michel_Richard_Orpheus_and_Eurydice D'Purb Website


All societies should be asking the question of whether some select superior organisms [whatever the field in which they may excel / See:Scientists discover 1,000 new “intelligence genes” – which is a highly heritable trait and a major determinant of human health and well-being; &2 types of extroverts have more brain matter than most common brains] would enhance them as a group [i.e. upscale their organic composition], since we are now living in modern times and are part of a generation that has the scientific knowledge that previous generations before us did not have.

After all, the choice of partnership should always remain that of the individual, and since the criteria in partnership selection differs from one individual to another [e.g. some may look for physical attributes, others for emotional intelligence, or philosophical sensibilities, or particular personality traits, and on extremely rare occasions some may be incrediby lucky to find all the qualities in a single organism, etc], this may lead some individuals to choose from a range of organic compositions.


In the 21st century, with the knowledge of genetics and health, couples who want children worldwide should also consider whether the future wellbeing of their children involves more than simply good food, education and upbringing, but also good genes that also lead to better attributes. Hence, couples who choose to embrace the reality of science in 2019, may choose sperm or eggs from healthy donors if they do not consider themselves as genetically healthy or gifted; and this may also open the door to creating a healthier generation of humans on planet Earth and also encourage healthy males and females, to donate sperm and eggs as a contribution to the better design of a new generation of mankind. Since, science has always been seen by many as the study of God’s work, to create a better world, and this gave us better medicines and treatments after our understanding of the laws of nature evolved, so it seems reasonable to also look at genetics and design similarly.

Masters of Deception - Salvador Dali 026 - D'Purb Website

We also know that environmental and psycho-social influences have more salience and effect in shaping the mind of the individual, so avant-garde couples who choose to have a child through donated eggs or sperm should understand that the child will be theirs as the infant will carry their names, manners, attitudes and values, and not the donor’s. A good way of looking at it may be to simply think of the donor as a piece of healthy flesh that the couple borrowed to give their child a better design, health and future.

« spermini » par l'artiste maurizio cattelan d'purb website 1200

«Spermini», l’oeuvre par l’artiste Maurizio Cattelan / Source: Fondation Louis Vuitton


As for human organisms that have chosen to shift their geography to be part of a new society along with its heritage, they do not seem to have any other concrete option but to fully “assimilate” and prove their genetic fitness/health and abilities, and hence become an asset to the new group by becoming a part of it to help maintain its stability and sense of synchronisation.

Men and women who make the choice and who have the necessary education and intelligence to guide them, build themselves and change cultural / national identification registers when they have the capacity for development, the linguistic heritage and the genetics of intellect with a mastery of expression and speech. It is only then that they manage to represent a nation or an empire [or two?]. In 2019, as far as ‘The Organic Theory’ [which focuses on the singularity of the individual organism] is concerned, there is no debate between intellectuals in psychology, but simply the discovery of the new mechanical / scientific perspectives that it introduces to explain the psychological and philosophical conception of the individual – as Carl Sagan phrased it, ‘Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge’. Construction [training], which ‘can be’ mechanical and structured in its application [e.g. distance learning by text / video / audio], develops indirectly to create and give a socio-cultural dimension to the individual once the desired skills have been fully adopted, mastered, and deployed in life. The term ‘social’ is also far too vague to be important as such… the term ‘social’ can simply be defined as the interaction and exposure [of all types] between organisms. So the term ‘social’ is not really valid scientifically and it lacks precision itself since it may refer to a wide range of variables. What we are left with then is only the individual’s choices, language(s) & abilities of personal development [e.g. psycholinguistic & cultural synthesis]: the major factors in the psychological & philosophical explanation of his/her singular conception [to note that each conception is unique to the individual human organism such as his/her fingerprints, skull shape, or body structure: singularity]. Thus: training, meritocracy, order and love! [See: The Concept of Self]

Feuerbach_Anselm(1829-1880)_Paolo_And_Francesca D'Purb Website

If the new organisms lack genetic fitness/health, then it seems reasonable to consider conceiving [through healthy donors] or adopting children of the similar organic composition of the majority from the respective societies they moved to and live in, as this will contribute in fostering the growth and continuity of the group and ease assimilation.

So for organisms who do change their mode of existence, i.e. organisms that have the potential and have taken the decision to and do assimilate in Western European societies, the best option seems to see, breathe & live” [as a way of speaking] like the new society and nation they chose to be a part of, and also “feel” the new group’s pain, joy, values and heritage [even religion if possible / See: The Relationship between Religion and Discrimination].

Assimilation generally means to see the members of one’s new community as one’s own “blood”, just like those from avant-garde French schools of thought do, as it will be in any individual’s best interest in living “fully” [although it is vital for all organisms to also consider the problems of «bad blood», since social incompatibility and/or a lack of chemistry – which is not necessarily hateful – within organisms of the same geographical environment are common due to a range of factors (e.g. intelligence, philosophy, values, sensibility, personality, character, emotional relatedness, tastes, etc)].


Any society that cannot add highly talented organisms with exceptional genes that have the potential to enhance and sharpen them as a group through the process of assimilation, would be missing out and will forever have a weakness over avant-garde societies that can. However, it is important not to take the process of assimilation lightly as it is not a costume party. Assimilation is not an easy process as we have found.

The large majority of organisms who change geographic locations do not seem to have the abilities or the desire to assimilate, since it involves focusing their loyalty and dedication to the new society and people while also adopting [e.g names that are sycnhronised with the society’s heritage as it is commonly done in France] and mastering new behavioural and communicative patterns [as Nicolas Sarkozy also pointed out], which requires learning & adjusting.

Hence, the diplomatic deportation and relocation of incompatible organisms along with campaigns to help them settle still remain the best solution to alleviate the burden of mass migration and psycho-social disruption to Western European societies, because assimilation requires skills and dedication and the majority of foreign organisms fail to master them.

Nous En France - Sarkozy - d'purb

Traduction(EN): “Us in France, we are different from others. To live, we have to drink, eat, but also to cultivate ourselves.” -Nicolas Sarkozy

However, we should also take note that there are some [not many] “incredible” individuals who manage to assimilate and become fully part of their new societies, and guide, manage and promote it passionately.


These individuals who have made the tremendous effort to become fully part of their new society where they have moved to and have the potential to enhance, guide and promote it should be applauded and encouraged because these individuals who have proven their genetic fitness/health, psycholinguistic/cultural belonging, national loyalty & identity are not in a new society simply for economic gains [as a foreign leech] but see themselves as part of the national community/family, and have taken the sensitive personal decision to completely blend in [assimilate] and become natives of their new societies where it reflects in their values, sentiments, perception, behaviour & nationalistic feelings.

Charles Darwin sur l'evolution par la sélection naturelle D'Purb Website

Traduction(EN): “I have called this principle, by which, each slight variation, if useful, is preserved by the term of natural selection.” -Charles Darwin / Note: Darwin devised the Theory of Evolution and was against bad breeding, and even supported a campaign to make marriage between cousins illegal due to the range of diseases and disabilities caused by consanguineous inbreeding [See: (1) Inbreeding, Consanguinity and Inherited Diseases, (2) The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty, (3) Royal dynasties as human inbreeding laboratories: the Habsburgs & (4) 75% of Jews Are Lactose Intolerant and 11 Other Facts 

We have philosophical arguments (Schweikard & Schmid, 2013) along with empirical evidence (Tomasello, Carpenter, Call, Behne, & Moll, 2005) to support the idea that the ability to engage in joint actions is a key aspect of human sociability; joint actions can be explained by shared intentions. For an action to be shared among a group of individuals, the action must be triggered, steered and monitored by an intention that is also shared by those individuals (Bratman, 1993, 2014): two individuals walk together [instead of simply walking in parallel] if those individuals share the decision to walk together (Gilbert, 1990).

French philosopher Barbara Stiegler suggested that we must rethink our political subject as first of all the members of a living species, this living species extends into an environment and the challenge for our species, as for any living species extends to adapt to this environment. Approving Jiddu Krishnamurti’s argument, “It is no measure of health to be well adjusted to a profoundly sick society“, since it applies to her work on “adaptation”, Barbara Stiegler, who similarly to Jacques Lacan and myself, remains critical to the concept of “adaptation” derived from strict Darwinism [which she thought has gradually colonised all field of human life], and hence she asks the question whether what is supposed to be a sign of good health is actually a disease when one adapts to something that is deleterious [i.e. uncritically adapting to the product of the industrial revolution: the artificial society of steel and concrete that many were born into and never questioned the psychical suffering, sense of values and reality that it imposes on human civilisation].

From the second half of the 18th century, the creation of a completely new environment in the history of life on a global scale implies an acceleration of exponential rates; all borders and fences have been disrupted in an extremely rapid manner because of the industrial revolution we created. This was the case before indeed, and in the field of life, environments are always redefined with organisms. Walter Lippmann posed this interesting question, that is whether our species is adapted to this new industrial world, which is globalisation and it appears that cognitively, psychically and affectively humans are not evolving at the rate required to support this fast growing industrial environment that we imposed on ourselves; and due to this lack of skills, we have a mass of people that are completely atomised going in all directions; and who do not truly know what they desire.

Everyday Life in Ancient Athens d'purb dpurb site web.jpg

Life in Ancient Athens

This is not the image of a receptive Athenian people full of values, affectivity, artistry, creativity, rationalism, philosophy, honour, respect, loyalty, courage & passion, but simply a mass of individuals like in the USA. Walter Lippmann suggested that this mass is apathetic, it means that it does not feel itself and has no consciousness of itself or class, which means that each individual that composes the mass is locked on himself and his little circle and hence is apathetic. This to Lippmann meant that it is an atomised mass which makes up the matrix, i.e. it is a huge accumulation of individual atoms; and Barbara Stiegler believes the mass is weak and impotent, stuck without structure, that can only find its power if it is taken over and formed/trained.

NYC Crowd

Image: The Atomised Mass / A Crowd of people walking on street sidewalk, New York City

But problems of society rarely have a single cause and we must accept that: we have a range of causes. Darwin stated very clearly that he honestly thought that evolution is accepting the idea that there is no end to evolution and it goes in all directionsSo what does the history of life tell us? It’s that there’s no end to history. But we do need reasonable guidelines to direct ourselves towards an organised and stable civilisation, otherwise we are bound to dissapear as a species on earth. It may be good to consider the example of the dinosaurs, who ruled the earth for 175 million years and yet disappeared, while we humans have only been on earth for 6 million years [200,000 years for the modern human form, and only 6,000 years since civilisation as we knew it appearead], which means that dinosaurs lived on earth 29 times longer than us, and today have disappeared.

Le processus d'évolution qui a conduit aux humains modernes d'purb dpurb site web.jpg

The evolutionary process that led to modern humans.

Perhaps another example of a smaller scale is the Roman Empire that lasted for more than 1000 years and no one who lived at its peak thought that it would disappear.

In contemporary Darwinism, we find processes that are not solely based on competition between individuals, but which are based on cooperation between individuals and cooperation between groups. Hence, the classical Darwinian orthodox model has been revised and in reality it is also composed of all kinds of cooperation processes. This is where John Dewey focussed on potentials that Walter Lippmann refused to see in the masses, and hence became a philosopher who contradicted some aspects of Lippmann’s work. Dewey acknowledged Lippmann about the masses, but argued that we also have inside those apathethic atomised masses as described by Lippmann, what Dewey called “a public”, individuals who are not satisfied for a particular reason who identify with others who have the similar problem and from this we have the emergence of what he called “publics”; who unlike the apathetic mass in Lippmann’s theory, feel themselves because of their common problem. The public eventually create a movement that shifts from passive to active, and they begin to look for a therapeutic solution to their problem, and from here they have the ability through modern media and communications brought by our industrial society, to identify themselves, to connect among themselves and go and look for resources in what Dewey called “knowledge”: the ability to use expertise to consider experimental solutions from contemporary science.



  1. Alvarez, G., Ceballos, F. and Quinteiro, C., (2009). The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty. PLoS ONE, 4(4), p.e5174.
  2. Boakes, R. (1984) From Darwin to behaviourism: Psychology and the minds of animals. Cambridge University Press
  3. Bratman, M. (1993). Shared Intention. Ethics, 104, 97–113.
  4. Bratman, M. (2014). Shared agency. A planning theory of acting together. Oxford: OUP.
  5. Ceballos, F. and Álvarez, G., (2013). Royal dynasties as human inbreeding laboratories: the Habsburgs. Heredity, 111(2), pp.114-121.
  6. Cohen D. (1979) J.B Watson: The Founder of Behaviourism. London, Boston and Henley
  7. Gilbert, M. (1990). Walking together: A paradigmatic social phenomenon. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 15(1), 1–14.
  8. Gross, R. (2005) Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. London, Hodder and Stoughton Educational
  9. Schweikard, D. P., & Schmid, H. B. (2013). Collective intentionality. The Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Retrieved from
  10. Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(5), 675–691.

Mis à jour le Lundi, 4 Janvier 2021 | Danny J. D’Purb |


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Essay // Design, Selection & Stress in Occupational & Organisational Psychology

Uomo vitruviano - Da Vinci (1490) D'Purb Site

«L’Uomo vitruviano» ou «L’Homme de Vitruve» par Léonard de Vinci (1490)

Occupational psychology

Occupational psychology is the study of human behaviour and experience in the workplace, it may be described as the application of psychological principles and theory in order to help organisations and their team. As occupational psychology also includes a focus on organisations in general, it may be wise to take great care when referring to the world of “employment” or “work”. This is simply because many people may work very hard for charitable organisations as volunteers, and their contribution may not always be focused on the increase of profits (although it may involve increasing productivity), and money may not be the main driving and motivating factor – depending on the organisation’s field, values, philosophy and goals.


Image: Apollo, the Greek god of arts, music, masculine beauty, poetry & the conductor of the 9 muses. He is also the god of purification and healing.

Hence, occupational psychology tends to focus on the improvement of organisations’ effectiveness in terms of the work performed within, while respecting and managing the conditions leading to the satisfaction of the employees and employers.

Occupational psychology today generally requires sound knowledge and understanding in these three main categories:

(A) Human factors
(B) Personnel work
(C) Organisational psychology

(A) Human Factors 

(i) Human-machine interaction

This field of study is also known as “ergonomics” and is primarily concerned on the study of human interaction with machines. For example, it has also been reported (Kelso, 2005) that the city of London was selected to host the 2012 Olympics due to the syndrome known as “fat finger” – the use of buttons too closely spaced, caused panel members with the syndrome to vote wrongly. This common error is considered to be the main factor leading to London being the host, since one panel member voted for Paris instead of Madrid, leading to the former winning by two votes and thus being London’s opponent instead of Madrid. City experts believed London would not have been able to win against Madrid. This very particular syndrome, namely “the fat finger syndrome” has also been blamed for several multi-million pound errors, for instance the mistaken purchase of 50,000 shares rather than £ 50 000 worth of shares.

(ii) Design of Environment and Work: Health and Safety

The next area has to do with health and safety, and focuses on factors regarding light, noise, general work space, ventilation, risk factors and occupational stress. It is to be noted that this is an incredibly important area, and a good example of a modern disaster reflecting the incredible importance of intelligent design in the field of health and safety, is the Fukushima disaster. The whole world was left unprepared to deal with the nuclear leak caused by the over flooding of the reactors due to the badly design of the walls not being high enough to withhold the excessive water brought in by the tsunami.


Explosion of the Challenger shuttle in 1986

Another disastrous example is the loss of the US space shuttle Challenger in 1986, which for the very first time transported a teacher who was to have spoken from the spaceship the American president Reagan and her pupils. The horrific explosion happened live on television and millions of people who had been watching remember the iconic shot as a ‘flashbulb memory’. The likely cause of the explosion was a set of defective ‘O’ ring seals about which many engineers had complained about repeatedly; grave doubts were raised about the launching since the rings had never been used in temperatures as cold as that on the launch day. Irrational group decisions were made, and the launch proceeded despite the doubts – as the warning signs were explained and brushed away. A one third ‘burn out’ (erosion) of the Challenger ‘O’ ring on past launches was considered as a ‘safety factor’ of three (there would be two-thirds left, after all!) (Reason, 1990). This kind of irrational ‘rationalising’ is a feature of groupthink – no one wished to be responsible for delaying the launch and therefore disrupting the arrangement with Reagan. The people in ultimate control were highly cohesive and to some extent separated from those with the doubts. ‘Mind guards’ ensured that the engineers’ complaints were not heard by the decision-makers. The presidential commission investigating the decision-making process revealed that a major problem lay with a system of communication within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration organisation. The decision system was ambiguous; it was not clear which decision should go to the very top and it was consequently very hard to attribute clear responsibility.

an old woman receiving firs aid

Bystander CPR not only saves lives, it lessens disability, study finds / Source: Medical Xpress

(B) Personnel Work 

(i) Personnel Selection and Assessment (including Test and Exercise Design)

An organisation hiring the wrong staff can be costly in terms of productivity, quality of service delivery and company / organisation reputation. Occupational psychologists throughout the years have contributed in the effective monitoring and filtering of quality in staff recruitment.

(ii) Performance Appraisal and Career Development

Psychologists can assist and advise organisations on how to run staff appraisals in order to create two-way relationships that employees respect and value, since career development is essential. However, this may also lead to the staff being extremely attractive to competing organisations. This would be beneficial to the individual but not so much for the organisation.

(iii) Counselling and Personal Development

This area comprises most of the skills found in general counselling psychology. Occupational psychologists may also practice as career advisors or stress management counsellors among a variety of other roles [being a versatile field that applies to various aspects of the human organism’s behaviour across a wide range of environments]. In these cases [when dealing with organisations and their staff], emphasis is primarily in being an attentive listener, demonstrating empathy and being accepted as genuine.

(iv) Training

A productive workforce is a well-trained workforce, and one that avoids costly or dangerous errors. Good occupational psychologists tend to spend the majority of their time focussing on identifying training needs [to refine individuals’ skills, performance and delivery], and the design and delivery of training programmes.

(C) Organisational Psychology

(i) Employee Relations and Motivation

A wide range of aspects in mainstream social psychology was developed through the study of the ways that small groups interact and perform in a work context. This area includes research into conformity, obedience, teamwork, team building, attitudes, communication and especially leadership. It also investigates theories of work motivation.

who works the most hours every year

Who Works The Most Hours Every Year? / Source: Statista

where the most workers put in a 60-hour week

Where The Most Workers Put in A 60-Hour Week / Source: Statista

(ii) Organisational Development & Change

Organisations tend to be dynamic and continually evolving structures. External influences [such as research, cultural demands and trends] force change on organisations in the competitive economic world of today’s industries. For example, most organisations in Western Europe have had to comply with the equal opportunities legislation and also with health and safety directions [e.g. concerning smoking at work]. In other cases organisation sometimes also have to overhaul or downsize the general managerial policies and culture. This is where occupational psychologists’ advice help & guide organisations during change; while altering attitudes, through reasoning, findings and theory from social psychology and group dynamics with the practical experience and judgement of organisational development.

As most of the research we tend to focus on revolves around the individual organism’s development and well-being, we will look at the human factors in occupational psychology; these generally revolve around:

  • Designing or redesigning jobs
  • The Design of Equipment to match Human Features and Capabilities
  • Health and Safety at Work
  • The Introduction of New Technologies

The services offered by psychologists in the personnel area tend to include: 

(i) Selection and Assessment of Personnel

E.g. of a complete selection process in hiring a Lecturer:

Imagine we were part of a team that has to select a new lecturer for a University. Where exactly should we start? A good starting point would be to consider the essential demands of the task required of a lecturer. It is clear that lecturers have a whole lot more to do than simply lecturing. We should consider the importance of each aspect of the job. Next, we should be asking ourselves what a successful employee in the profession of lecturing would need to be able to cover in order to perform each of the academic tasks successfully; then devise a way of assessing each candidate for these abilities. It also goes without saying that an advert would have to be placed with the job description so the applicants may know exactly what they are applying for and whether or not they are suitable for the position and demands of the task. Finally, the selection process will have to be organised, where the candidates can be assessed with the successful one being selected [with a backup] for an appointment. The process does not stop here, however – as we may want to know whether the selection process was well designed and effective. We will also have to evaluate the procedure, not on the one appointment, but over several selections, by keeping track of the performance of each appointee over their first two years, for example, with their performance at the selection process. This is a method to find out whether our appointment procedures are effective and whether they produce the appropriate & desired results.

(ii) Appraisal of Work Performance
(iii) Training Programmes
(iv) Career Guidance and Counselling
(v) Issues of Equal Opportunity at Work

In the area organisational development, psychologist may also run projects concerning:

(i) Attitude and Opinion Surveys
(ii) Team building, Leadership and Management
(iii) Industrial Relations
(iv) The Modification, Update and Change of the Organisational Culture
(v) Enhancing the Quality of Working Life
(vi) Improvement of the Quality and Effectiveness of Communications

All these procedures contribute in a harmonious organisational environment and culture where productivity, employee and employer satisfaction are the main concerns, while minimising stress levels across the organisation. As we are now going to find out, stress can be devastating to both the mind and the body. Hence, design and selection are key steps in achieving stability, harmony and productivity through an efficient organisational culture.

Total Percentage of 18-24 not in employment, education or training

Total percentage of those aged 18-24 not in employment, education or training (NEET) –  2011

Sustained Stress may have a fatal impact on Physiological Health

Stress is known for causing the increased secretion of cortisol, a hormone that could halt the production of cytokines, which are vital for maintaining a functional immune system (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2002). Over the years, a large number of research has also found positive correlations between daily cortisol levels and general health. The different levels of cortisol secretory activity have been linked to health problems such as hypertension, burnout, emotional distress, upper respiratory illness and eating behaviour. However, cortisol is paramount to increasing access to energy during stressful experiences and is released on a daily pattern by 2 well defined components; the “Cortisol Awakening Rise”; and the Diurnal levels that gradually decrease over the day. It has also been found that high levels of stress could lead to less cortisol being produced in the morning (O’Connor et al., 2009b). An individual going through a serious series of stressful events would have an increased risk of developing an infectious disease with no regards to their age, sex, education, allergic status and/or body mass index (Cohen, 2005).

recommendations for ensuring competence as physicians grow older

As physicians age, a required cognitive evaluation combined with a confidential, anonymous feedback evaluation by peers and coworkers regarding wellness and competence would be beneficial both to physicians and their patients / Source: Dellinger, E., Pellegrini, C. and Gallagher, T. (2017). The Aging Physician and the Medical ProfessionJAMA Surgery, 152(10), p.967.

Two types of stress associated with increased health deficiency

Cohen et al. (1998) identified two types of stress associated with increased health deficiency; these were interpersonal problems with family and friends; and/or enduring problems associated with work. As further research unveiled the dangers of stress, Janice Kiecolt et al. (1995) found that wound healing was also prolonged on people exposed to continuous stress, along with the lower levels of cytokine. Similarly, Marucha, Kiecolt-Glaser and Favagehi (1998) also concluded to findings over healing being prolonged on test subjects (dental students) where quicker healing was observed on vacation and not before their exams. Eventually, the conclusion of stress being a response to stressors lead to the latter being investigated in our daily lives by researchers for improvement.

Stress may be perceptual deficiency depending on whether subjective appraisal is Positive or Negative

Stress is generally perceived as negative perceptions and reactions when pressure is excessive. The transactional approach devised by Lazarus defines stress as “a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being” (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, p.19) The theory has so far been one of the most solid finds in the field of occupational and organisational psychology and continues to be applied to various sections in the quest to enhance quality of both work and output.

Occupational Psychology in the Workplace: Stressors

In the field of Occupational psychology, the main focus has been on the study of human behaviour and experience in the workplace. As the world of work in the present generation is constantly changing, with companies adopting more flexible styles – along with developing technology – Lazarus and Folkman’s theory has been used in most stages of the employment life cycle in order to minimise the effects of stress on employees while maintaining a sensible amount of “good stress” (pressure) to maintain motivation. The concept is based on such solid logic that it could be applied to most areas of human interactive environment.

Applying Lazarus and Folkman’s theory of stress to occupational psychology will consider all elements that cause stress in the workplace connected to the physical requirements of the job. Stress can be physical, with factors such as noise, unsafe heights or slippery floor. These factors when present will not only cause the employee to be on guard but also likely distract them from being fully concentrated on their job for fear of harm. The solution would be to make a safer and more comfortable environment, however too safe is known to affect performance. The perfect fit would be right balance between motivational factors (incentives) and physical environment (not overly comfortable), that would lead to a design for the best fit for the job to the person (Morgeson & Campion, 2002). The human element should also not be forgotten in the case of a sociotechnical system (Trist & Bamforth, 1951) present where a Swiss cheese defence system might be in place to correct possible human errors. As mentioned, the stress element requires modelling according to Lazarus’ Theory which proves to be versatile for its huge range of application when considering different types of stressors and how to balance their effect on the employee.

Image converted using ifftoany

Organisational “Culture”: Synchronised Workforce through situational patterns of performance-oriented behaviour

A strong culture is also essential for the organisation as this ensures the employee fits in with the organisation’s values. The organisation also has to ensure that most stressors are regulated and checked in order to ensure a stable functioning of the work force.

According to Richard Lazarus’ transactional theory of stress, minor day to day problems known as “hassles” can accumulate and cause stress. However one coping mechanism from the theory comes from coping which follows the appraisal stage. When a task is being appraised, the outcome defines whether the employee will see it as stress. However, the stressor can be approached positively and be re-appraised to instead fit the employee’s belief and capacity. Different appraisals usually define how the employee copes, such as understanding employee needs using Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs (1974). It is assumed that some needs are basic and innate and have to be met to sustain motivation. Managers can provide environments that harmonise with the needs of employees after learning what they are.

Maslow’s model puts forth the belief that safety and security have to be met before one can realise their full potential. One this basic need is satisfied, Maslow assumes the attention is shifted to the next need, which in this case would be a motivated move towards achieving the job. However, if this need is not satisfied, this gives rise to discomfort. Indirectly, Maslow’s model is applying the logic of Lazarus & Folkman (1984), as the stressors – which in this case is the inability to feel safe and secure – are being targeted while the manager would try to motivate the employee. Some criticism however questions the flexibility of the model for its assumption. Assuming several needs become important & crucial simultaneously how would the motivation of the employee be affected? Furthermore, self-actualisation is hard – if not impossible – to define, therefore it is hard to confidently know whether someone has reached the stage.

Mismatch between employee & job may cause Occupational Stress

Mismatch between an employee and a job can also cause occupational stress (French, 1973). If the job demand is appraised as too high, the employee could feel discouraged if the task creates demands than exceeds his/her capabilities, unless he has a stake in the outcome of his/her performance motivation will not be successful. Lazarus and Folkman’s theory of stress is once again applied with great efficiency as it opens the door for reasoning in how to deal with stressful situations and find the right coping mechanism that would allow the employee to carry on without negative attributions. One example of this application is to organisational development which is premised on the assumption of planned transformational change.

Organisational development  has been defined as “a systematic effort applying behavioural science knowledge to planned creation and reinforcement of organisational strategies, structures and processes for improving an organisation’s effectiveness” (Huse & Cummings, 1985). The aim is to achieve commitment from the whole organisation dedicated to change. Organisational development intervention looks to a range of planned programmatic activities pursued by both clients & consultants. French, Bell and Zawacki (1994) differentiate between interventions directed at individuals (coaching, counselling), dyads (arbitration), teams (feebacks), inter group configurations (Survey, Feedback, etc) and organisations as whole (business process re-engineering). As the focus is swapped from one level to the next, the number of dimensions to consider increases, this adds to the complexity of the intervention process. However, all interventions tend to rely on organisational diagnosis [the assumption that something is not performing well enough and needs to be changed).


Photo // Bryan Christie Design

Tuning the Environment to balance Stress Levels

Appreciative inquiry is an organisational development model that focus on how things might have been or might be better (Cooperrider & Srivasta, 1987). The whole concept of organisational development follows the logic of  Lazarus & Folkman (!984), as the transitions are all supported by teams of professionals [counselling / accustoming] which are geared at balancing the stress levels of accustoming the workforce to the new changes through a combination of modifications to the environment, motivational factor and security and support.

As organisational psychology deals with the administrative side and operational psychology deals with the task itself, they are still very closely associated. Changes in operational hassles will reduce the stress on the employee, as this would assumingly make the task at hand much more simple and straightforward. Changes in organisational hassles will increase the job satisfaction of the employee, as his time at work would be less cumbersome.

Interventions: Better Outcome when the Source of Stress is the Primary Focal Point

The main concepts of interventions usually concentrates primarily on reducing the source of stress, and secondly by reducing the impact on individuals which has been found to be more effective on people than reducing the risk (LeFevre, et al. 2006). Such an example can be seen when dealing with occupational problems, such as the termination of employment. Such an event can have a devastating effect on an employee’s life, especially if it was unpredicted [redundancy, released]. One way to deal with such a situation would be to provide counselling support to the released employee; these include trained professionals with listening, questioning & goal setting skills who help people to carry on in life (Egan, 1996). Clarifying with employees, the employable, marketable skills and helping them to plan short term goals by which skills might be applied in other situations.

Allowing the person concerned to release their feelings by speaking out over vocational and personal concerns, and helping them assess their resources. Finally help them find a placement or employment while also reinforcing with the employee, reminding them that they are skilled and mature and that their redundancy was a purely professional decision. What the whole process seems to have once again applied, is the logic of Lazarus & Folkman (1984) that proves itself as a solid formula applicable in most situations where stress is involved. In this context, the employees have been professionally re-appraised and should be better mentally to deal with upcoming challenges for fresh employment.


Reflexion: Appraisal & Subjective Perception is Key

The particular relationship between a person and his/her environment will vary on the positive or negative depending on the appraisal. Appraisal can sometimes be instinctive, and/or influenced by an individual’s perception which can in turn be influence by other biological factors (hunger, pain). This shows that no matter how deep the stress causes may be, Lazarus’ formula – although simple – has an application that can logically construct or deconstruct most situations dealing with occupational and organisational stress.

One of the main points worth considering however, is the fact that men tend to experience more stress than women from the “need for recognition” pressure, while women experience more stress from health issues; social support benefits stress levels for males and females but affects them differently [organisational commitment in males & state of mind in females].

Video: Stress is one of the factors that can trigger cancer. Jean-Baptiste ALEXANIAN explains…



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  2. Cohen, S. (2005) The Pittsburgh common cold studies: Psychosocial predictors of susceptibility to respiratory infectious illness, International Journal of Behavioral Medecine 12: 123-31
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  8. French, JRP. (1973) Person Role Fit. Occupational Mental Health. 3, 15-20
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  11. Kelso, P. (2005). The fat finger that may have helped London win Olympics. The Guardian, 23 December: 3.
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  20. Trist, E.L. and K.W. Bamforth (1951) “Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal getting.” Human Relations, 4:3-38

Mis-à-jour le Mercredi, 6 Janvier 2021 | Danny J. D’Purb |


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